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GARDENER'S MAGAZINE, 




By J. C. LOUDON, F.L.S. H.S. lie. 



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PREFACE. 



The summary View of the Progress of Gardening during the year 
1836, which will be found in the present Volume, p. 613., renders a 
Preface unnecessary, except for the purpose of introducing the 
Contents. These are arranged under the following heads : — 
Original Communications; Reviews of Books; Miscellaneous Intel- 
ligence ; List of Plants ; List of Fruits ; List of Culinary Vegetables ; 
List of Horticultural, Botanical, and Floricultural Societies ; List of 
Gardens and Country Seats ; List of Engravings; List of Contributors. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 



OENERAL SUBJECT. 

Historical and Get^aphicoL 

A flummary View of the Progrett of Garden, 
log, and of Rural ImproTement generally, 
in Britain, during the year 1836; with come 
Notiees relatiYe to their Sute in Foreign 
Countries. Bv the Conductor. . Fage 613 

Provincial Horticultural Societies ... 615 

Extractc from the Letters of an English Tra. 
vdler, now at Sydney, mentioning the 
Trees and Shrubs that he found in Flower 
during May and June, the Winter Months 
in New South Wales. Communicated by 
ICr. Thomas Backhouse, Nurseryman, 
York Ill 

A Historical and Descriptive Account oi the 
Botanic Gardoi at Berlin, accoiqpanied by 
a Flan of the Garden, a Li«t of the Ferns 
cultivated in it, and a general Account of 
the Trees contained in the Arboretum. By 
Mr. W. D. Brackenridge, late Head Gar. 
dener to Dr. Neill, at Canonmills Cottage, 
near Edinburgh, and now in the Berlin 
Botanic Garden - . . . S95 

Gardening Tour in Germany, made in the 
Spring of 1836, from April 17. to May 5. 
By M. F. Rauch . . . .389 

Notes of a Gardening Tour from Berlin 
through Fart of Prussia, Saxony, Ger. 
many^ Hungary, Switzeriand, and Italy. 
By M. Klause, in the Gardens of the King 
of Prussia - - - - - 6 

Gardening Notices, su^ested by a Tour in 
Frsnc& in August and September, 1835. 
By T. Rivers, Esq. . . . .221 

Botanical and Horticultural Tour in Lom. 
iiaidy. By Signor Giuseppe Manetti - . 445 

Notes on Gardens and Country Seats, visited 
from July 27. to Sept 16. 1833, during a 
Tour through Part of Middlesex, Berk, 
riiire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Wilt- 
shire, Dorsetshire, Hampshire, Sussex, and 
Kent By the Conductor - - .501 

Notices of Gardens in Yorkshire. By J. B. W. 557 

Notices of Gardens, remarkable Trees, &c.^ in 
the Environs of Lichfield, Staffbrdshtre. 
By Mr. J. Grigor, Lichfield - . - 562 

Notes made during a Tour to Cashiobury 
Park, Ashridge Park, Woburn Abbey, and 
Hatfield House, in October, 1825. By the 
Conductor . - - - - 277 

Some Account of the Gardens, and StMe Of 
Gardening, in the North Riding of York, 
shire. By J. B. W 165 

Description of Woodbine Cottage, Torquay, 



the Residence of Bfrs. Johnea. By Mr. J<^n 
GuUeC, Gardener there - . - - 26 

Notices of Gardens, remarkable Trees, &c, 
hi the Environs of Liohflrid, Staflbrdsbire. 
By Mr. J. Grigor, Lichfield - - . 310 

Some Account of the Vineyard and Flanta. 
tioos of the oelcteated Jacob Tonson, in 
1727, at Haffield, near Ledbury ; with a 
Notice of the Improvements lately made, 
and now in ivogress, at that place By Mr. 
D. Beaton IH 

A Notice of the Garden of Canonmills Cot- 
Use, the Residence of Patrick Neill, Esq., 
LLD. F.L.S.,with LisU of the rare Plants 
contained in, or figured and described from, 
it Drawn up from Communications re. 
oeived from nrofessor Don, Mr. C H. 
Smith, and others . . - . 333 

Descriptive Notice of Castle Code, in the 
County of Fermanagh, Ireland. By Y. . 109 

A brief Description of the Gardens at Adare, 
the Residence of the Earl of Dunraven, in 
the Counbr of Limerick. By Mr. Andrew 
Cofl^lan, Head Gardener there . . - 450 

Science qf Gardening. 

On the Necessity of the Study of Botany and 
Entomology to Gardeners. By Joshua 
Mjyor. Esq., Landscape- Gardener . - 5 

On the Necessity of Young Gardeners study, 
ing the Natural System of Botany, and 
V^etable Physiology. By a Young Gar. 
doier ...... 169 

Plan for the Exhibition of a Natural Ar- 
rangement of Plants, in the Glasnevin 
Botanic Garden. By N. Niven, Esq. . 116 

Notice of a Sketch of an Arrangement of the 
Botanical Families in Natural Groups, A I. 
liances, and Races; with Remarks by Sir 
Edward French Bromhead, Bart, P.R.S. ; 
London and Edinburgh ; i>ublishcd in the 
Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal lor 
April, 1836. By J. D. . . .453 

On the Excretory Functions of Plants. By 
Judge Buel ..... QQg 

Observations and Experiments on the Pro- 
perty possessed by some Plants, particularly 
the ^'rachis hypogae^a, of ripening their 
Fruit under Or< und. By Ur. Augustus 
Trinchinetti of Pavia - . - . 395 

Oo the Vegetation of Plants having solid 
Bulbs; and particularly on that of the 
Saffiron (j^KScus satlvus) ; also on the Func 
tfotis of Bulbs in general By Dr. Augustus 
Trinchinetti. Translated from the Italian - 452 

A few Facts illustrative of the Cause of 



A 2 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



'banker, and other l^seuet, tn FruU Treet. 
By Mr. T. Riirers, jfin. * * ^400 

Some Account, and partly in Sequel to the 
forenrfng Communication, of Four 1Specie« 
of insects that feed, while in the Larva 
State, upon the Wood of Trees. By John 
Denson, jun. - • - - . 463 

On the relative TemperatQtei of the Earth, 
under Surfaces covered with a Vegetable 
Coat, and under Surfaces preserved bare ; 
with a Table of Observations. By Robert 
MallettyJSsq I 

tANpSCAPE.6ARDENrN0 AND 

GARDEN ARCHITECTURE. 

Design for a Public Garden, made for an 
EngdjfSh Corporate Town ; with a List of 
theTreee and Shrubs to be planted in it, 
and their JPrices. By the Conductor ' - 13 

Desini for ar Cemeter/proposed to be formed 
at Bristol, By Mr. P. Masey, jun. - - 341 

On the Introduction of Single Trees in Park 
Scenery. By Mr. R. Glendinnlng - . 513 

Remarks on improving the Approach Road 
to a small Villa which Is now (Nov. 1835) 
underaomg Alteration, By the Conductor 50 

On a Method of making elastic Walks for 
Oarderis, By Mr. Peter Mackenzie - - 181 

On the Use of Slate for Horticultural Pur- 
poses. By W. B. - - - - 173 

A Series of .Df^sjigns for laying out Suburban 

^ Gardens and Grounds, firom One Perch 
to several Acres iu Extent By Mr. T. 

Design 5* Frontages to Two detached 
Houses. Design 6. Frontages to Four 
4ouU« Houses ^- - - • 66 

Design 7, .ror laying out the Frontage 
Grounds of Twenty-one Houses. De. 
sign 8. For laying out the Ground In 
Front of a Crescent - - - - 121 
Design 9. For laying out a Place of 
Twenty Perches (an Eighth of an Acre) 
: In B&titit DeKtgn la For iaifing out 
a Place containing a. Quarter of an 
ACM > - • - . s:x) 
Design 11. For laying but a Place of 
' Half an' Aore in Bxtent Design IS. 
For limng out a Place containing 
Thnee Qtiarters of an A<n'e - . 471 

DeaAgnB 13. and 14; For laying out Two 
Placed, edch' about One Aore in Ex. 
•ent . ^ - . -564 

Design for laying out the Grounds of a Villa 
of Four Acres in Extent By Mr. T. 
Rntger . . - « - 175 

A DASfgU'lbr laying out a Piece df Ground 
in firont Of a villa Residence, as a Flower. 
Garden and Arboretum. By T. Rutger - 180 
Plan of a small Garden in the Town of Go. 
dalming, Surrey, laid out for H. Marshall, 
Esq.. Solicitor, by Richard Varden, Esq., 
Arcbiteit, in 183a Communicated by Mr. 

Varden 474 

Design for laying out the Garden of a Tavern, 
BOW Building, in the Nei^bourhood of 
Gravefeend, in Kent By E. B. Lamb, Esq., 
Architect With a List of the Trees and 
Sbruba recommended for planting the Gar. 
den. By the Conductor . . . 516 

A Series of Designs ftur laying out and plant, 
ing Flower.Gardens, witn Remarks on each 
by the Conductor. Design 5. By a Country. 



By A. 



177 



-520 
526 



bred Gardener 

Design fOr a Gothic Flower-Gaxden. 
G<a *' 

Design for a Flower-Garden. By £. B. 
Lamb, Esq., |iQd the Conductor • . - 

Descriptive Notice, accompanied by Plans 
and Sections, of a Range of ' FDtcing^' 

• houses, iftcluditig a Green- hoiise, erected 
for^ WIlRim Constslble MaxIwelF, Esq., at 
EvcWrigham Park, nfear Pocklingtoh, x^rks. 
shire: by Mr. W, Ctosakill. Irott.FrtuiicJel" 
arid wMimx»6 Bulidef , Beve*Wy. DrivrtI ' 
ufefrtJtn' various CpnrtnuhicfttS<m9,"ftrwipfdi'' 
e*V'Mr. MaxJ^ell, fils Gai-«!i«f Mr." 
Ingram, Mr. Crosskill, and others^ . - ^7^ 



*76 



,122 
126 



-1^42 



Notice of a R:Mge of Oreen.hotne* t^eenitf ' ' 
erected in Barratt's Subscription BoCmH; ' 
Garden at St John's, Wakefield. Drawn 
tip firom a Communication by Mr. Barratt .512 

On the best Form of Stages end Shelves for- ' 
the Display of Gteen-Wouse Plants. By Mir: ' 
T. Rutger «... * ^gS 

Description and ResuK of snspehded TrelllMs ■ 
in early Forcing.houses, ai a Method for - 
more readDy for warding Vines, &c. By Mr. ' 
Charles Pulli^ . . - . »48 

horticulture; 

On the Systems of Cropping K1tchen.Gar- 
dens, adopted hr the best Private 'land ^ 
Commercial Gardeners; with ah ANeikkpt? ' 
to rcvluce them to fixed FtlnrioleA.- By 
W. D. SL - 

Remarks on th^ Ringing' of Fruit Trees. 
Translated ft-ora an Artflde on fhat Subu 
jcct'by M.Van Mens, public ed in Belgiuin' 

On the Arrangement and Management of 
FrUrt Trees in Kitcben-Gardens. By Mr. 
Robert Errington . - . ^ 

Remarks cm Cropping Fruit-tree Bordersi 
By Mr. T. Rutger . ^ ' - » 

PomologTCal Notices; or^ Notices Of new 
Fruits, which have .been proved, during the ' 
nasi Year, to deserve general TultivAtion in- ' 
British Ganiens. By Mr. Robert Thomo. 
son. Fruit- Gardener in the HorticUliiml 
Societr's Garden - - - ' - es^ 

On the IVeatment of oM Fruit Trees ^hi«h - 
it is wiehed to ^reserve; and mi^tbe Ad. ' 
vantages of layfng Cow-Dimg at tne Baies ' 
of their Trunks, and' also at the Rootstatlcs ' 
of Vines. By W. A. L • - - 416 

On the Culture of th« Pine-apple. By Mr, 
Alexander Forsyth • .993 

On removing the White Scale fVom Pine 
Plants. Bv Mr. Charles Pullen, Gardener 
to J. L. Goldsmid, Esq. . . 352 

On a Mode cf producing Two Crops of Grapes 
from the same Tines in one Tear.' By Mr. 
James WaMi«xi» Gardener to the AAVh" - 
bishop of Armagh *. • ■ ^ 356 

A Mode of producing Two Crops of Gtapea • 
in One House, in (Me Year. By Y. >.- 537 

A new Method of grafting, or rather budding, * 
Vines. By Mr. George M'Leish . .. 171 

Some Aceoimt of the Vineyasd at Collin 
Deep, near Hendon, Middiebex. "By James > 
BamfcHPd, Esq. i ■ * ^. 414 

Observations on the CuItivaUeo of Che Vine 
under Glass. By Jasper Wallace, Gardener > 
to William Forsyth, Fbq. • . -244 

Olitorial Notices ; or. Notices of • new Culi- 
nary V^etables, deserving of gekiaral CuHi. 
vation in British Gardens . . .'641 

On the Culture of Asparagus j villi a Note 
on til e Globe Artichoke. By Mc James 
Cnthill . . . • ^'^^ 

On the Culture of theCbicory, as a Salad Plant, 
as practised in Belglam. By Dr. Lippold - 250 

On a new and eoonomicai Method of preSerr- '- 
ing Endive through the Winter. 'By Mar, 
James Cuthill, Gardiener to Capt Trotter - 
IHrham Park . - - . 39S 

A Plan fat growing Potatoes and Dahlias on 
the same Gronnd, and in the same Season. ' 
By J. R R. - - - - 249 

On the Culture of the Potato. ' By It L. .132 

An Account of an ExpcrinttnC made with 
Three Potatoefe. By Mr. John Denson; 
Sen. .... .'134 

New Modeof gmwiAg Mttshrooms. By W« ^^ 

On the Mode of raising Mushrooms ftom 11m 
Mushroom Stone. By Mr. Jsones Aleai.' ' 
ander. Gardener at Maeslaugh Castle . ' 21^ 

, ' ARBORICULTURE. 

Dimtnsioni of Tnses of the British • Oaks -^ 
^ (Quercus jRdbur peduaculdtum and ^i&^ 
seuiUflftnunl^ and ef titet Cedar of Lebttion ' 
(£lMf«i8 Libani), Kow growing in cbiftBtnt;; , 
Parts of Britain and Ireland ; selected from 



CONTEKT8. 



the Return Papers filled up for the Arbo- 

List^.^«^90tccii^bnitttd (dd Oaks, Cedars. 
Irf^glia^ Chestnuts, Jteeci)OB, Elms, Ashes, 
8yownpr?8, fee., in Great Britain . - 583 

A' LMt of the Places ia; Great Britain and 
Ireland from which lEMeturn Papers have 

- I>een received for the ** Arboretum Britao. 
ni^Hm" up to the Slst of NpTember, IB^ 
By^ ^e Condnctor - • . - z8 

On tkp Gfogcaphy of the Trees and Shrubs of 

;tfae Scandinavian Peninsula. By Professor 

Schouw of Copenhagen. Communicated by 

M. Jens Peter P«|efSfn, Gardener to the 

King of Denmark - - - 59 

On the Aiteri«lti«ral Flena of Sweden. By 
Dr. Agmdh/iate Proflasses of Botany at 
Luwi^jspw^ishepofCarUtadt - .62 

Kotice of Unlodiflpnous an4 £»otic Trees of 
-Switzerland. By M. Alphonse De CandoAe j»3 

Kemffflwi oo Mr. Lawcence's Plan for 
** {imauig; PlaAtatioas, with a View to faci- 
litMin8.t^ir after ManagemeiU." By Mr. 
Aish|&a4 Gorrie, F.ITS., M:c.a8.,&a SW7 

On thin>C9per JS^oson for transplanting ^ver. 
greens. By Mr. T. Rutger. - - - ^ 

On Vm^fVr>Vf»miMb •vA GirdUng Trees. 
, By William Ward, Sq. - -» -405 

Fact» ulatlng to the annual Increase of the 
Trunbt of fTnnber Trees. CoramuQlcated 
by Johh F. M> Dovastoo, Esq. A. H. . 5S6 

RemarMoQ Ospi. A>lii«e. By the |lev« w. 
T.J^fe© - . - -533 

Further Notices respecting British Oaks, and 
sopM Pemarlcs on the Turkey Oak and 
Sc^^etOakj extracted firom various Com- 
miiniq«tiiiAis iroceiv^ from the Rev. W. T. 
Bree: witkanoteon the Study of .Oaks, 
und of Trees generally, by the Conductor - 571 

Kotitjfsrrespectiog the Xiembardy Poplar (Pd. 
pulus lastigi&ta J)e^.) in Italy - - 569 



On the Uses of the IT^lmus montina, or 

WMhCaro. 3y Mr. J^h* Ashwocth . -^ 
Scottish Arboricuttural Notices, lif Mr. ^^ 

Gocf le - ^ - - - - ^ 

Scottish Arboncultural Notices. Argyle. 
shira By Mr, Alexander Anderson, Gar- 
deoer at Jualtiiaore House - - 40S 

FLORICULTURa 

FloricuUural and BotanicalNotices on Kfaids 
of PlanU newly introduced into our Gar- 
dens, and that have originated in them, and 
on Kinds of Interest previously extant in 
them ; supi^ementary to the latest £di. 
tions of th# *< Encyclopsedia of Plants,*' 
and of the ** Hortus Britannicus *' - 36. 73L 135. 
183. SS3L 314. 357. 418. 481. 538. m 

On the most suitable Description of Flower, 
hig Plants for planting in Beds and Groaps 
on the I<awn« of Public Gardens. By a 8. . 535 

On the Treatment of Green.house Planta in 
the Sivnmer Season. By An Observer - 241 

Notices of Green, house Plants wMch have 
lived in the open Air for several Years 
(chiefly In the South. West of £&ghind) 
By A. Sl . - - - - 410 

On the Culture of the Sollndra grandifldnL 
By Mr. Thomas Symons - - - 41S 

On a particular Method of Managing the 
Bru^m£nsfa suavdolens in the open Air. 
By Mr. J. I^nce- ... 589 

On the Cultivation of Plola trfeolor. In a 
Letter to Mr.iGorrie by Dr. Miller of Perth 691 

On the Mode in which Hyacinths ar^ grown 
in the Neighbourhood of Berlin. By Mr. 
W. D. Brackenridge, now in the Berfin 
Botanic Garden . . . - 353 

Notice of a succeisful Mode of crafting the 
ithododendroa ilta-cler^nse. Bj Mr. Jo. 
seph Walker - - ' - - 242 



.,,.,; 



REVIEWS. 



G£N£HAL. SUBJPSCT. 



TraBMOtlona of iSie Horticultural Soeiety of 
London. Second Series. Vol. J. Part IV. 
Mas . LoDdOD.1833. . - Sa 25& 4SS. 

Osrtis's BoCamtal Magaaine ; or^ Flower. 
G«den IKspUyed : a K«!W Edition, with 
amended CbftracCers of the Species ; the 
whole Brtangedaocordiag to the Natural 
Otders.- Bf W^.iiiooker JUL.D. F.R. A.«iid 
ti^.,&c. Ac. &C. and Regius Professor <rfBo>i 
tsM: la.tht Untoacaty of Glasgow. To 
wfeMs4a>addcsi^l)bAmoets|>pn>ved Method 
.^. Culture. By Sanmel Cuttis, F.US., 
of4he>OteeiiNrooil Horticultural Gioimds, 
£ssite,/dad Proprietor of the ** BoUnical 
'Magazine.'* VoL L 8va London, 1833. - 152 

Royl^»lUusmtions of the Botany and other 
BBBctaes of'tbtfNatucal History of the Hi* 
Himalayan Mountains, and of the Flora of 
CiMtaitfthf.ftix Part VL oontaaning from 
< p. I7l> to S1& of letterpress ; a view of the 
ifiBMlayan Mounta&ns, a i^te of birds, and 
dflM i^ktes of pUnts, aU beautifully co. 
kundT . H . -142.185.318 

Bemarks on the Geographical Distribution oS 
Baitiah FhilU; cUeiG^ in Connexion with 
Lditade. JBkevatiim^ and OUmate. By H. 
. <:ottreU Watson. 12mo. Londo% 1835. - 154 

The New Bdlasist*s Guide to the Localities 
of tte BaaeK PtaBts.of Britain ; on the Plan 
of XtaHfr MMiDillrni^ Bat«iMst*8 Guide. 
By Hewett Cottrell Watson. Vol. I. Eng. 
lanHaiiA Walfli. ISna LoBdon, 1885 - 154 

FloaaHibeDuca: oemprisiiiu the Fk>weriQg 
Tlanls, Fam^ Chnracee, Mus9i» Hepatica?» 
Lichens* ana Alg» Af ' Irelaodi i«nang^ 
according to the Natural System ; with a 
Synopsis of the Genma ^ioe«[diog to the Lin. 
nsan System. By James Townsend Mac. 
kav, ' M.B.I.A., Associate of Cbe Linn«an< : 
Sott^,Acft, - * \ -. -544 

Sb Uw t n Tdur tbfwigli Kovth Aaaerida,! toy 
gMlRjf •with a coinprehensiTe Vsettr ><£ itbe 

/ -1 -, ' - ■►.! f^' ,)i^ (■ :.; 1,1 li> -»ii.'l 



Canadas and the United States, aa adapted 
for Agricuknrat Emigration - -189 

Catalogue of Works on Gardening A^tricul. 
ture. Botany, Rural Architecture, Ac 
lately published, with Some Account of 
those considered the more tntofesting;:— 
De CandoUe's Notice aur les Graioes de 
1* Ananas, 192. Bridgeman's Young Gar. 
doner's Assistant, 199L Le Cultivateiir, 
Journal Beige d'E'conomie Rurale ; &e- 
cueil de Connaissances Pratiquea «t Haison. 
nees d* Agriculture, 26L Annalet des Jar» 
diniers Amateurs, Suite aux Annates de la 
Society d' AgronomiePratique^ 261. Hisioice 
Naturelle des lies Canaries, 261. 321. 

LANDSCAP£.GARD£NINa. 

Observations on Londscape-Gardening^ with 
an Account of its practical Application ia 
Muskau. By Pnnce Pucklec Muskau. 
Fol, with forty.four views and four ground 
plans. Stuttgard, 1834, Hallberger . 85 

The Landscape. Gardener; comprisUig the 
History and Principles of Tasteful Hortt.. 
culture. By J. Dennis, B.CLi., Pr^jendr 
ary of the Collegiate Church of Esuta 
Castle, and Author of " The Key to the 
RegBlia,*'&c 8vo. London, 1835 . • WO 

HORTICULTURE 
The Use of crushed Bones as Manure. By 
Cuthbert WUHam Johnson, Author of "An 
Essay on the Employment of Salt in Agri* 
culture," Ac - « *. .S19 

FLORICULTURE. 
The FloricuUural M^azine, No. 1 . • , 436 
The Annual DablU Register for 1^ . . 192 
The Florist Cultivator, or Plain Directions 
for the MAQ^UBBmeat of the principal Flo«r 
r«st J^lowers, Shrubs. &c. ^9-> adapted fo, 
tho.?^Qwer.Gax<kn, Siwubl»ry,and Greon- 
YimJmt wth seJeot ^^ists ofjthp finest |t«es„ 
Gf|»ni*iPiSbCani»aonj^.Pf|#i, AMricula^. 



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flam fies HIT WnklHUiaHorubllitiiid. 
:.Br Xhoiiuu WilliU, lileq,, Aiwleur CuW- 
fOar. Siiullava. hailoa,ieSi . . u 
An Ehw «i Cdeneiiui MaiiurM. Bj Ed. 

tanlHMi, I«»«r Vinini*, JSSf - 1^ 

Ciulegwa of Rsui. 1. A dcKiipCive CUa. 



iogue of ROM*, cultiii 



AatacvviBBS."- •■■■ '■ 

'he AgricuUu[kt-> MdDUBl. BiP«tcr,Law- 
tOHindSoD - - ■. .,, 1. Wi 

.iletnij KMicei: FldniHjb«'iic»,103. ()». 
twuuw, 1»3. Zbi OeuhlcJitc, KulUK, 
und Kluiifiluition ilw GwIgiHii und 
BaUien, 19:1. The Suburt»n ilvdeiw, 
l^L The Flora DvmeUKa at Eliltoir ,|lf 
Medicini] Flaiiu indigaiuui (d . Gteat 
Biitajn, £63. lllunntiuiii. with a Tap*- 
gnphical and Ui>Kr>ptive AcoouDt, of UB- 
eioliui; I'aik, ilat&rdiliin, S^ . 



MISCELLAKE0IJ8 INTELLIi3ENCE. ' ' , . {, 






fXi'& 












■e^'tla Vaitmla. 68ETAl^''or Yj™T't«ii,"ila8 i 
HraftiBg the CWtta on the oommon Thoni, 68« ; 

'dmia, flSHi AwclcnilioB of the Growth or 
■ Wheal, 68S. 

France. — The Swiduoui di-cra. 198 1 T 



Dounmo Ntmces. 



Tree, too I Linns'an ScFlctr, 197 ; Soeleti of 
AeU, 1^; The Stamford [[ill rioctlcultuial 
RHKlinB HoelBj, 167 f ITm SlrjlIDrU Nuneu, 
lB7i BleH!hlu.l|Aalaniftilii.l57( The MVonl 

DropWlicat.lSB; J^c£ viiSw, iS; Dtt of 
Melon and Gauid Secdt, 169 ; Itant of .Brug- 
mfiiuto BUaiteleni, SI3i Chimonfinthui ftS- 
AjantSlS; AUtTiEiDerlaft in lutf upL-iHAJr kn 
Devonthlre, £13; Uthjnu [oluiiilirullus, S13 ; 
lpoiDs^rabro4trti]ea,sl4;Strclilz^auil^sta, 






' I'jrk' at l.?cli.in""sfl ; ^Pmli of* the Due 

■' Ccwniwy,— TUi^ Uke Zitialti, In Carnlola, ILKl ; 
;,' N'otw OH the TVOM. Ointali, Oafdcneo, tiai. 



.t Rinn.d Park, .187; FurniinB Muaaon-L by 



WWW Totrani Iwe.sSS; A new Sp«iM of 



>,' 



.-inaMMBMUtcOiidciutn Lento, «ee; Col- 
.iMAer Bolute enHeo, 695; ZmOoctal 6«^ 

laou «B6'; BheBfld Fhincottuna mid Honu 
'nlMr^ ExMMtlon, — " ~ ■ ■ - 



um,Wli MlUei 



.1 ')U»lcO«rd«u 

i9Si 2iHrii 

Nu^err Briitoi fffi ; WheelftVl 
minMer, 697; Wmjh in WirnlcMBlre, OSW: 
Roob and W^nuU. eXi The compualivi! 
PnlecUoaaninlcd iDHorticuKureukir Aibori. 
culLuiw bj the £n(Uik Uar, ag»i 4Jrani» tbr 
Oik) Qrifting llil^^dMle ^bilCii uiJ the 
Cnlc'nu IVwtnlhi on the csnimon Hnr- 

'■■nk'lni flnrlttiB nw KcUsu-grFUiwca 
Rlcliiid^ on the conmon Elm, M; Fitxinat 

■ aMaMiai JogtaMlfWa, 899; Olvdrdi*) mi- 
cnntafll^ 69!) i The Lemon, ras 1 Tbe Wboik 
Mabtf^RifiWi^'liM'DMviM.'BBiDriiw. 
' .^k ST Treea Ibi ihe .MvrrlMn jNEmMcmn, 
SW: Nipoleon'i Vmiuw.TCD) IbodwIi rBbtn. 

'*a»Uu,'7<»} Oe e i i gm wen, TOl i - toHniu, 
ne ; Blue Itahliia,TOU i The Cape tlnllol, TU3 : 

' «(ite OB the rtnp, 703 ; Budding the Vine. 103 ; 
UMan Hdont.TOS; Penliin»re1aM,;iM,Ttig 
new IVrkMi Onion, TM; Tlie Mercer l^jlata, 
10*J'T*eS*BHiiPHugh«nd theSmicH Sjitetn 
" or HaMiindrr, W4; Sunpln or Whnt ftom 
the ^nllh Main. 70S; A RriAner]r of Sugar 

Sc a il miA — 'ne Idea Df n> Gxperlmenti] I^riD, 

"K»( UMAil Bwdhi* f»r SordMen, 1M) 

■ar W. J. Hoaliei, STFj Tlie BdImiImI Sopietj 

^ iUfadHiMh. 7nfi ■ lhilHr*lrtt.Vkd bir m Unnii. 



— 4Bt to-lKvllAe, "ifjd ; HIiKi fen- Ibe iDmrDii:. 
aeat o( CMuge Onrdeoing In Sestlmd, 106 ; 
The CuntonMn d( lb* C&donlu HoRteuA 
turd Sucietr'i Qaiden, TUG i Leptoep«niuii- 
nSi Aae>See<niDK3hi>beiTT,m. 
/icteiM.— £Btet(>rLI|bt uid EI»t in aOctii 
the EnbalUloB oT M^ttiue fhni the Leuei i 




xyKUinfifo ly.A*°V^ 



deu^ 1VC| Tak lBf^tlw W H tf -nint M the 

DaUTBTlH Oh Bule iln the nnf-^igM^, TUT) 
OiificileTtMuiHiriHMnim it Wobum AUwi, 
TSi; Ook 0>Ul,Vmi The BicreKnicn upm 
the Oiki, TTH i C6mat Upilpirdt Hik, Ccu. 
■IWi ■'Hiull trt, Mrcui p*Rlleiii|i)H<lu 
l/oei, 7Qfi{ The PHttairure and nDgraplif of 

tj Fenoa engaged In Girdening or any kind, 
ortn VUmilig, TIO. llie Poreity of Ur Jmej 

Peuh taile of Wnnmniod, JH ; FreFHig tire- 
Stonei oT Fluoi from Snoks Statni, 5! ; Urall. 
Ing Fnreet Treet In Parka and Plantatleini, 51 1 
The B«l IMn sa (he Xlin •anfulDeum, 58 ( 
Curranti indhooHbeirlaa for Wine.M: U^ 



nicctt, tU j A Mvhijie (or dlaehu*- 
■iw Duueta of l>iuic 01 Eanb nvn a Peat 
Bgi or Swain K( i ^pcntlna Gaiden Walk, 
l^i Snake^Iaina w Haai, 183 ; Raiiia^ 
IngShrubi, fte^ftonafiuden, l«3| FttU em 
Dm UtotlelDe, 817; Two I'lanu oT HiMMoa, 
317iRal>ia ia Canwa, tllSi WbUe ScaW 

Hanti, »g, A nmarkaUe yaw* Tree, 770 1 
LoudiHi-t SBKlUng OiiK snO; The Oaiu 
Oria.STl; CiicketiliiU>t.hMua^3W; Re. 
DMdr br Ihc Tbilna, 361 ; Wi(« and oAdual 
UciiihI)' fof the TtiiHia. STJ ; Etttau at Fmt 
DD trench Bwiia,n8i ttalabWaodluMriilli, 
»Hl ThaMlitMoa,3n)Tai>«illuin«Mkhuiii, 
37B| Coe^ Golden nkoa PloM, 3I9t SnuoUu 
leand and iwgbJcnea Aipe, 3701 Shtnie- 
<!«• of Ctisket^ 4EI)i DeOniTlng Qdalula in 

■- " ■""■- deMrweii in Cucud. 

. WS) UotiBjing the 
.«>»;TbtrS%ia. 



otJiotiML IBS; ; 
a and^Ukm F 



'nuber, IBB-, HinBdar Vatiettv Ut .....__. 
Oaka, iat; AicHa i'v^otct, SBf -. t^np ir 
eat Wa>pa,5»; Toe Cnn at Onpea & One 
Yen, G5S7 Coal afUngi te fivden Walk*. 
BS9; The W(k Qnib ob Tlimiu, ,711 i The 
1 Park, — '^— ■-■ -- 

an^Jll; Boldii 



.ttuiVIa 

U ike W_.__^ 

mWMKTlSi 



!hO^*l«,Vll] 

jtroiiDg iba Bi 

ihant, 711; Boldi 
71ii ITieOJlTaXi 



7Ri HalHmaan af 

. ._, Willow,71*| artnlda 

D lbaTnieSBvls47U; Baa«aiD)te£ainn. 
tauMre, 713; llee Dablla>.7»( XftafMaloai 
n Nurwaf, 7U; The Fruit of the Atfai tut. 
gulncum, 716; Quetiei RfBiOlina the moit 
prolllablaKliwforFnillforaHirkM-Ovilewr, 
^ di SalubritT and lnaaliil)illi><rBilu»Ikia,71S. 
Apae CouiL-niat WalIoaon71iaaneai7IS. A 
GatdeuinaBuiiiLOnand.Vlt. ullai, Oac 
•trnei to the Eall of OiKnd at ChelHS, 71& 
Walter Claika, nu andenl FMUt. 113. Tlie 
PapawTt«,7l& The Hjdrangci oltfa Uue 
an j red nomta on th* aame pTaut, 717. Do 
Sheep eat iramitlc PlasU r 71&: ABh Htrdtf, 
-7. Pllngu8Dielli*Ml^7I7-Tiie("— - 
Api>lE, 719. Potaafi ttam Beet 



C^t? 



a Pip. 

ot,71ft 




LIST OF PLANTS. 





KiMend In Um iMt 


nmfccldfuaii i ud tEus with m T^nfli^ 


Bntr^mum LubIjU 


.6*5 


aithn ubiica . . S7. S5t 


«™&2U[?_«rtta3.SW 


£[i>ic> •a■p«itC^lu 




CocQilQb. uTlAm . . »B 


olnlcE. '. 




gjhign^i.*; :| 




Biii(Mi4n*tow«*Meu m 618 


C^Cu|Cl>^«^,Jt' 139 






«0.5S9 


. ^SiBrtjrti . . IM. MS 


SiSSi—" *-■• :a 


''^um't^K'""- itl 


ip. . . . .884 


^biuiHnpmiBn 




Coiiufnt •utxaiiKUfnH.i - 


'^.ffSffi^:'"!! 




;7I8 


:',';.'.„„„„„-,„;,,;,/j03 


sar".-:'».s 


CalMOUini »n. . - 6aa 


•:ri«:r;;[Sir'Jrf " 'm 


FK(ldo.Pl(.tuW - S35. £8! 




^^•MifwWjt' ■ - ' -Jg 


^chUlf. tomSSw '. - IK 




J^asfflSSiii,.:'? 


°ris;s.,t!*r-- 


-a» 




■ ^ffrHi;^ 


Ctoii>.4allnuiinL 


.tdH. 


Co,n,6llQtrtl>™,jl. . . 78 


lifc«u. ■- 


.»8 


1C<""U.'i«qttl«llliJtmAWl 




Cidiiibii utln 




'^""■.c,ai;:^*""xr*x ■ 


niWrtncU - - Tms 


Clptliia lanpecriiUi . 




..jfU^cu^pe^.^ : k 


SS.fSs;. - 


. 3*5 


cSa^- - . fig 


■iSwMiiSSni '- . «1 




p.unil.lli.,^, . . 3» 


.AgroM^Kiiu ■BupgNte, 


C«yftl.il«q. . 


- .KS 




■Skfjft" '■.■»-r ,. 


Al^Mihui'HaU, 


«™ 


"^aA^'^'iabB 


.^ urn unliSnlcum . . - 103 


SiMen' 






"■ .«c^lu-,J)..... -. -SM 


DrtW,"&llmcl««rat"6M 




urUiium - . . S79 


ToilwDrth diatn 






^IgiuiluiatlH.,.. ... - 60 
iDcJmi . , . . . eo 


CMt^iapellilji 






CMtSiliUDi . 






atSSStSu.-"':!!! 


CbelH. cedui ■ 
Ea&tU cedar 


-MS 


.!«""!■":?. 






«)oru1iiima.fl. . .4S3 


OTita - , . 813 


Ce)]b.i.t™Qto«.A 




ur,cntaii..jf.'^ . .31* 


PiitUclH. atU. - - no 




- TOS 


OsnrJnUi* . - Id 


tAmh^crttaliKiMti- -lis 


"^'""usrlr. 




.l,liityvhSII», .yn. C. 






.6SB.TM 




i^KT'aiT^'rr"-*.!^ 


OciniHIiu) uiiHUf 


- .-IN 


;sss5"'?'.;a 




druuitufiricliU 






•|S:FSa„:- 


i=;s.,„- 

A'dui 


- 404. Ml 
-60.561 


l''t!!!"l""!<U*iri^''r' 


c£lu , , -■ . IS, 3B0 




-1*8 


•Cr^"rtSi,A" - TsH 


^'rtKiUii O-nedo . . «H 




- 10 


C7ctob6tbni*at»iqLO>- 




cinad n li 


3» 


•pulcMlU . "- 435 






A 


CjiAala Jivtnk* . 381. 6ae 




1 oc N HieOiui 


■infisili . . «s 


ftOntubnanDUiiM 148 


rt n 






iSs2"'i 


*9 


gsK;i!?."-ssi: " 


AtHm D<biM 




^ ESS 


CJUiiu >A<UinJdi 4TD. C. 
Zafaacnunr nupu. 


«JF"'^*si 




610 6ta 
m 4£9 


».i£as« """ 




liu 


• B6Uaiu, jl - - 598 






ilplBiu . - BIS. 2U 


SsT&r-' 1 


ra 


lU 


£<d>ibiium<ditei>m .369 






^S 


D.lM.gi'sIa*; -" .'l« 


»« i^H^SriteC*. *« 




£ 


''*S,.'S.'^™,^x ,1 


Sfuia 




4U4 


•Sffi.'a-»STi.'-s « 


^^^W,f*M«nll«. A «g 








Idl.®^ 








• >«. »B6ltlpl«,ji: - 38 
Ddtdrobiuni t canyUkUa, 



LIST OF PLANTS. 



IX 



Dend. f deniifldnim, jl . 79 

macrosticbyttm^ > 368 

Hgidum - . .434 

ZMct&mmui ± himalayiUius 186 

iiliteiia tmin . - aim 

jJNomiBlft£lKraim -J'iOl- 

:-/ J^mtJ^ • . 1 •> - 3(n 

* DougUlala *mvklu.>l. . i>*>4Sa 



\ 



Drdsera fiUfiSrmif,^! 
^chium c&ndicaiM 
i^wlirdsia grandiflbra,^. 

aaicropli^Ilii' 
il^Iate srW^sltls 
Spidendnun * tamaAtd^Jda, 
fi.'' •'- - * • - 

• bifidum, J». * ' - 

fpbftMluw tdiphfiium)^. 
£rHl«raa (tamAdensIs- 
EsedlMiifi^ »4tiil>na, ^ 
1 ' tpuiveruIiDta«jl 



418 
413 



i niea 
> ctBipit&ia 

♦Aj^iecoldw ^- 
* tenuif t>{ia - . 

SulMi1ii«li)iridA,Jf; 

fuiq^nios -evropee'u^ 

Suphorbta MlgenA 
' > ' heteroph^Ua { - 
pulcheiviiiui . 
Poina^ttct 
Eutf rpe |»i8i£Slxal» 
Xittoca msamfl&ra 
JSr*. j_sytt. IL 



36S 

.4fiS 

^4!2$ 

.- 49 

3Gt 

«9 

570 

600 

39 

. .548 
. .434 

.548 

• •434 

. 368 

- • .4184 

^489 

- 44 
<.400 

- 187 
. 390 

B. 
-390 

- 8iO. 256 

- - 200 
Bart. 
Men. 



WftSt. 



«id8t» D. Don. . - 315 

▼iACida,^. -^ . 47.703 

Fagop^mmeMsollntum . 318 

tanricum . .318 

.EigiiB sanguinea . - 11 

sylv&tica 60. 109* 110. 401. 

402,403.448.700 

The Burnlram beeriies - 583 

The great bedob. Wind. 

•or Forest . ■ - 585 

- TxWnH'a Tsyn. F* 0ylv&. 

t»a3 , .529 

BofbUaguianensU . 492 

Fiata drioa . & ^i. em. 430 

elaMhta . . .452 

Fragdria tntibloola - .146 

T vteca, cuU, . - 431 

AAxiniu . . . 7. 11 

~ amer.^uglaDdifblia . 699 

etcitaior . 60. 1091 167. 400. 

40SL 404. 451. 700 

Camock asb . . 589 

Saltwood CastlQ Mh .584 

Wobum Abbey ash . 583 

heteroph;^ Avaiiegita, 

Ar. " - - S72 

. O'miu . . .693 

FritttUUa ^'Odprea^ Jff . - 78 
JKshfia arbbrMeOM, ^at. - 370 
. coccinea, var. *Orooifi. 

•dJf«,A - .640 

dfaoolor,>ll . .359 

gldbbaa . .' .370 

grftciMs . .370 

vwcmMtdmon: vara. 1 

dttofltoi iUndLi 2 
• c6iiic« D.B9n.i 9f9. 

F. o6nic8 Z.JiM«.; 3 

globdM D. I)^i«, 05m. 

F. gloMm l^tfmi;. s 4 

nuilli D. Dom ayn. 

F. gvieUis LimdLj^F. ' 

.dacuwatt • <?*«A. rs* 

> ^/^'^eeorvdta J9MI^ Fw 1 
returrtlw KASP*}^ jtt '. 1600 

*recurvifldra ; syu. ina-^« 



crortdmon vaf. reeur. 



vjiu 



Fdchaiff vi ygAta 
Jttciu digtUtus . 



-674 
-370 

„.. ^ - . fi79 

F^gtts iii«11«£ii*M . -TIT 

' ifK • Orythfte f uoiflbra 
Dk Ikm^ Jt, . S17 

*Galat61U ^ ^uncti^ta j 
•VQ* i^ster punctltiu JV. et 
A., G. intermedia ;CafV., 
^•ter ^teMit^rtilii fit. 
4med.tJL -. . - 45 

Gardoqukr •OilMlM; A - 47 
Oadta biennis . - 155 

•paftMMii^ ^ .419 
afbdrea . . - 715 

mteil*i^irfK ^ .249 
* Blue var. . .703 

Dod*a Maty . 618 

The Northern WMg - 675 
^rentidna pyTtiiiikja . .206 
tquinquefliM*,;!. . .360 
dferiimMB tLtadteydrntm . 185 
GiliWf tettolfldra,^. . .541 
GladldhtfOardfttMi ComiU, 
ai». r^VfA.O.ColvnM 
H.B., No. It7a3 - 369 
, iiatalenti«, (mU. . .369 
> Glycine nigraoaM [? Keo. 

nUdya nigtieans] . - 664 

4>oddtia,A . .135 

*lgpida,^. . . 355 

• nibiedttda,^. . - 315 

*vin68a,>C . . 419 

Gomixlu$ saccbMftr . 325 

€hiAfiH»NM olBoiniUe . 186 

Qymn6cladus canadfnsit . 891. 

GifMBOpuf pAtua . .657 
Habendria «procdrai Jl. . 362 
Maem«l6ir^on oampechiJU 

num - . - 491 

Helilinthus linnuos . .679 
f A^lichr^sum *bfoolor,/f. . 45 
Heliotr5pium europe^am - 199 
Heraciawm ^peram [gi^n. 

tdum3 - .487.548 

hibiscus ^TlaciM . .20 

Hdrdeum vulg^re . .61 

fiyacinthu« orientdlis, ctdf.' J53 

•spicdtus,^!. . . 362 

Hydrangea Hort^nsta . 408. 413 

riex ilquifbUuai . 400. 4«4 

Idipyrdna . .188 

I excelsior . . 188 

paraguaiends > .188 

tserrftta . - .188 

vomitdria . « . 188 

Impdtiens Iglandullfera . 185 

Ipomoe'a rbbro-cae'rulearrli. 

bro.cyitnea] . -214.702 

*Ismelia •mader^nsls, Jk - 421 
Isopbgon •Bltxterj,^. . 74 
^QMithiildtu* var. 2 *li. 
nedris, ^. - .43 

JaAordm *integrifbha,j8L -315 
Ji^glans nigra • . 418 

rdgia . . 236. 451 

Junlpenu eommilnis • 60 

Tireinidna,^. . .288 

Kageneckfa f cratttgifblla j 
syn. K. crateegbldes D. 
Don, fl. • - .136 

KennMya « macrofdi^a, 

ftm - . . 358 

*fitirirng«" >r. - .252 
Kcttia *S*t*onica, single- 
flowered, jl. . - -359 
KSIi^utdria fianleuldta 223. 399 

Lhxtii europft'ft ^ 20a S3& 402. 

568.589 

• p^ndula -i' ^ -'4(51 

, «La«i)^pUK*»Oli«M;Kle«i'JI< 4Si2 

Lasthfenia tcalif6rnic«;;ft^'^'77 

£Atbyru9 f Annitagednu«V^jlR^42 



£4thynH f votundtAUtu ; 
syn. rotundlfbUiit rar. 
flSUpttcitt D. Dm, fi, 813 

Zatlma JBeMMi * ' *m\ 
n6UIU ... 991. 403 

^SK^fn u^ * - 891 

i^pvoBipiNMi dMHtRRroa . 70S 
Leptospermum ipi . . 706 

Leucdjum Timum . . 371 
fLimninthea Dou^iUtf, 

detc. - ■ - 494 

LinM* CfMbalih'la . 386 

XAnuni »Berendi€f£ A . 85S 
Llpaiffc»WalkdnVr,jr . 79 
LiquMtoibar Styraciflua » 8 
Liriod^SadtonTulipffera . & ja 



11.401492 
. 198 
. !<» 
. 61 
- 7 
tl9S.699 
. 43.? 



LDbiMi f&lgent 

•pl^ndena 
JEfblium perfone 

LonleiKiM' 

alpigeMi •-•• 
Xuplnua feibifrona 

* bimacuUtoa.yl. 

*denalM»Ua 

*hirsuClaain)oa 

*l&tifbnuatyi. 

*leptoplvfHua . 

*«taa«roph^U8,;9. 

niinna <- . 703., dlqrc. 

iMKMJkalACMia 

*subcanib6t»,^. 

*tex£nai8,^. 

£f eium f iArum, fi. ' " ' . 

MacldM adrMttlMii 

M2.fi9». 694. 
MacMMniatatii&fMitii jt. . 

MflRiiMMiateicttlMa ' 
complcua 
grfioilia^i'' ^ 
grandiflbm . -10^ 11 



42 
435 
435 
939 



435 
548 
137 
314 
140 



'49 
448 



411. 



magordetWH 
prae'oox 

tnacrophflla . ' 

obovdM«|^ilmlU 

p4ft-amiddta 

trip^tala 
Malcdmfa m)ilfliiM' 
itfftlope trffldM vflba ' ; 
Manprera^fMieei " . ^ : 
MormaVpitit^gbtittifthh • 
MaKilidria*0ri«tJbtii,j9. - 

t *<i«teenii f «ytf. M. 
fiiscdta Hort., fl. 
UeotaO^ »rtdrtitoiltftfa. 

•?|h6tefo0lifllfi^ 
Medi^lgo •aqpMina 
MelUuithus ni^or . 
itfgntbaviridtS' {. 
UTimbia ptidlca "*• 
Iffmuloa •oarriinSfia 

Varietiea of jAftmuhia . 
* Monmbdea * atiEOpurp^^rea, 



391. 

44S 
^416 
-448 

- 11. ©9 
■ -448 

448 

- li 281 
548 



708 

143 
46 



199 
510 
079 
ff79 

om 



Mbi 



361 
10 

115 



bruaitba . . 

« multtcadlia 
nigra -•' • - 
Milsa t Cavendl^hff y syn. 

M. cblhdtttis 8»e. * . 618 
f ciijit€n8i8 i wyn. "M. 
CaWBdlrt* Pkxt, >r. !J!6 
Myfintliua barbdtus var. *2 

Iab§lIofelbo,>f. • V 
^rclaaua *con8^bl»,^. 
NeMtmbtmn apeeidavto 
N^m6pbila »«&«)ta- ' '' 

:^ehr£nfehe|aa%dta,;jf. ^, - 

<&nothdr^,liuidlr&aa(t S^yli.' ^ 

<3B. coRcfnna D. Don, Jl.i.\ 

»OklenliHiditf »Depg€Sm\i ^ 

ic Eink et OttdjJ/Wn.^* w;iou5«i 
(nen europae'^a - . - 391^7 



Onddtun 1 
Onbpls rului 



letnphfJu 



iaarii*MaydiM,jl 
it«>iii>p«ixlul>,A 

itU>'C<KU^U,A 

rtnifftljB,! 



nilti ttunnsdadi 
rhfinslum t«nu 
iiijlici plumbH 
Pli|r«Kirf DIM florit 
PbiKttMi ■ tiuno 

+ (ietliuin.,jl 

IjoSitniiaa 

Lirtcio - 



PlainithKlUt • plcM, ... 
PolBciaiM"01Hi«i*J,* - « 
• PoiuMUi •ptiloWrrlns, 
^. - - - iKt 



cuollnUna 
diUUU - 
dilitiU ; lyn. CutigUta 

5*7. Sia^ 



USl'OF rbANI^,, 



intcfl^im^A 



Boddinnon aik 

" Twelire ApmUb" 
CawlhiHpe ou 

€r«tipirw 4uIe {Ski 
FredTllkoalu 






L^-^' 






f«TUglB«llll - - £06 

Uvuni nn-Adlea iidn. 
mdliomiiTir. •tijbri- 



ncHTVMLBdd.jJI. -4« 



RluM . 



SalpiglSuli inugriftili. 
SdiibilrAi mlluiciniLui 



' Scei>tr£nlta» f Druio- 



t SicMnria Errlhcfiiylon , - SIO 
SUtm f rtgU, « - . 40 

Soltndra grmdifliiu £13., nU. 

Sfflljo hetemphf !!• - m.Ji. sm 

Stahira lro6nlca . fo. 3SI 

p«nduta. .«£3 

Sdrtwi ■ufufi^iU ■ - 60 

StereS'lliifilaUnU3]U - :.Va 
Streliu*. Bugaua . - SI* 

SIniilinihui • AmclntMi. 

ida.lL . - /5» 

■StrotFiUnlha • SiUnidw ,- 

nn. RuilUd SabitUaiu 

iMM^MMol^fi^ - - *ai 
Si/ringii vulgi>^ - - 6BE 



LISTS OF FRUITS) AND CtfLlNAKY VEGETABLES. 



XI 



TuMimndfattolniiii 67. 19& SJ9 

TkxM baocdU 001404. 5591 563. 

e8&, Jig. S70 

Avii&nKjkM yew - - 585 

CrowhurMyww ' - 588 

Fcvtingalrjesr - 588 

Fonntaiu' Abbey yew . 588 

Ctatsford yew . - 583 

Harlington yew^/ig. 270. 585 

IfBey yiBW ^ - 587 

X^eeds yew . . 584 

QiSQen Jfavy'ayew . 589 

Rosedoe yew . . 588 

'WajMinston yew - . 584 

Wiodlcahan yew . 588 

Irish yew, baecita hU 

bernica - 284., y^. 554 

Thia vlridis • - 6:^. €94 

7btU« occidenUlis - . 404 

Tbunbergte aliMa« ftfalbi- 

fldra»>g. . - 483 

Tignaia, Pavdntki . - 688 

Tilia americdna . . - 700 

e«rop«^a > - 60. 400 

The Bfoor Park lime 

tree • - 584 

*TrichopiUa « tdrtilisA - 9fil 

7rif51ium * f\idltiuD,>l . 481 

incamdtum - - 213 

freflgxum.jf. . .137 

Tripsacum 4aeiyloldQp,>%-. .271 

monost^ciiycn,^^. - 271 



TritUnU t iaMre|>btUa, /I. 189 
Tritekta • Idxa - - 4S6 

Tfopae^olum triooldruin - S68 
Tr6ximoa f glatioam yn,n. 

•land»2,A - - T6 

TmMUo ti^brida if FtUu 

cite* h^brida] . - 679 

Unmut 

Bacei's Mill elm . 587 

Chipetead elm • - 584 
Crawley ehn . .588 

Joe Fullen's ebn . 5b7 

MongeweUeims . 587 

F'itPe't ehn . .583 

Pollock elma . .589 
Tutbury elm . .587 

cainp6«trls . 60. 40a 451 
monUna . . 409. 700 

*onipa . .699 

8pL . . . 167 

{/rtica diolca . .553 

f'accinium *canBd^nae,yl.. 44 

tmyrtiU«de«,A - 44 

virg&tum,>l. . . 610 
vanda • tdree, > . .49 
yaOkeimfa g)Auca*var. fl. 

Tubeactoti-puTptltreis, ^ . 48 

Kerbdna (rlnOlde* 2 Sablni; 

syn. r. multlflda var. 

eontrict&tfl. - .483 

* rugdia,^. - - 78 

Ferdntea * exalt^ta,;!. . 256 



yermicaf\MkU,/l, . . 77 
X ■pecl6sa,>f. - .77 
Fetlciria •graiidlffdrB,,/!. . 73 
I1b6mum aiMmoldei . 10 
nda Aba . . 680 

vUldca . . . 159 

Flola tricolor, euU. . 591 

VirgiUa latea . . 223. 301 

* Vitciria f neclfieta ; ayn. 
Lf chnH Viadria alblilbm 
HorU,n. . . .40 

fUcum album . 817. TiS 

ntU vinifera (T/Ol, cuU. 244 356 
Wats5nto marginilta, cult. . 369 
rftaea, euli. . . 370 

Wistilria sln^iuis ; syn. Con. 

•equlMa . - 215., fi. 73 

Xanthorrhoe'a arbftrea . 689 

Xantboxylum hoitlle . 186 

yificca itUHfblia . . 27 

t draconii, ft, - 543 

t 6Acclda, fl. .543 

gIori<Sca - - 552, &54 

suDeitM . . 656 

ZhA Mdyt. tm. . . 212 

* t Zenobia fipecibM; avn. 

Aiidt6meda specima 
Mich, fl, ' - 256 

Zephyr4B(tM«*Drumm6nd/, 
fl. - - - 184 

Zyg(^telum *eochleire, /f. 315 



LIST OF FRUITS. 



Almoud ... 147. 237 ( 
Anbna CkerimoUa . . 285 
Apples . > .148 

Gu:tonPippia - . 719 
Downtoix Nonpareil - 220 
Hunt's Duke of Gloucester 220 
Large Virginia > • 694 
Twickenham Botanic Gar- 
den Apple . . 371 
Apricot - . - 147 
Averrhba Carambhla • 664 
Cherries - . .148. 672 
Bigarreau gros monstni. 

euse ... 499 

Dpwnton - - .164 

Maydiike . .661 

Itqyal Duke . - 499 

Winter's Black Heart - 500 

(forcing of) - - 92 

Ctirrants : — 

Naples Black . .615 

Red . . .653 

White - . . 653 

(fo|r Wine) - - 52 

Fig, cvM. . . 431 

Gooseberries:^ 

Compamon - 656^ 659 

a red var. of ^ &!/^ 

Dewhursrs Eagle . ■ .652 

Pardon's Wonderful . 652 

Fordbam*s Ostrich . 652 

Gidd2ng*8 ^trich . . 652 

Gidditig*k Peacock . 652 

Huntsman . .647 

Leader . . 652,^65^ 

OrmoQd's Thumper - 652 

Roaring Lion • . 653 

Thumper . ^656 

Wonderftil . . 656 

* y?ilow . ^SS^ 



Goosebenries (for Wine) > 52 
Grapes - . 116. 619. 634 

Large Black Hamburgh 

711,718 
Loudon's Seedling - 270 

Baisin dee Carmes, &e. . 218 
White - • - 661 

budding or grafting 171. 703 
ditto,y^. - . . 173 

coiling ... 159 
cult. - - - 82 

ditto under glass . 244 

to produce two cro|is in 

in one year . 856. 537. 555 
shriveling of . 494 

at Collin Deep • . 414 
atKinmelPark .487.711 
SeedUng . - 711 

Guava, purple-fruited . 645 
Melons - . 52. 634 

Ditto Black rocks 414 

Italian . . 703 

Persian . • 703 

JTdsa Cavendishtj . 31& 331 
Peaches : •- 
Barringtoo - . 556 

Belle de Vitry - . 556 
BeUcfarde • . .556 

Royal Charlotte - 556 

F«us . . ISO. 148 

Althorp Crassane . - 640 
Belmont - . -540 

Bergsmotte de Pentecdte 667 
Beurr^ d'Arembcrg . 667 
Beurre d'Angleterre - 718 
Beurr6 de Capiaumont - 718 
Bon Chretien fwdaDt .718 
Broom Park - .640 

Brougham . •* . 640 

Brown Beurr^ . .718 



Goosb. Chaumontottc *. 667 
Comte de I«my 164. 713 

Crassane • - 667 

Croft Castlr - . 640 

Duchesse d'Angool^e 

667.718 
Dunmore • . 640 

Emerald - .220 

Endicot Pear . .694 

Eyewood - * .640 
Fingal's . . . 556 

Fiagal's, or EUanrioch . 639 
GanselPs Bergamet . 718 
Jargonelle vac. raonstrbsa 712 
King Edwaid's . . 640 
Large Pears « .OH 
March Bergamot . > 640 
Marie-Louise . .718 

Marie- Louise Nova . 640 
Monaooh fc • . . 640 

Nelis d'Hiver - . 164 

PengetUey - « 640 

Rouse Lench . - 640 

Thompson's - . 220 

WillUms Bq» Chretien .. 63q 
WillmoU's new - .640 

cult in pots . • 222 

Piae. Apples • . • 619 
Providence - 655. 717 

8 need - *; . 717,718 

nvUle . 718 

Pine,cti/r.. ' . .428.593 
Plums « - •148 

Coe^ ^IdenrDtop . 379 
Pomegranate . . 149 

Quince . .. > - •• 148 

Strawbenry(^aaftbai8),<7KM. 431 

a n^^.Seeditntr - •' 706 
Walnut, budding er grafU 

ing - - . 719 



List OF CULINARY VEGETABLES;' 



i4t«ehis liypegie'Vi, proper. ' 

ties., &e.,>«f *- fig. 895. 396 
Asparagus . - 649. 653 

Asparagus, cuU, - - 566 



■>.t(« 



t.i- 



Beans''— '"'•* '"■ ' i Beans-— ->''■' 

DMk Red, desc. *'' ' . 260 f Eiirly Mazagan, r/^jc. - 259 
Dutch Long.pod. desc. - 2.59 Green l^PB-P^*fJJf^ - 259 

Dwarf Fan;<{f«c. - 259 1 Green Wmdsor, rf«c. . gfiO 



LIST OF HOBTICULTURAL SOCIETIES, ETC. 



»^^>jl 


n-Auieigne, rffK, 


s 


LargeWjkerSiigar.dnc. 


Freoch (efftct of (Pent 


S-..°A-SSff;.St 


1 


Pu'i^l&Jodd^ "^ Greji 


- on) . - M*™ 


Dwirf Dutch, tfrtc. 




' Red-flowerea ' Sugar, 


F^^.../ -■ " :| 


D«rf grwn M«rew 




*■«: 


Douf Im^m, dtic 


i 


S'KSS.""-: 




DwMf Willie M»m«r 




^^Or^^:g 




Tall Imperial, d'ic. - 






■ TMllWhlteMaixtwAK- 




E.'SV'chirttra, **r. 


4M 




Cuconibm ' . - 83 


E*,ly D».rt>K. 




Vilmorin'i Suiir, inc. 


Mf. Nlren'i king green mS 


E.rLj Frime, dew. 




Wawrtoo, ifcK. 




isKasa." 


436 


While Prurtan.Ajf. - 


^^W^ of liawvlni'*' 


«Sf 


Potato, «((. -maasis. 


-■ - Ibrougli the Winter 3S6 


Fi.?i'.inald'.siimr,J(K 
Grey Rounciv.C *■■«. 




TheMeroer - 


Mu ™oora», raa. " - - M 


M? 


pj.p.'8's;,-2 


WrtrtW . . . 5.M 


Or<«m1 SiipetS Dmn 




Kpe" Cole Se«l : .mooth.' 


°''?;..„T.W":S 


Blus, tor" - 




Knights Dwwr Mar 




^lHiVedai«lrough.lMre<lj^. 


Pe«:- 






; AUkHu. *«, ■ - ;4«i 


Knif^'t'i'T^H MsiroB 






iEihVrfi>»r,'<«K. 1 «H 


Large Crooked, ^ic. 


S 


SE-™-*. ' -.i 


Large Spaniih I7war^ 




^"^iV^-Man ■ : 






IM 



OP HORTICULTURAL, BOTANICAL, AND FLORICULTURAL , 
SOCIETIES. 

Jogical 



Alfreton Htirl. and Floi.^ . .,„ 
a Andrew;" HMt and Fl.. 669 
AngleMipoit. ., .- 6f- 

AucheoboiriC M>d pleso 
Bath RoTBl Hort ui FTor 

K 

B^iol c fton,a d'ftesVijf 



Sumfriei and Oallonay 

SSfcnioUnilAH.^, , "ffi 
2iin Riding (Yoiki.') ijott. 
luidFI. g 



Forfar Hort - . 671 

Gallowa. Union Bort - 66S 

Ghent lloft . . - IW 

Olaagow Hort, . .012 

GxeniK; Hon. . 666 
Giieunap Cottage Gardening file 

HadlelgA Hort and Flor . 6S» 

Higbknd goc oTScotland 627. 



N^itkHort. - • -698 
Nnnf, Annogb, and Duniialk 

SMfolkandKorwich Hort ri54 
MtlnariamTlor. anfl Hort. 0E6 
Stklihghalmhire GiJpi^M- 

rJhioi^._;:,,;;;.-,;,;.;,;;B«; 



Sr"Z;i!iI' 



LIST OF GARDENS AND COUNTRY SEATS. 



Adm - 

A&di , 

AvpthiU . 
Ap(pin Houic 

AttwuMi' 

Andlcyfiid 



Bothwell CuU« 



Buifrigh" 
Buil^ Lodge - 
Burr St Edmundl 

B^tocklVli - 

CM«r""T ■ . 

CMIeCoal* - 

CiwIellUard . 

CuiL« HniEiei . 



' GARDENS AND COUNTRY SEATS. 

I Smdeii.TlieGtoisanuiln 



1 " -" 
teWood 



a; 

Broid 

I EIToniFIA 



BdliSiush - B35.>SII. 



n.6I».ffiO.G98.7DI 



Ctuicbaiqne Ctfije^ 



toSion . St- 1(VI iflg ,,- 

StefflelB . - - B6 
BriUol (pHiwurf pWi) ^1 



Lfiin.Churc]ija>d. la 









OudnuorFrinlclDdlTiiliuk; 

Bethiunn\&iroaVon 2S 
Bniniwlck, Counl of . ill 

C.ii»Wli,Counlof - 1 

aiikdtouiu; PtuwH c* 

Eilnhut.PrinDt - SD 
I'nltlit, Count ^ ■ Sli 

GruDclwi. M. P. .» 
Ob^.- . . 1 

HelSinr, R». Mr - *1 
HnMnonh, — , siq, . a 

saw '..• :i 



Sn.~ .^UUa -Gl» 

Orlgo, Coonl . . . Ma 

FeiulBrva>t ?— , El^ - *13 

Rjirflo^A, — - 65 

RoCblcblld, Birw - 12,388 

Rynflerl, — . . iS5 

SchiUizWn, — , ' .' 18 






s'enSffi-^ Leu 



LISTOiP BNOAAVINOK. - 



HarltagHin 
Hanbuin - 

ibt^rbuM* - ' 

HcHllngtcn Hill 

Heiddbng CiHul Ounlei 

Himi 

Kogpcr'i, Dr., CoOaae 






NunuloT— 
Bamud'. 

CaJveif. ' 
ciifitoa 



Kn^faA 

U-Hilwn 

Mlirmd 



Si.,- 



Koial Garden, Eni 
SalterbridgB 



■SOO KiTainle Fiata 



St. kbrfV lile 

Su^qwle Court 

Stnlha^dBTB ' 
atudler RflFal 
SCuS^rd 



TTDTIlnehai 



WBTdDUTCadle 
WedgenncAPut: 

WelbickPirk - 



hilE KnighU' 
liiUIni ^ace 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS.. 



Na IKSTRUMENTS, Pago 


No. P..Ke 




3B.Por«Mn™iT- - sse 


15 Nbw Method for Oraft- 


110. Malfwmalion of Peon 




SO. ^^(^"sUlwin "a™.; "* 




Bfi, IWIj'fer Tins - ""'■ SIR 
109. Botanlit'a Spud . . m 
GARDEN STBCe-TURES. 


£3-tti.° Plane fat Tonning 


49, 30. Gama OcaM tTr-lpM- 


37. Cucqmlier Tt/Hne - - SS7 




*'lnv«t Arf> imlitnui 


,. 0™„ IN.!. ..J. « ^^^ 


63, eiL Pnining TtH . .407 
- BUJLD^ns. 


DUO^AMSr 




It. Uoi* oTTnilniae Fniit , 


«.' VitlK Df Mr. Bartalt-i 


Tr«l . ... - 1J8 


Gmn.lioOga, en -^ StS 





LIST OR rONTJUBUTORS. 



sa A*u<-MUbii> - f5K 


Ho. 


.TSI 


Ihf Ground in Fnml of 


7a VegotatieBof theCra. 




.VUUUVIH . .ta 


iuisurh. 




■ CttKcnt - m 








17. I>»)|rn n>r la;iiit out 


**'fficS£r**"'Sm 


PLANS OF Q ARDENCY THE 


Uie'0nxind.^7vnU 


OROUNDa OF SMALL 






VILLAS, Ac 




lent '. °™. " rm 


«.jrs -A. «....«.;"• 


'■&■'■'"»•" 




" ^■XS-J'tZi 


™ ';e? --- - • ^^J 


t. WortlngPlm oclbrm- 


F«e»H. [.I. BibtX * 


.•iidau*rciu«i«tM*.676 


fu'-SB- 


" 


im Ae»J In Exlnit - »» 


105. iMniorsauIn Oik- 576 
107. n&U trtcoloi . . H8 




u 


79. Oai(n*ir liThii out ■ 

In Extent - . -IT) 
BO.D<idioli)rliiHng«i[. 

eul T-S PlueL ^ 
HbM On« Acniii Ki- 
tent . - -lm,SK 


ENTIRE TREKS. 

38. $n(penuiligloiAiu> - 3SS 
7«.,<%itie'giu Oiyacinllu 

lOa WiDfinhliig Dik . . 5B6 
t . REPTILES. 








8L Pin 0(1 null SiHni 


>«!'lTertCidoBn*^' - -s* 




SE 


S»-Ba. Dolfn *n 1 Ootfiic 
F1iiw«I%>rrlen . ai— 9» 


1.' INSECTS. . 




MISCELLANEOUa 


to. Hole Ciickd (OryNo. 




68 


ins. rsjnnlt of D. Dmtfu SM 


,.. SK.T5!S.riL:.iS, 


a D»iy (b 1. 




sj&r-r^^i 


76. Keuitni-i^lLalr. -MT 


..(T™SS«H 




S7. Hetnllic Vfirt . . «T 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 




■..S? BJ 



6M. BoucgeolL M.. 138. B 
, BracteniWee. W. D., W5. 3S3. 

«a we. *» ssa stI. 6" ■" 

S9, 3SG. Bun, Hcnrr, 
71*. 
CMd, johD, 6911. C, IV. Id., u-lu MB. 3H *ge. 

,..__... ..... f. M J 5(8. ~ ■ 

Collyer, W.. 3K. 
leiat, I* »i i^ SIU. t;?. Sil .M. 487. « 

6.5ij.sso.sia.sji. 6ii.ms.T0i. Ci 



B^lik ffi. & so. m. & 



L Alphffl 



Diin,.Di Ooa, pNTtuoi, 333. Dovuton, 

F.lfcM.AO«Hi.,fi!aJ, D.R.,S2 Draiy, 
r.7l4 DuncM, Juna.Sli 



FolTelt, llioiiuu, esG. 712. FbrtUi, 



H. k,SM. ^k a.SSI. 

.'iis. J. c 



ll,S7l. 



, FWt, RoheM^ 'i -a.- 



CD.,®! 

'^siz J.'m:b.','«67. J. Heue, 
|pRr.m,Mr.,3*7. J. P.,SS& J. K., 

J.S.,K71. J.T.ft.TOS. J.W.,706. 

IJppold, Dr.,t5a LO. 
_ iiUTMw. iSl. M.cli™iie,PeUr.P1iil.. 

debhii,eia H>iii,J.,70a Uid«. 

HiUM, Robert, 1. UanetlL Oiuicppi 

M5.5d.GM.669l Hinrtli, ABtmlD,! 

•eT,P.,Jiin.,3*l. MuwelL Hr,,^7. 

Oeorn, 171. 375. KS. MiAcc, Dr., 5! 
mvHi,V.11& 
P»rlu, J. D.,«). 49*. Prtcnni, Mr. Jem Peter, 

5». PDmsni,719. PciiBDnDPuNlcDiKG. Pur- 

iiRZ7W,'BM«h, F„S1*.3». 



Lunb,'E'^.,5 

L.lOl. Lurt,F.,7 
MKfcenile "-*- ''• 



B8.sffa 

'LeUli, 



IS:- 



XVI 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



M146& BiblH«,J«fcLdH Ruiftieiit in Uite, 
IS. Rutiw, T., 6a «. Sa 121. IfiSL 17& 809. 

M9«e.m4n.564 7ia 

S«inden»'Bcniud, 487. S.C.,G97. 8chouw,Fn>. 
fcMor, SB. SckSl, M., 693. Smith, C. R. SSa 
teence, J.,813.^B9.703. 8.a,5S5L S.T.,7ia 
Siewttit, A., 379. Symons, Thomai, 4t3L 

T. a M., 71& Tajlor, annuel, 15a T. R, 71SL 
T.G.,7ia The Labourer** Friend, 95. Thamp. 
•on, jon., H. W., 71«. Trlnehinetti, Dr. Au- 
gustus, S96. 452. Trotter, William, 218. T. S., 
12.712. Tqimt, HcDfy, 817. T. W., fBL719. 
T. W. B., 717. 



V«ideD,Mr^«74 VUmortn, If., S79. 485. Viota, 

59& V. ILS7& 
W. A. L. 417. W. B., 108. 178. WaWron, James, 
> 356L Wallace, Jamer, 944. WaUur, Jbwpb, 
242. WttdTwaUam, 405. Watts, J., 555^ 696. 
7081 W. C, TQS. 711. 71?. W. D. S., 476. 
W.H.,S5a W. aB.,708. White. Thomas, 
719L WllMO,Jtata,719L W. ]L,«Hl W. R, 
iun.,214. W. R.,7ia W. &,552. W. T. C, 

T., lOa 537. 71& Y. D., 401. Te Ken Wha, 

16a. 



Sh9rtly mSn he PuUMed, Ubatrated by numerous Engrtnmgt on fFood, 

THE SUBURBAN GARDENER. 

AND 

VILLA DIRECTORY; 

By J. C. Loupoir, Author of tbe Encyclopaedia of Cottage^ Faroi» and VUla 

Architecture and Furniture. 



T«M Woiik >• pi3e|l9riog for publication, and will contain : — 

1 . An Intr^nol»on» showing the Use and Enjoyments which may be defined from 
a Garden, however small ; with a Plan of the Work. 

2. Directions for the Choice of a House and Garden in a Town or its Subntbs • 
or in a Village, or Country Town, or its Neighbourhood. 

S. Designs for laying out small Gardens, and Cottage and Villa Grounds from 
One Ferch to Ten Acres or more in extent ; including Plans and Elevations for 
appfOpriflM Honaei, <lffioai,&c. ; with different Degrees of Accommodation, and 
in differing $tylm of Af^tecture j including Plana of aome of th« more inttrealing 
small Gardens in the Suburbs of London, Edinbuigh, Dublini Pari% Berlin, 
Munich, and Vienna. 

4. Directions for the Planting, Culture, and General Management of the 
Grounds of small Suburban Residences; and for the Building or Altering, and 
Keeping in E<pa|r» of the House. 

5. Special Dsneetions Ibr the Cultivation of all the Culinary Plants, Fruits^ 
Flowers, Shrubs, and Trees, usually grown in small Gardens ; inckiding the best 
Modes of cooking the different Culinary Vegetables, and of preserving and pre- 
paring Liqueurs, Spirits, Wines, &c., from the different Fruits. 

6. Directions for the Building and Furnishing of small Green- Houses, Pits, and 
Frames ; for the Culture of such Plants as are usually grown in them in small 
Gardens ; and for the Management of Plants in Pots, in Bakoniea^- on Bk>uae^ 
Tops, and in Rooms. 

7. A Monthly Calendar of Work to be done; including Directions respecting 
Poultry, Pigs, Cows, Grass Fields, &c 

8. A Priced List of the Trees, Shrubs, PUnts, Tools, &c.» usually required for 
small Gardens. 

The who!^ intended as a complete Gardening Book for such as are not professed 



The woik «ill 'be IHttstrHled by miftierous Engravings on Wood. 



THE 

GARDENER^S MAGAZINE 

JANUARY, 1836. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION& 



Art. I. On the relative Temperatures of the Earth, under Surface* 
covered tvith a Vegetable Coat, and under Surfaces preserved bare ; 
toUh a Table of Observations* By Robert Mallet, Esq. 

The following table contains the results of a series of morning 
and evening observations, continued for about a month, in order 
to determine whether, and how far, the temperature of the earth's 
surface is affected, at small depths, by the vegetation which sub- 
sists upon it. It is uncertain whether the results observed are 
due merely to difierences of radiating and absorbing power, or 
to some specific consequences of vegetable life. 

Two Fahrenheit's thermometers of considerable delicacy, 
which had both been previously accurately compared, were 
placed at about 20 ft. apart, the one beneath a surface covered 
with a short close coat of turf or gi*ass, and the other under a 
portion of the soil, the surface of which was preserved bare, 
the termination of the surface of grass being midway between 
the two instruments. Both were so arranged, that they could 
be examined without removal, and without danger of change of 
temperature during dbservation. 

The thermometer for aerial temperature was hung at about 
5 fl. from the ground, in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
two terrestrial instruments ; and it was shaded so as to prevent 
any effects from sun heat, or from radiation from surrounding 
bodies, as far as possible. 

The table sufficiently explains its own nature. The hours of 
9 A. M. and 8 p. m. were chosen, chiefly because they are nearly 
those of diurnal mean temperature, and partly as a matter of 
convenience. 

It will be observed from the table, that, with two exceptions, 
viz. on the 10th and 30th of July, the earth beneath the surface 
of grass was uniformly at a higher temperature than that under 
a bare surface, or that not covered with vegetation. 

Vol. XII.— No. 70. b 



(2 



, , ,, \ iRelqtip^ .'](^eny>er.aiures ,qf tie Eartfi* 



Of the resoective Temperatures of Surfaces covered with Grass^ an4 of tho$e 
^ ' ' " • ' ' • ^ ' ' dn the North Side of .Dublin, at an Elev^ton of afeout 

The Observations taken and register made, at Nine o^Clodc a* J^- f^^^ 



\ 


YX^A^ 


Orau. 


Earth. 


Grass. 


Earth. 


Air. 


Air. 




i 


Date. 


Morning. 


Momiiig. 


Erening. 


Evening; 


Moivhig. 


Evening. 




t 


1835. July 9 


63-5 


61- 


61- 


61-4 


67-5 


' 56.5 ' 


- 


,' » 


•10 
11 


69* 
59-1 


59*2 

58-6 


60- 
60-3 


59- 
59*6 


60*4 


" 54^'" 

mi 


• 




12 


61-fi 


60-5 


61- 


00*6 


'62*9 


55^1 


■ K 




13 


60* 


58-9 


61.1 


60*8 


ei-^' 


■-6^'\) 






14 


60-4 


59-4 


63- 


61-9 


63* 


" (s^ii 






15 


64-3 


62-8 


62-7 


62*1 


«fif^' 


• ■'5^'!4 


+ \ 


' 


16 


60-7 


60-1 


62-8 


61*2 


60*8 


^'tl 


\\ 


1 


17 


63- 


62'8 


64-4 


63*9 


' 64^fe ' 


'"■M,i\ 


:> ■ 


1 ' , 


18 

1 ..*>.'• 


64-5 


631 


63-3 ' 


62^1 




5^*t 




I 

J 


19 


63- 


60-8 


63-5 


61*4 


65*7 


60*7 


f . , 




30' 


«4- 


62*5 


66-2 


64-9 


■ee-s" 




» 


gll ( 


W2 


641 


66-4 


65"'9 


63-5 


•58L-8 


' 1 ' 


1 


22 


67- 


65*2 


681 


67-2 


66* 


' '5d*9 


, ! ^ 


t 


23 


67-5 


66-3 


68- 


67^6 


68* 


61*^' 


1 _' ^ 


" 


$4^ •• 


67- 


66-5 


69-5 


68' 


67* 


62^8^ 


• 




!j5' ' 


68- 


66'8 


69-7 


68-7 


66H4 


' iSi^' ' 


1 ' 1 




26 


69' 


67*8 


69*9 


69*4 


65*4 


zt\ 




. 


2? 


6S-7 


68-1 


68-3 


68-5 


65*7 


I ' 

1 




28 


68-2 


67*4 


66-9 


66-7 


67*2 


5»-4' 


' 


I -ij 


i;{| '.".ti > 29 ^' ' 


78-2 


66*1 


71-5 


6^5 ' 


'65-6 


es^f; 






30/ 1 


66^ 


67- 


68*9 


68.7 


65*8 


'60^! 






ih - 


651*5 


^'3 


68*2 


68* 


63-3 ^ 


56-8 : 






August i 1 


69-3 


68- 


68* 


66'5 


69- ' 


62-t' 






2 


66.2 


65'3 


70*5 


68*5 


63-6 


-6t^; 


. 




3 ' 


<^5 


66*8 


68*7 


68* 


67*8^' 


' ^s^- 






•4 


^9' 


67-5 


68*5 


66*7 


69-3 


" 63f^ 


# 


1 i 


. .! ',M ■•» 5*. 


66- 


64*8 


66- 


64'4 


63^ 


61-2' 






6 


65-7 


65- 


65*5 


64-3 


65*2 


m: 






:7 


65-3 


64-5 


63-5 


62- 


63* 


55-' ' 






8 

i 


66*8 


66-7 


66*4 


66- 


64* 




^ 




Average - 


65-3 


64-1 


65*8 


650 


65 05 


59*20 





It will be observed, that the difference of temperature qcca- 
sibufaily athbunted to as much as S^; and that the average Sit- 
fereidce' in the morning was above i% and in the evening nearly 

A' icar^ftil examination bf the table will pf^sent soinis tiiteres(- 
Itig'itfl^ibns between the aerial temperature, the s^ie pf tne 
Wialtrit*,' &c., ' find the temperatures of the? surfacfes 0?^ grass 'and 




n 



under •gt-iis^ ^^aefi;'dtid Ofidtr &aiv Shifaccs. '3 

dfesfekvA'riONs 

preserrei bare, aiti a Qepth of fiin. under the Surface ot the Soil; made 
25 It. above the aea, with a free £xpoBure to the Soutb. 

At Eight o'clock P.M., together with the aerial Temperature in the Shade. 



Gtatani WeifliH. 



Suii, cloud^alightUind,w. 
Chi^^y, dou^dry Wii|d, B.by l 
^Bf.fy riin, no<wind, ^yi, 
Sbpyerji, winrf and suii,.a.w. 
^^wp, windy, (loiida^.w. 
Dryj, wamii.^BUft wtndjtia.w. 
ryjjiCalai, biwy, nt 8uil,,e. 
E^^-rfark, etow, c|ou4y.s. 
ft^flof d(t^ fliii, »tiU, a.w. 

Hof^ge^i^^, Jftlra,fl.w. 
Hrjl.-niiia, ^t[lj« wild, g.a. 
Hry»mi!(i,na,^nd,«ji. 
IV}i> L^aion, nft iWiiu, f.B. 

Susljheivy dew ^4* ni^), s.s 
Sultry, slin^jBa wiitd, e.B. 
Ho^aun(hT[rdaw l^t ](^.w.w 
Hof^un (^hiy 4e w a^aiDjK. by >i 
Fjne, sub, war^, dty, n.w. 
S^ng siui,HO wini, n-w. [\.« 
Fjae,,8un, windy, slight chill, v 
Iirj»cloodsj alight Iwind, n.w. 
Efue, SUB, httie wipd.s. 
Cdouds, fine, no whd, a. 
Ifoin, wamv do wihd, s. 
t^ia, warm,^little wind, a.w. 
Sun, warm,; i^t bfeete, a.w. 
CU^iJy, moiBt„liitlE wind,s.w 
Clqi^s, dry, windU, s.w. 
*i^ drjL fight wirU, w. 
Stjn.drftJruKly.^'I'y a. ^ 



lUin, cloudt, little irind, w. 
Ciou^fc, dry, chilly, wind, w. 
Cold, clouds, dry, windy, w. 
Damf^ cold, hazy, dry, a.Vf. 
Damjx chilly, cloudy, a 
WarniatUl,, ' ' 

Dry, »arm, 

Dty, windy, cloudy, s. 
Dry, cloudj, cloae, atiU, S.w. 
Dry, dear, still (Bhowers, mid. 

day),s.w. 
H«avJcloud»,damp,windy,s,w 
WanH, dry , sun, little toeeae,s . b 
Fine, dry, mild, s.b, 
Hild,Vm .'ska wery, Utile innd ,H 
Sry.wm (l^tniDg),nomnd, ■. 
"' dry, clouds, ' ' 



Very^arm,no wind^dayaaltry) , 
Fine,|lightck»ud9, wjtid, W.N."" 
D(y, warm, still, a. 
Rain, warm, hazy, s.w. 
Clouik, warm, no wind, a.w. 
Dry, tiUd, little winA.s.w. 
Dry, tery*rn, light breeie^s. 
Dry, nild, calm, a.w. 
Cioui^, warm, windy, a.w. 
Fine, temperate, cirfm, s.w. 
Fine, clouds, windy, w. by a. 



Grass shaved. 



~^»^^pr vegs^lde life,, altogether distinct from the mere ph^no- 
menWorii^.^tfi. chetnical Qr other forces, put in mo^ri t^y.tlie 
assiminTive powers of the plants ; or to the simple effects ^( 
yarjing powers of absorption iind radiation. ,,TO|the,lf>Jt(J- of 



yar 

t^ese conclusions 1 i 
,and) I lielicve, novel, 
'surface ofouriiartli is 
Wfhp vtjj^ctation tlia! 
toue incrcised by tli 
in ihis one of those i 



lyscll iricliae; but , .one - ino?t ,wWqrftStH:(g, 
fiitl is thus,e?t^Usl»ed,;,flam(^y,,4iw(,-;iljp 

■oiisidei-ab!xi^§e^e(t,^tfl,it^,tpIiperfWfi% 

■ubsist^ i'l'<'ff,it5j,S[j!-l«njPfiWt?^tWiWH^ 
covering; ^ndjwt^^ftljpQtf^l (p iWflg.«H»f 

inuiDcrnble and eveir wondrous adaptations 



4t Relative Temperatures of the Earth, 

by which the Author of nature has most fitted our system to the 
living beings it is destined to support. 

It would hardly have been anticipated, that such a difference 
of temperature should exist in the same soil, within so short a 
distance as little more than 20 fl. ; but the effects of radiation and 
absorption, in some particular instances, are even far more re- 
markable. Humboldt mentions a granitic sand, which he tra- 
versed in South America, the temperature of which was, I think, 
about 140° Fahrenheit ; and I have myself fomid the temperature 
of the interior of a mass of hard turf^ or dry peat, exposed on a 
bog, at mid-day in summer, to reach 117° Fahrenheit The peat 
was intermixed with granitic sand. 

The soil in which the above observations were made is a fine, 
good, coinpact, aluminous garden earth, of a bistre brown colour, 
which extends to a depth of 18 ft., lying on a coarse bed of 
gravel, composed of shingle of the aluminous limestone of the 
county of Dublin ; which reposes on the solid beds of the same 
stone, the calp of Kirwan, at a depth of 29 ft. The temperature 
of a well of 29 ft. in depth, near the site of these observations^ 
is = 52*6 Fahrenheit, in the present month (August 10. 1835-). 

The principal object held in view in making this series of 
observations was, to determine how far it was aovantageous, or 
otherwise, to cover the surfaces of vine and peach borders with a 
clothing of turf. 

The opinion of working gardeners is usually, I believe, unfa- 
vourable to this, under the impression that the grass makes the 
soil beneath cold and damp. The table shows that this view is 
unfounded, and that a great advantage may be expected from the 
covering, both by increase of temperature, and the preservation 
of a more equable degree of moisture. The advantage, in point 
of appearance, of a vine or peach border, clothed with velvety 
turf, over one bare and brown, is sufficiently obvious. I believe 
it is admitted, that plants or crops should never be grown on. 
such borders ; but the amount of vegetate nutriment abstracted 
from the soil by a short turf kept close is exceedingly small : 
and, where borders are made very rich, they should be covered 
with 3 in. of sharp sand, and over that 2 in. of soil, in which the 
grass might be sown ; thus placing a stop between the grass and 
the rich earth, in order to prevent the former from becoming 
rank, and the latter from being deteriorated. Further experi- 
ments on the subject should be made, to determine the effects of 
other vegetable surfaces, as mint, thyme, &c., upon temperature ; 
the variations produced by long and short grass ; and also its 
effects on temperature in winter as well as in summer. 

I may mention that a peach border of eighty yards in length, 
which has been treated in the above way now for three years, 
produces luxuriantly. 



Botany and Entomology necessapy to Gardeners* 



Art. IL On the Necessity of the Study of Botany and Entomology 
to Gardeners. By Joshua Major, Esq., Landscape-Gardener. 

Some time ago I visited a large town/in which a very respect- 
able Horticultural Society had for some time been established ; 
and my visit happened to be made at the time the managing 
committee was sitting to arrange plans for the exhibitions that 
were shortly after to take place. The chairman of the com- 
mittee very kindly invited me to attend, and I was much pleased 
with the meeting, every thing being pleasantly and properly 
discussed. 

It struck me at the time, that, as the great object of horticul- 
tural societies is to promote the science of gardening, two most 
important branches of that science particularly claim the atten- 
tion of such societies ; viz. botany and entomology ; which are 
so little attended to- by gardeners generally, that we might sup- 
pose they were quite unconnected with the profession; while, at 
the same time, I think it requires no argument to show to the 
gardener who is ignorant of them, that he is much beneath the 
point of knowledge which he ought to have attained. Perhaps, 
when I say botany and entomology ought to be studied as a part 
of the science of gardening, I am imposing a task upon some 
gardeners, which neither their time nor their education will 
allow them to accomplish ; but every gardener who can read 
and write, without a knowledge of which he has no business 
to be a gardener, ought at least to inform himself of the names 
of plants, their native places, the time of their introduction and 
flowering, and the proper mode of their culture. The same 
may be said of entomology : although a gardener may fancy 
himself unable to acquire that science, there is no reason why 
he should not acquaint himself with the habits of those insects 
which prove injurious to vegetation generally, in order ^that he 
may know the best time and season for their destruction ; and 
of such other insects, and insectivorous birds which Providence 
has appointed for their extermination, that he may not inad- 
vertently destroy the insect-destroyer. Certainly, this knowledge 
will be found to require no small labour ; but it is so essential, 
that, if it is possessed and properly applied, the gardener, in- 
stead of being disappointed by the loss of a great part of his 
plants, fruits, and vegetables (which, although, perhaps, not 
totally destroyed, will at least assume a dirty and crippled ap- 
pearance), will find them, is most cases, to flourish in health and 
beauty. Perhaps the young gardener might assist himself, in 
some degi'ee, by consulting the work which I pu!)lished, some 
time ago, on this subject (although it is far from being com- 
plete) ; but I fear the price of it is so high, that but few will 

B 3 



be) (ri)Mli4 posses tt^ • I havebeen ftequenUy ratfiiie^tedittDjbtin^ 
QUt'flndtbcr'editioo^ai half the pcice, which Would ifi(iually.aii4> 
swBnibe purpose of ibe gardener;; and» having oQly.ghtjorrieight 
copies of the first edition left, I amy, perfaups^ nt .soiufe. fbtDre 
period^ beancliued to p«bli»h another, edition^ (bough ithf at 
pnosedt: quite out of the que^tion^ astny professionaLei^Bge^ 
itieBto'dotBliypireTeBt me from 4oing it. Having only <time to 
give thesie £e«r hints^ I must beg ta lea^e it to, ^eccuaoeib o£ 
uteifftispoctiTie hortieidtairal socueties to* «rita»ge snoh>fYlanst*ci» 
tbey maff tJunk most likely to induce the^ymuig gandeneir to.>in*i* 
fbrm bftiQiidf efficlenUy on these subjeetsp and I woui^ ^ust'isay 
to him, ^^ Let these two important branches, have full sbaBe^oC 
ymxr atlttotidn with the rest of your professional punsmts^ dol- 
Uct spedmns of plaols wherever you oaa \ dry tbem^ »aind ^£tsr 
tbemaQ the uaual way in your specimen bo«Jc; aod^if ponrisH 
j^tcnotcHr dbofbld be jgnorant of the naoi^s of my .of them^^ Ifds^ 
9texj op^rtbuiity of askuig otber ^undenereJ' I tbink I ndeA 
Bot *add 'ihatjtfafiBe acquirements will lift a yottng man tmiuAk 
abon^itboae -gardeners who have repeatedly to confess, oa being 
attedtbe/aainesvand descriptions of flowers or tvees^ thai tbey 
hairauooli|»id mttch attention to plantsi bavioig ahnoatt excbs^ 
sively applied themselves to forcing and the kitchen-gardming 
dopflrftneat; • A young niasi, following the study I bavte pointed 
^iHl^ (inafe(»d) of thus degrading hirasd^^^ will be daily acquiriog 
ihffemdsib.impQntaBt knowledge of a part of his profession^ whioh 
^iU^ijat tite sanie time, be most interesting and useful to himself} 
Mkdiof >inestimabk value to bis patrons. . . 

\vJSiicsikQrpef August 1« 1835* 

i, iV'' ,- ' • ■ 

AR3Ct )^y* ^^^** 9f ^ Gardening Tour from, Berlin ihrpugfi Part Rf 
\ Prussia^ Saxony t Germany ^ Hungary ^ Smtzerlandf and Jtcdy* JBj 
^ M; K'lause, in the Gardens of the King of Prussia. 

Bsiir^^it I aet out on my long joumey, I went to the Island ef 
Rugen, «and. passed through Neustadt, Leckweldy and-Stettin« 
The^kji^s warden here is not worth mentioning; the king's 
garden el S($ wedt is of more consequence : the gairdener's same 
ifi Kdder* It has a good situation, and contains some Sn^ oalsA 
ai&A jimi^s^ and, although it is old-lashionedf it.afibrds the xn^ 
b§^Q^s 4m agreeable pronmiade^. The giounds roiind St^uibi 
are tolerably large ; but it is too much crowded, and it is to^faa 
^^isb^^ ismk aaj^^perie^^^haod mml4 impnove it. The gat den 
4p|.^^}lt^»99 ^ the: i^Wndii^foJ^ge^ii. The cjunaps and ^indiiig 
^])(s^^rf^d tl^^jpoteo^are^well lmd.oii&> The few plants wbicft 

^jljB%'l^iWf^/i'<M;i^'*^ ^be pseBeuipriece is fimd^oCig^sdeuingy 
jt is hoped it will soon be in good order. The soil of the Island 



of Rugoi id^^«mUy loamy; sotbat thdre is a great cUftr^caJ 
in the vegietBtion there from diat oii' the Cottttoent;, The faolaiiia» 
gaixleii<at<Gret8waid is siQaH : there are bm greeaJiame plants^' 
and inuebiimpt«>¥encient>i$ wanted. 

' After myrelami*! also made a jottmey theougk all SOesia^i 
and feimd the only garden thaH was worth mentiontngatGata^: 
falter. >M./Kteeman> <the head gardener^ has rendered hiaaelf 
edebrated by- applying liquid manure to orange trees^ /which^ 
wheninsiedrimth prudence) is- always snocessfid* The gaiden is. 
smalt^ bm it is sitoated oa a nMNsntain) and has a benntiftdiview: 
o£:die^lsgei The orangery^ and a tolerably large eoUedion' of 
ericasf are worthy of ndioe; 

ijFhi&'pninieiiacks nmnd Breslau are beautifully laid* oat;- The 
snoalLtiwellWiMrmed sqnases (platae) are not over era w ded . with 
twes and shrubs ; ahni one f^urden has a most beautifiU view c€ 
die.Odei^ Thebetanic garden at Breslau (the gardealer's name 
isljsebig)ihas, for seme years, been much improvcd';'d»Sfrfaat» 
IteikrwcUyibut tbecelUotioa is not valuable enough. to dcaevve 
fMotic^j'' Erem the situatton of the- garden, and. th^abundancb 
of ittalor, it might easily be made vecy beautifulyif daidictttf^wildK 
taste; I^ofessor Nees von Esenbeok is a most^snitabiar peisoiy td 
unprotret^it. <-• \\\.aU\\.. "h'm 

From Breslau I went to Neiss, and to :the"eeliebrated JahqnL 
nisberg. The castle and garden lie Tery high on a mdotioahi, slui 
there is a most delightml view from it. The pin^^apptenanA 
plum forcimg-booses are in a very bad condition ; h\i^ di^'Orcblird 
is somewhat better. From the latter plaoe we wefit'fUp<'S(Aiie 
small mountains, called Heuscheuer, on which there are* >fa]gh 
rocks lying on each other ; on the top of which I found the fol- 
lowing plants, which had been planted there : — 2>£phne Me^ 
zereum, ^cer ji^latanoides, Lonicero, JV&xinus, and iS^tuIa^which 
looked -well. Not far from there lies the celebrated vSdbV^ 
which IS a better bathing-place than those mentioned in p. 9. 
There is a good garden here, but it might be improved. In 
Silesia them are very few gardens : there are son^ at Furstenstein, 
AttTwasser^ &c., to which nature has done more than art 

-Not for from Sobmiedeberg lies the village of Fischba)s,'<whiefa 
belongs* to Prince William of Prussia. The castle is surrdMded 
by a garden, wbkb is charmingly situated, and which n^iji^ be 
made tbe^ most' beautiful in all i^lesia. At Logari is- Mi -rfen- 
ning^^ celebrated nursery: the trees and shrubs are idt in -good 
eitdei*/'' ■■ '* ''^ '"'■ 

'.'^TifeioviQ of gatdeningincpeaseseveryday.moi^ilnd^ridei^iin 
Silesifty pSRPtiecpily in Upper Silesia* As^ soim^as ^tl^'pyoi^le 
fadw theceasiek aiid chaapkrat way to sst^ ab^ut $mpi«^it)g4heft- 
gavdens^ :^bsyf JWtQ do'so^insr tbeiloVe ^^'gii»dei«hfg^6'>klf^iBfd^ 



8 Gardening Tour through Part of Prussia, 

excited in their minds, and they oniy want the power to carry 
their wishes into effect. 

On the Axintiers of Silesia, not many miles from Dresden, 
stands Muskau. This garden is considered one of the most 
beautiful in Germany ; and its well-placed single trees, its fine 
vistas, and its beautifully laid out walks, show that it has been 
planned by a clever man. Among the single trees, the most 
remarkable are some tulip trees, and some fine beeches* The 
river which runs through the garden, however, sometimes over- 
flows its banks ; and it is much to be lamented that there is no 
good view fix)m the garden, as it would make it much more 
interesting. 

Next I went, by Torgau, to Oranienbaum, where the garden 
is partly in the French, or geometric, style, and partly in the 
English, or natural, manner. It is very interesting to see espaliers 
formed of cypress, and the avenues of young oaks, which are 
very beautiful. I also saw there the large orangeries which have 
rendered M. Klevitz, the gardener, so celebrated. Four miles 
farther lies the celebrated Worlitz, which is remarkable for 
its castle and garden. The garden is large, and the Elbe runs 
through part of it, and forms an island ; but, in my opinion, 
there are too many ornamental buildings in it (although some of 
them are very remarkable); and they, with the badly laid out 
walks, and ill-formed groups of trees, materially lessen the beauty 
of the scene. The trees are, however, very interesting. There 
are some fine specimens of Quercus coccinea, Liriodendron 
Tulipifera, Salisbury adiantifblia, and Liquid&mbar Styraci- 
fiua, &c. 

There are, on the beautiful road from Worlitz to Dresden, the 
most remarkable oaks that ever were seen. Not far from the 
city lies the park of Louisiana, which is much neglected. The 
water near the castle looks very well. I found here .a beautiful 
collection of pelargoniums, roses, and auriculas. The George 
Grarden is two miles from Dresden ; it is larger, but in a much 
wilder state. It is a pity that more attention is not paid to this 
garden, as it might be made one of the first in the country; and 
it is not the fault of the gardener, but of the duke. 

From Dresden I went to Halle, where the university garden 
is ; and, although it is small, it is well worthy of notice. 

Amongst the gardens at Dresden I may mention that of 
Lieutenant Weber, which has particularly fine green-hoiise plants 
and shrubs ; where the gardener, M. Sidel, has enormously 
large fig trees, which stand out in the open air, and only require 
a slight covering in winter. It is well known that these trees are 
5200 years old. The king's large garden here (gardener's name, 
M. Thersclieck) has a few pretty spots, but it is now much neg- 
lected. The fruit nursery only is particularly worthy of notice. 



Saxomfi Germany^ Hungary^ Switzerland^ and Italy. 9 

The garden itfidar the direclion of M» Lehman is valuable on 
account of its vegetables. 

From Dresden I went to Leip$]g» where the parks round the 
city are particularly tastefully laid out : the part near the water 
is also very well planned. Amongst the nurserymen, M« Breiten 
deserves particular notice; he has a valuable collection of cactuses ; 
and, as he spares no trouble to get the newest sorts, it is expected 
that he will soon have the largest collection in Germany. In 
the plantations at Thavanc there are some very pretty shrubs, 
but they are far from being what they should be. 

From Leipsig I went to Tetshe, where there is a very fine 
garden ; it belongs to Count Thun of Hohenstein. His pine- 
afjfiles and forced kidneybeans were particularly remarkable. 
Hence I now travelled over the mountainous country of Swiss 
Saxony, and arrived at Tbplitz, a bathing-place, which has a 
very beautiful garden : it cannot be called badly laid out, but it 
might, by a practical man, be much improved. This garden 
has .a very good collection of trees and shrubs, and the situation 
is extremely fine. 

I then went to Carlsbad, Eger, and Marienbad. The public 
walks and gardens of these bathing-places are not remarkable. 
Near Marienberg lies the country seat of Prince Metternich : 
it has a very large garden, quite, new, which is situated on a hill, 
and has a fiue view. One of the most important gardens at 
Prague is that of Prince Elinsky. This garden is situated on an 
artificial hill, which must have cost an immense sum of money : 
the garden is not so good as might be expected. Count Salm 
has the best collection of green-house plants in Germany, and 
the best method of propagating ericas, epacris, &c« 

I went from Vienna to Bruck on the Leytha, where I was 
astonished to see such a beautiful garden; and it is the only one 
I have seen which is perfect in every part. It is very unfor- 
tunately situated, and the gardener has had a great many diffi- 
culties to overcome. Its situation is not only bad with respect to 
prospect^ but the river Leytha, which runs through it, overflows 
its hanks every summer. I found, in this garden some most 
magnificent North American trees and shrubs, the i*emarkably 
i/%orous growth of which was probably owing to the loamy de- 
posit (6 in. or 9 in. deep) which the water leaves every year. I 
also saw the Nel^mbitwi speciosum in such quantities as to be 
thought of little value; M. Wancke having, for a long time, 
bestowed so much care on these plants, that every seedling 
flowers once in two years. 

. From Brudc I went, by Presburg and Raab, to P^sth and 
Buda; but I had not time to see the gai^ens tht^re. .Qiq^.my 
road I passed by Eisenstadt, and found a garden which h^ par- 
ticularly good greea-house plants. From the large $peci#Aens I 



10 Gafuiening Tour through Pkrt ofPrus'shf' 

sow there of the newest plants, I judged they must have beerr 
purchased when very rare. The part round the castle is well 
laid out, and it is only a pity that enough money is not spent to 
keep it in order. 

On my return to Vienna, I went to Salzburg, a dty with a 
beautiful view ; which there is also all the way from Vienna to 
Salzburg. There are four gardens in Salzburg, not worth 
mentioning. The most remarkable gardens in Germany are 
those at Munich, laid out bv M. SckelL The garden at Ib« 
spruck, under M. Eshenlohr, is not in good order, wsd very Kttle 
money is spent on it. In this place I found a great number of 
the /anus C^mbroj the fruit of which is commonly eaten. 

In Trieste, the garden of Capaletti is the most remarkable : it is 
nat large, but has very good plants, piuticularly C^tese. There 
is also a magnificent collection of orange trees in the open air ; 
and the Hibiscus syriacus, trained as an espalier, which is^com** 
mon all over Italy, is here particularly fine. In Romano are 
seen very magbificent cypresses, uncommonly large, and cut in 
the form of a p3nramid. 

On the way to Venice are seen plants of C61tis, Ci^cis, JRhiis 
C%ttiias, &0., by the road-side. Here is the celebrated I^go di 
Oarda, on the banks of which are planted beautiful lemon trees, 
and, hnmediately behind them, olive trees. The Oiardino 
Giusti is ooly remarkable for its fine views : it is laid out in the 
old-fashioned style, as most of the gardens are in the upper part 
of Italy. The box trees, trained as espaliers, are very remarks 
able. On the way to Padua are seen many olive trees, bignonias, 
iSalix babyl&nica, but more particularly the Mbms lilba, round 
the stems of which the vines grow of an enormous size. The 
botank garden in Padua is remarkable for its specimens, in the 
open air, of Magnol^ grandiflora, of an enormous size ; Qudrcos 
i^iex, Qu6rcus coccinea; Chitse^'gus Qxyac^ntha, mon6gyna, and 
Crus-gdlli*<$alicif61iA ; Bign6nia, Kblreut^ruz, ^biimum cam^ 
noideSf 21imarix, Sterc^lia, C§rcis, &c. The roses, trained as 
espaliers on the walls, and almost covering the bouses, are well 
worthy of a stranger's notice. 

The promenade round Milan is very extensive, and contains^ 
remarkably fine trees^of Liriod^ndron, Saphora, iPlatanus, &ۥ 
On both sides of the promenade are beautiful trees, trained sM 
espaliers* 

On the road to Pavia the rice fields are very remarkable. 
These fidds are entirely under water, which is supplied from 
the canals on both sides of the road. 

Amimg the immerous gardens at Mon^a, the government 
garden is certainly the most remarkable. The gardener^s name 
is Rossi* It is more like a nursery than a garden. He has 
immense quantities of beautiful deciduous cypresses, partly in 



Saxonyy GeKumf^ /£^i^r^ Shoitxiftlandf and lialy, 1 1 

gr<Nips, soiTie of them, by the aid of art, stond in the «raten 
There are some particularly larse liriodendrons, Mago^ka tri- 
p^Ia, and grandifldra, and cSso a great collection of rosea. 
The garden of the Villa Reale (the gardener's name k Casemeiti) 
IS tolerably large: it \& rich in plants and beautiful shrubs* 
There are some fine specimens of Magnolia macroph^Ua^ 
J^4is aaoguinea* .^sculus nibra9 Pupulus caroliniana, and a 
large ooUeetion of caiiieUias» pine65 and roses. There is also 
a very large collection of cMranges. The pine-apples are pretty 
large ; and yet the plants do not look particularly well. The 
EugUdb garden is very large, and has a few pretty scenes in it 
near the castle. Not far from Como begins an avenue of Lirio* 
dendroo and jpraxlnus, in which are some venr good specimens. 
Among the beavtiful villas which lie on the Lale of Como isf 
particJWlyi the villa of Somroa Riva» with a very excellent gar* 
den> more especially .near the castle* Here are seen groups of 
myrtle* Xaurus nobilis, Magnolra, Chrus, and particularly C\* 
trus flalicif51iaj also plants of the citrus family* and iwses trained 
as espaliers. On the Lago Maggiore are two small islands^ on 
which grow the following plants in the open, air : -^ Agftve, Jl- 
cos, Capparis, &ythrina, Casuarina* Xaurus, Ldptospermum, 
£ricai SophdrUi iF/ibiscus, Mim6sa, Metrosideros, Abododen- 
droo, Bonapdrtea, Prdnus, Magn^k'a, Tlxus, €6rylus purpu** 
rea, && Besides these there are also a few espaliers of the 
citrus. The garden has beautiful views over the lake, the 
towns, and villages. Although the Isola Bella has also very 
beautiful plants, it is more remarkable for the various castles*, 
grottoes, and caverns in its celebrated garden* . 

The nursery at Lausanne, belonging to M. Barrand, has a 
very fine collection of plants, and he is particularly o^brated 
there for his pelargoniums* The gardens at Lausanne contain 
nothing particular. In general, the gardens in Switzerland are 
not much known. Messrs. Baumann's nursery, at Bollwyller, 
makes an impression which one seldom feels. Fruit trees, and 
other trees, were in the best order. The collections of pears, 
apples, ^'sculus, i^raxinus, roses, Rhododendron, Azalea, 
K&lmia, Tilia, ^ercus, Jilglans, C^rya, Cam61h0, and £rlca 
are* one may with truth say, better than any other that can be 
seen in Germany. M. Hadel's nursery contains a particularly 
good collection of North American shrubs. The garden at 
Schwetzii^en is tolerably large, but does not form a whole, as 
it is partly in the old French,, and partly in the English, style, 
which do not harmonise. The view from the castle is exceed- 
ingly beautiful. The arrangemeat erf* trees round the water is, 
on the whole, very good. 

- The botanic garden in Heidelberg is only just beginning. 
The agricultural garden, which is near it, is beautifully situated: 



12 Gardening Tour through Part of Prussia^ Sfc, 

it is expected that it will be carried on with much eagerness, and 
that both gardens will, in time, become celebrated. The court 
garden is remarkable for its beautiful views ; it has also one very 
fine specimen of Thuja occidentklis. The garden at Manheim, 
under M. Stihler, has some very well laid out scenes, and some 
very good clumps of shrubs. This garden has not enough 
water, and very fine views, but better ones might easily be made. 
Darmstadt has a great deal of garden ground round it. The 
garden of M. Schnitzboor is one of the largest; but the paths 
are not well laid out: the clumps are bad, and the ground 
dirty. The view is not worth mentioning: the part round 
the water is the best. The garden under M. Noar has 
particularly fine dahlias, and especially very fine annuals ; 
its vegetables are also worthy of remark. One of the most 
beautiful gardens is that on the road to Rosenhbhe, under 
the direction of M. Guyer. The part round the castle, and 
that on the hill, are very well laid out. The views, paths, and 
grouping are in good taste. The gardens round Frankfort are 
worthy of notice. M. Rinz's nursery is only just begun ; but 
he has a good collection of fruit trees, and barren trees and 
scrubs. There is also a good collection of camellias, rhodo- 
dendrons, kalmias, ericas, and azaleas. His green-house 
plants look extremely well. Baron Rothschild's garden is 
tolerably large, but his trees only are worthy of notice. He 
has a fine specimen of Araucdria [Altingio] exc61sa. The 
churchyard of Frankfort is very striking, and resembles an 
English garden. The botanic garden has nothing remarkable. 
The garden at Mavence is pretty large, and has beautiful views ; 
but the choice of shrubs, and the grouping of them, require 
much improvement. The botanic garden at Bon is one of the 
best gardens in Prussia. Not far from Cologne lies a new gar- 
den, with a nursery near it i it is laid out with much taste. 
The garden at Dusseldorf is poor in plants, and those few are 
in bad condition. Some parts are worth notice; but that round 
the water wants improving, and also the form of the water. 
The walks are laid out well ,* and it is evident that the designer 
was an experienced man. Not far from this lies the garden 
of Salm Dyck, which is so celebrated for its cactuses, mesem- 
bryanthemums, &c. The garden is very bad ; but it is not the 
gardener's fault, as the princess laid it out. Alten has no good 
gardens ; the walk round the town is only remarkable. 

Want of time prevents me from writing further particulars, 
and this is tlie reason that I have written in such a hurry. 
When I get home I shall make a full description of all I have 
seen, and send it to you. 



Public Garden for a Corporate Town. 15 



Art. IV. Design for a Public Garden^ made for an English CorpO" 
rate Toton ; \joith a List of the Trees and Shrubs to be planted in it, 
and their Prices. By the Conductor. 

The plan which we are about to describe may be very fitly con- 
sidered as an illustration, as far as it goes, of the article Vol. XL, 
p. 644. In it we have attempted to show how much may be 
made of a piece of ground not much exceeding three acres, and 
very unfavourably circumstanced, at the least expense. We were 
employed to give the design by a committee of management, and 
our instructions were, simply, to make the most of the ground at 
the least expense. The following remarks are what we delivered 
to the committee on the 24th of October last; and the plan has 
since, in great part, been carried into execution. 

The piece of ground to be laid out being of limited extent, 
and having a distant prospect only on one side, viz. that next 
the river, the object, in contriving the plan, has been to create 
interest within the area. This has been attempted by increasing 
the inequalities in the surface ; by producing the greatest length 
of walk which the space admits of; by varying the views along 
that walk ; by concealing the boundary everywhere except on the 
river side and at the principal entrance; and, above all, by plant- 
ing the most extensive collection of trees and shrubs which, it is 
believed, has been hitherto planted in any public garden, not 
avowedly botanical. 

The plan (J%. 1.) which occupies p. 14. and p. 15., is explained 
at the bottom of those pages. There is one walk, viz. that to the 
right on entering from the terrace, which makes the complete 
circuit of the garden; and another, to the left, which goes, by a 
more direct course, partly through a tunnel, to the proposed 
esplanade. This tunnel, which is about 60 ft. in length, it is pro- 
posed, may be either made winding, and lighted by circular 
funnels of about 1 ft. in diameter, and at about 10 ft. apart, 
terminating in iron gratings ; or it may be made straight, in which 
case, it will be sufHciently light without any funnels. The object 
of making the tunnel in a winding direction is, to prevent persons 
who may be passing through it from ascertaining its extent at a 
single glance, and thus perceivitig the narrowness of the garden ; 
but this result, even if the tunnel is made straight, may be in a great 
degree prevented by the winding of the walk, and planted banks 
at each end of the tunnel ; by which means the boundary of the 
garden will not be seen from whichever end the spectator enters. 
The great object, in a limited space, is to vary the interior ; from 
every point of view to conceal the bounds ; and, by a great length 
of walk, no part of which is ever seen at one time but the part 
walked on, to increase the apparent extent in the highest degree. 
Where these walks approach the boundary, the trees and shrubs 



16 Public Garden for a Corporate Toum^ 

indicated in the list to be planted in such situations are chiefly 
evergreens, in order completely to screen'the fence ; and, for the 
same important end of disguising the apparent extent, no en- 
trances must be made to the garden in addition to the two indi- 
cated. If we imagine four entra|»ces to this garden, at/tl)^)four 
angles^ or in the centre of the four sides, instead of two in the 
centre of two opposite sides, the seclusion of the interior will be 
destroyed, and one main intention of the design completely de- 
feated. 

The walks are so arranged, the surface of the ground so 
formed, and the evergreen trees so disposed, that a spectator 
walking on any one of the walks will, in very few cases, be able 
to see the other walks, as the section of the ground will show. 
If the ground cannot be raised to the height indicated in the sec- 
tions, nearly the same effect will be produced, in .lie course of a 
few years, by the growth of the trees and shrubs. 

In the execution of the plan, the first step is Jbp mark out the 
tunnel walk, and to form a drain in the bottorar of it^-coramencing 
at the entrance to the garden at a, and continuing it at least as far 
as g ; the tunnel should then be built, because, till this is done, 
the ground over, and on each side of it, cannot be prepared for 
planting. A drain should also be formed from the point a, along 
the bottom of the walk,, and through the boutidary, to the point 
i. A drain will also require to be formed from the point c in the 
walk, all along its bottom, to b ; and also from the point c^ along 
the botton\^of the walk, and through the boundary, to the point d : 
from this point a drain will require to be conducted, along the 
bottom of the walk, to e ; from e^ along the bottom of the walk, 
Xofi and also from g and biof. Other drains, necessary to 
effect the complete drainage of the walks, will readily occur to 
the foreman who will be sent to superintend the execution of the 
work. Nothing conduces more to the comfort of a public gar- 
den than having the walks at all times fine and dry ; and, where 
these walks are 10 ft. broad, as they are here in the broadest 
parts, such a result cannot be accomplished satisfactorily without 
a drain aloiig the bottom of each walk, with gratings at the sides 
of the walk, communicating with the drain at regular distances. 

None of these drains, however, will require to be formed, till 
afler the planting is completed, except the tunnel drain from a to 
g, and the upper drain from a to b. 

These drains being made, and the tunnel built, the ground may 
be formed agreeably to the sections ; after which, all that portion 
of it intended to be planted, must be trenched to the depth of 
4fl. at l^ui^t i and, where the soil is ba^^it must b^ t%M9< PHt) 
and replaced Dy good soil. ./Tlie soil fram such portions of the 
ground as are to be covered with grass, where it is good, may be 
used for this purpose, and the bad soil substituted for it, as it 



with a Priced List (fthe Trees and Shrubs. 1 7 

will answer ^qaaUy wdl» and even better, for tbe gyei Tke 
soil from tbe bottoms of the walks, when good, can also be used 
for the part to be planted. . 

Tbe trees and sbrabs which will be required are indicated in 
tbe following lists ; and diey are all such as may be purchased in 
tbe London nurseries at moderate prices, and all of the most oru 
D Omental kinds, not one being admitted which is a mere timber 
tree or fruit tree, or which is purely of botanical interest. 

The first list (I.) consists of evergreens; and they are distributed 
over the whole sarden in such a manner as to prevent tbe eyes of 
the persons on me walks, both in summer and winter, from seeing 
more than a certain portion of tbe ground at one time. At the 
east and west ends of the ground there are rows of evergreens 
and semi-ev^fgi^M:iadEooitiparattvdy tall growth, f^t the purpose 
of shutting out the houses of the town. All the other trees are of 
low growth ; and, with two or three exceptions, do not ordinarily 
exc^d the height of from 1 2 ft. to 20 it. 

The next list (II.) is of deciduous or flowering trees, and tall 
shrubs, with ifiome evergreen's, all about tbe same height as those 
in List L These are to be distributed over the ground as indi- 
cated in the plan by the numbers preceding the names. 

The next list (II 1.^ is of deciduous iowerrngsfarobB, and some 
evcirgnaeBSi the distrtbntion' of which niay be left to tbe planter, 
with this single direction, that the species of each genus must 
be kept adjoining each other. 

The succeeding list (I V.) is of climbing, creeping, and trailing 
plants. These it is proposed to plant along an arcade of trellis- 
work, which should be commenced at each eBtnaice 4^ tha tttn* 
nel, mnA carried on to the length of 50 ft., at each end, over the 
walk. The trellis*work, where it terminates, should be. quite 
light and open, and» in short, little more than arches of iron wire^ 
crossing the road at about 6 ft. apart. This distance between tbe 
arches should gradually diminish, till, at the mouth of the tnnnel, 
the last arch should not be more than 3 ft. from tbe one preeeding 
it. Each ari^ should consist of three iron wires ; each of about 
half an.iilich in diameter, joined together by horizontal pieces, and 
their lower ends leaded into blocks of stone. Along the summit 
of the arches, one rod may connect the whole; but th«^ ought 
to be BO connexion along the sides, or at the bottom. The same 
rod may be continued along close, under the roof of the tunnel 
for hanging coloured lamps on, upon extraordinary occa3JonS) so. 
as to illuminate both the tunnel and the arcade. 

It is very desirable to form an arcade of this sort as an ap- 
proach to a tunnel ; because, to a stranger, and in tbe summer 
time more especially, the transition from the glow of a i»id«^ 
day sun to the ffloom. of tbe tunnel would be toe sndd^i*. At 
the same time, tne tunnel will be only comparatively dark, as it 

Vol. XIL— No.70. c 



1 8 Public Garden for a CwTporate Tawn^ 

will be quite suiSciently lighted for walking in, even if not straight, 
by the funnels and gratings l)efore mentioned ; which may be 
made only 6 ft. apart, if 10 ft. should be thought too far distant. 
If, as the trees and shrubs grow up, they should be found to 
obscure the gratings, the funnels for them can be carried up 
hiffher than the shrubs ; and any funnels that are thought too con- 
spicuous may be terminated with elegant vases, through which 
the light is admitted : and whether these funnels are carried up 
10 ft. or 50 ft., will make no sensible difference in the quantity 
of perpendicular light which will pass through them to the tun- 
nel below. The necessity of building funnels, however, may be 
alt^ether avoided, by having the tunnel made straight. 

'Hie next list (V.) is of select trees and shrubs, to be scattered 
on the turf; but, as this cannot be done till the ground is pro* 
perly consolidated, which it will require at least a year to efiect, 
their places are not indicated in the plan, lest it should create 
confusion. 

liie last list (VI.) is of plants which are of low growth, and 
are either ornamental evergreens, deciduous shrubs with showy 
flowers, or shrubs with highly fragrant flowers. Any blanks 
which remain in the masses, after all the other trees and shrubs 
are planted (and there will not be many), may be filled up with 
the species enumerated in this list, which are so beautiful, that, 
even if there were a dozen or two of each in the garden, there 
would not be too many. 

Nothing is proposed to be planted on the green bank (i i) 
between the upper and lower terraces, because the large elm trees 
already there, as well as the steepness of the slope of the bank, 
will effectually prevent any ordinary shrub from thriving. If 
it is absolutely required to have something like an evergreen 
fence, an open wooden railing is recommended, which may be 
thickly covered with ivy, the soil being first properly prepared, 
and the plants abundantly supplied with water during the sum- 
mer season, for the first two or three years. 

The kind of fences to be used in enclosing the garden, the 
projection of the quay into the river, and the details of the pro- 
posed esplanade, with the seats at each end, are not here^^ntered 
into ; neither is any design given for a fountain, nor for rock- 
work, nor any other architectural object in the situations indi-^ 
cated. The entrances to the tunnel may be finished in a rustic 
style, and rock plants inserted in the crevices. 

The walks commence at the gate opening into the lower ler«» 
race, and also at the steps descending firom the esplanade, with 
a width of 10ft.; and, after being continued at that width for a 
distance of 80 or 100 yards, they are gradually diminished till^ 
directly over the tunnel, the width is only 8 ft. The tunnel walk 
is only d ft. wide under the tunnel ; but it gradually widens to 



with a Pnced List of the Trees and Shrubs. 19 

10 ft. as it advances to the other walks. These details the plan 
and the scale will show. The object in narrowing the walks in 
this manner is, to aid the perspective on entering and proceeding 
along the walk from each gate, and thus, in a small degree, to add 
to the apparent extent of the whole. 

It is recommended that all the trees and shrubs shall be pro- 
cured of small size, as being much less likely to die^ in conse^ 
quence of removal to a bleak situation, and as more likely to grow 
rapidly in well-prepared soil. Instead of bestowing more expense 
than usual in purchasing large plants, it is recommended rather 
to give extra preparation to the soil, and even to add to it 
manure. The mass of rhododendrons and azaleas will require 
peat soil, as will a few of the other trees and shrubs ; and the 
beds of roses will require rich mould. 

The double and Chinese roses are recommended to be planted 
in groups by themselves, and also the herbaceous flowering plants; 
and on no account whatever are either double roses, or herba- 
ceous flowers, to be planted among the shrubs. In the two com^ 
partments where fountains or other ornaments may be placed, 
flowers may be planted for the first year or two ; and, after the 
esplanade is finished, perhaps some more groups of flowers may 
be formed on the turf near it; and, probably, the sloping border 
{i k) may be entirely devoted to flowers. On each side of the 
esplanade may be a parapet, with piers at regular distances, snr« 
mounted by vases, and in these vases mignonette may be kept 
all the season, which would difiuse an agreeable odour in every 
direction. 

It is recommended that, in purchasing the trees and shrubs, it 
be made a condition with the nurserymen from whom they are 
procured, that they should name one plant of each kind with a 
zinc label written on with prepared ink, and fastened to the plant 
with metallic wire. By these means the names of the plants will 
remain attached to them, and unobliterated, for two or three years; 
and in the meantime, as likely to give a great botanical interest 
to the garden, it is recommended that one plant of each kind 
should be named, with a large conspicuous label, placed sufii- 
ciently near the walk for any person to read it without moving off 
the gravel. These labels may be formed of zinc, or thin board 
painted white, from 2 in. to 3 in. broad, and from S in. to 4 in. long, 
and fixed to the end of wooden rods. For shrubs close by the 
turf verge, these rods need not be above a foot in height; but 
when a tree is to be named which stands back from ttie vtralk, 
and has low shrubs in front of it, the rod should be of such a 
length as that the label may overtop the shrubs. On each label 
should be painted the scientific and English names of. the plant, 
its native country, and the year of its introduction into Britain. 
Tbb naming' of thd tre«a will, it is eonceived, very greatly add 

c 2 



so 



PMic Garden far a Carport^ Tarnn^ 



to tfae attractions of the garden, more especially as a place of 
resort for young persons, and consequently increase its value to 
the town. 

. In the management of this garden, the ground in which the 
masses are planted will only require to be kept clear of weeds, 
and covered with the short grass which is mown from the glades. 
As the trees and shrubs advance in growth, the duplicates will 
require to be removed ; and, after this, both trees and shrubs 
must be prevented from touching each other by pruning. While 
this is attended to, care must be taken that, in all the masses near 
the boundary fence, both trees and shrubs be allowed to grow as 
close to each other as they can, without coming into absolute con- 
tack. The masses of roses will require to be taken up and pro- 
perly replanted in fresh soil every three or four years, and the 
masses of flowers, which may be chiefly hardy showy annuals of 
low growth, or entirely mignonette, will also require the soil to 
be occasionally renewed. It must be constantly borne in mind 
by the managers of this garden, that a border or plantation of 
trees and shrubs which are never allowed to touch, but which 
are, at the same time, placed as close together as they possibly 
can be without touching, produces a much more effectual screen 
than a thick plantation. In a thin plantation, such as we allude 
to, there is a compact mass of foliage on every tree and shrub, 
from the ground upwards ; and, if there are only two rows of 
sueb trees and shrubs, the plants of the one row alternating with 
the openings of the other, the screen will be as effectual as if it 
consisted of a holly hedge. If this mode of keeping up a screen, 
Jjoth in the boundary plantations and in the masses which sepa- 
rate the walks, be neglected, the effect of the garden will very 
soon be materially injured, and the plantations, so far from hav- 
ing that gardenesque character which they are intended to have, 
will resemble mere commonplace masses of shrubbery; the 
boundary will be seen from every point of view ; the eye will 
penetrate the interior in all directions ; and the effect of the whole, 
as a work of art, will be destroyed. 

Bayswaiery Oct. 26. 1835. 



LIST OF TREES AND SHRUBS PROPOSED TO BE PLANTED IK. 





L JRpergfreen Trees atid tall Evergreen Shrubs, 






Kain 


Naof 




Nain 


No. of 


^ 


Phm. 


PlaaU 


Prtcfe 
1. d. 


Plan. 


P)tnti« 


Price. . 
I *., d. 


1. 


Quercus T^lex - - 64? 


64 


5, Q. Cerris dentata 


- 13 


t32. ,6 


«. 


^Tuber . - 1 


2 4 


6, , virens 


- « 


3 


.^ «T 


Turner* - . . - 6 


15 


,, 7j , BpnfetP^.- 


- I 


A 1. 6 


• K 


1 .%.^«}W^« . '\\9 


*3^ro9 


; 8f T^sbacc^ta ,, 


- 3 

1 


4 6 



XBitk<a Priced I4st -of the Ttees and SkhiAs. 



01 



Va in 



Naof 
Ftonti. 



9. T^xus bacc. hibernica 1 

10. «7unipenis virginiana 4 

11. recfirva - - 1 
19.- saeciea - - 1 
la Tliuja oocideotalb - 2 

14. orientMis - •2 

15. Cupressus /hyoides - 1 

16. sempenno'ens - 3 

17. sem. borizont&lfe 3 

18. ludt&nica- - 6 

19. Piauspumilio - -2 

20. Pinkster - - 5 

21. Pinea - - 2 

22. Cembra . - 2 
2a Chdrus Libkii . . 2 

24. Magnolia srandifldra 2 

25. Zaurus nobilis - 4 

26. Mahoma i4cniif61ium 2 

27. />lex ilquifeUum, in 

▼ariecies - 20 

28. bale^ica - • 1 

29. recfirva - - 1 

30. opkca - ^ - 1 
31« Hhamnus i^lat^rnuB - 3 



xncc 


2 


6 


4 





+! 


6 
6 


1 





2 





2 



3 


tl 
7 



6 


+5 





•3 


9 


+1 


6 


6 





7 





10 





4 





t21 





50 





tl 
2 


6 
6 


1 


6 


3 








PncK,' 




#•' 


d. 


32. CTlex europaeX double 2 


tl 


€ 


33. iSb4rtium^'uncenni - I 

34. Genista virgata - 1 





6 


1 


6 


35. Photfnia semil^ta « 2 


5 





36. J^pleunim frutlcdBuin S 


4 


6 


37. Escallonta riibra - 2 


t3 





38. Aucuba japdnicsL - 6 


9 





39. Arbutus CTnedo - 6 


4 


6 


40. h^brida - - 8 


7 





41. ^ricasp. - -^ 12 

42. /Rhododendron sp. - 20 


18 





60 





43. Phill^ea sp. - - 6 


6 





44. Z/igustnim yulg. sem- 






pervbrens • 2 





6 


45. luciduin - •* 2 


5 





46. ^uxus balearica •• 2 


3 





47. sempervirens - 20 


10 





48. j^milax Aspera ' - 1 


*2 





49. iRuacus acaleaUM * I 





6 


50. raeemdnm - 1 





6 


51. Fttcos gloriosa . - 2 


tl5 






I 



Total number, 270.' £22 19to.' 



II. Deciduous Trees, or taU Shrtibsy including some Evergreens, 



52. Magndlta glauca 

53. Tbompsoniana - 

54. acuminata 

55. cordata 

56. auricula 

57. conspicua • 

58. SoulangeaTta « 

59. obovata (purpurea) 

60. grdcilis 

61. Liriod^ndron Tulipifera 

62. Malachod^dron ova- 

tun^ ... 

63. Stuartta virginica 

64. -4^cer C/pulus - 
64a. rubrum - -6 

65. monspessulanum 

66. ^^sculus rubic6nda 
d7. Kvia discolor 

68. rubra 

69. flava 

70. humilis -* 

71. Kolreuthta paniculkta 

72. Xanth^ylum fnai- 
. ^ neuirt' - - . 
'73. Pteleatrifolikta 
,74/St^hyleabtf61^ . 
/75i ; pmnita - r. 

76; JSd^nymus feitfdtJi^W ,^ 
' 77* ' ^ latifoliui ' ^.^^^'" ^ " W 



3 

t7 
2 

5 

7 

7 

10 

2 

2 

1 



6 
6 
6 

6 
6 
6 
6 
6 




3 


6 


3 


6 


tl 





1 





1 





2 


6 


2 


6 


tl 


6 


1 


6 


tl 


6 


1 


6 


1 





tl 





1 





i; 





>ll 





^ l8 


6 



78. Prloos dedduus - I 

79. Paliurus acule^tus t 1 

80. iRh&mnus cath&rtieus 1 



81. alpinus 

82. Franffttla •- 

83. latifoBus - 



84. Aristoteita Maeqd • 1 

85. -Rhus typhina - 

86. i&MMD^dra japdnica 

87. Vii^lKfl iulea - 

88. C^tisttS Xrabumum - 2 

89. X. ^uerdf&lium 1 

90. alpkus - - 2 

91. Robf nia PseM-ilc^cid 

umbracullfera 1 

92. hlspida - - 2 
9a viscosa - - 2^ 

94. Caragdna arbor^scens 1 

95. Halimodetidron ar> 

g^nteum - - 1 

96« Collated arbor^scens - 1 

97. Gledltschta sinensis - 1 

98. hdrrida - - 1 

99. Gynttidbladus cana^' 

densis - - . - 1 

loo.* tefcis iSiliquastruria -^' I 
10 U' Aidygdaliis communliV 

rt 1 *^r macroc^fpd -* 1 



2 6 

9 

r ♦a 

& 9 

1 o 

tl 

1 

1 6 

2 6 

6 

1 6 
*1 

1 6 

I 6 

1 6 

1 6 

2 6 

1 
t2 6 

2 « 

.2, 6 

'i*^fe 

8* 



c 3 



22 



Public Garden Jin' a Corporate Town^ 



No. in Na of 

Flan. Plants. 

102. i^rmeniaca vulgaris - 1 

103. Cerasus avium and 

double flower- 
ing - - 2 

104. nigra 

105. semperflorens - 

106. smilkta, double- 

flowering 

107. Mahdleb - 

108. Pkdus 

109. carolinikna 

110. Iusit4nica - 2 

111. Lauroc^rasus - 2 

112. cerasifera * 

113. ili^spilus grandiflora 

114. Cratse^gus coccinea - 

115. cocc. corallina « 

116. cocc. m&xima - 

117. cocc. indentata - 

1 18. glandulosa 

119. macracantha - 

120. subvilldsa- 

121. j5yrif6lia - 

122. punctata flkva - 

123. punc. rubra 

124. Criis-gilli 

125. C-g&l. orbutifolia 

126. C. oyracanths- 

fblia - . 

127. C. fdicifl^lia - 

128. C. ovalif61ia - 

129. C. /irunifdlia - 

130. nigra 

131. purpi^rea - 

132. Douglastt- 

133. alt^ca 

134. flkva 

135. lobdta - 

136. trilobkta - 

137. opiifolia m^'or - 

138. cordkta - 

139. mexid^a - 

140. Axarohu - 

141. Ar6nia 

142. tanacedf51ia 

143. tan. gltkbra 

144. odoratissima - 

145. orient^is 

146. heteroph^Ua • 

147. spathulata 

148. oxyacanthoides - 

149. Oxyacdntba reginae 

150. Oxy, siMrica - 

151. O-xy, pree^cox - 

152. Oxy. r6flea 

153. Oxy, rdsea aup^rba 



Price. 
s, d, 
2 



3 
•2 

2 6 

4 

1 6 

9 

1 6 
t2 

6 

1 6 
1 6 
1 6 

tl 6 
♦2 
*2 
4 6 
*2 
*2 
1 6 
1 
6 
6 
6 



♦2 



\ 



\ 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 

♦2 
*2 
6 
6 

*2 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 

6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



Nain 
Plan. 



No. of 

Plants. 



54. C* Oxyadintbafl.pleno 

55. Oxy. Celstana - 

56. Oxy, nielanoc4rpa 

57. Oxy. rigida 

58. lacmi^ta 

59' Cotoneaster frfgida - 

60. aff'inis 

6 1. Nmnmiittxia • 

62. AmelamMer ovMis • 

63. Botrvt^ium 

64. P^rus boIlw^Ueriana 
""" ralicifolia - 

nivalis 

spectdbilis 

/)runif61ia - 

baccata - 

coron^ria - 

angu8tif61ia 

torminalis 

A'ntL 

intermedia 

vestita 



65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 
70. 
71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
79. 



aucupana 
amenckna 



domestica 
spuria 

80. Cydonia sinensis 

81. nbCimum O^pulus - 

82. Lantana - 

83. jvyrifolium 

84. iSiambucus racemdsa - 

85. C6mus &lba 

86. sanguinea • 

87. m&s ... 

88. Halesta tetriptera • 

89. dfptera . 

90. Diosp^ros Xrotus 

91. virginiana - 

92. O'mus europs^a 

93. Catdlpa st/rmg€Bf6\ML 

94. N^ssa aquatica 

95. /ripp6phae rhamnoides 

96. j&^la»^nus an^ustifolia 

97. B6rya /igustnna 

98. Maclura aurantiaca - 

99. Broussonetfapapyrifera 

200. Afdrus tatarica 

201. Celtis Toumef6rtfli - 

202. Planers Richirdt - 

203. Qu6rcu8 palustris - 

204. i^agus americ^na pur- 

purea . . * 

205. Castanea pi^mila 

206. C6rylu8 Columa 

207. O'strya vulgJiris 

208. ^^tula pj^mila - 



Pftee. 
1. d, 
1 6 



♦2 

♦2 

♦2 

I 






6 



1 6 
1 6 



1 
1 



6 

6 



1 6 

fl 6 

1 6 

1 6 

1 6 

i 6 

*2 

I 6 

1 6 

1 6 

1 

1 6 

1 6 

6 

1 6 
*2 

tl 6 

I 6 



1 
1 








1 

to 9 

9 

9 

9 

1 
1 6 
1 6 
1 6 
1 6 

1 6 

2 6 
1 
1 
1 6 

1 6 

2 6 
1 6 

♦3 

tl 

♦2 



1 

♦2 

t2 6 

♦2 

to 6 



mth a Priced List of the Trees and Shrubs. 



2S 



17a in 
FIm. 



Naof 
FUntt. 



209. il'lnuscordiita- - 1 

210. iS^alix pent4ndra - 1 

211. Pl&tamiB cunedta - 1 

212. LiquicUimbarStyraciflua 1 

213. imb^rbe - - 1 



Price. 1 


«. 


rf. 


♦2 





♦1 





1 


6 


tl 


6 


1 


6 



No. in 
Ptan. 



NaoT I 
Pluiu Price 



214. Amamyis yirgf nica 1 

215. Salisbikria adiantifblia 1 

216. Tax6dium distichiim 1 



I 
1 
1 




6 




Total number, 178. j£l4 19f. 9d. 



217. 
218. 
219. 
220. 

221. 
222. 
223. 
224. 
225. 
226. 
227. 
228. 

229. 

230. 
231. 
232. 
233. 

Adv. 

235. 
236. 
237. 

238. 

239. 

240. 

241. 

242. 

243. 

244. 

245. 

246. 

247. 

248. 

249. 

249a. 

250. 

251. 

252. 

253. 

254. 

255. 

256. 

257. 

258. 

259. 



III. Dcdduout Shrubs, including tome Evergreens^ 

Cytisus sessilifolius - 
trifl6rus - 
purpureus 
supinus 
ural^nsis - 
Amdrpha fruticdsa - 

Lewlstt 
Caragdna AUagdna - 
Chamldgu 
frut^cens 
pyj^mae^a - 
spmosa 

^ragacanthdides 
Cal6pbaca wolg^rica 
Colutea crudnta 
Poc6cktt - 
Coronflla E'merus - 
i^m^gdalus nana 
Priinus CocondUa 
Ci^rasus piimila 
depr^ssa - 
prostrata *> 
jap(5nica plena - 
chin^nsis - 
CVatse^gus vfridis 
virsinica - 
Coton^ster vul^ons 
Ameldnchier vulgaris 
Ardnia orbutifolia - 
meIanoc4rpa 
floribunda 
L6wea (i26sa) berberi' 

f61ia . 
i?68a, 12 sp. - - 12 
i^^bus spectdbilis 
odorktus 
nutk^us - 
Potentilla frudcosa - 
Kerrta jap6nica 
5pirs^a opulifolia 
ttlmitoiia - 
chamaedrifolia - 
b^lla - - 4 

trilobata - 
^bfdictrdides 
corymbosa 
IsBvi^ata • 
#alicif61ia - 

xy 4 



Xanthorbiza opiifolia 


1 


1 





260. 


Calyc&ntbus fldridus 


6 


9 





261. 


Chiinondnthus fraerans 6 


21 





262. 


frag, grandinorus 








263. 


& frag, luteus 
Berberis vul^uis 
eroareinata 
canadensis 


6 


+45 





264. 




1 




9 


265. 




*1 


6 


266. 




1 


6 


267. 


siuensis - 




1 


6 


268. 


aristfita - 




2 


6 


269. 


cretica 




*2 


6 


270. 


dstus, 12 species - 


12 


18 





271. 


HeMntbemum, 12 








272. 


sorts » . . 


12 


18 





273. 


iTibiscus syrlacus, 12 








274. 


sorts ... 


12 


18 





275. 


i/ypericum elktum - 




I 





276. 


hircinum - 




1 





277. 


kalmtffnum 




1 





278. 


calycinum 







9 


279. 


prolificum 




♦1 


6 


280. 


Corikria myrtifolia - 




tl 





281. 


PHnos lanceolhtus - 




*2 





282. 


jSh&mnus Clusti and its 






283. 


varieties 


6 


6 





284. 


Cean6thus americanus 




1 


6 


285. 


Rhi}& Cotinus - 




1 


6 


286. 


glabra 




1 





287. 


v^mix 




1 


6 


288. 


radicans - 




1 





289. 


Toxicodendron - 




1 





290. 


aromatica 




♦2 





291. 


suaveolens 




1 







IMpt&nthus nepal^sis 
Criex nana 




*2 


6 



292. 
293. 


bib^mica - 




1 


6 


294. 


iSip&rtiumjiinceum - 







6 


295. 


junc. flore pleno - 




t2 


6 


296. 


Genista c&ndicans - 




1 





297. 


tricf^uetra - 




1 


6 


298 


radiata 




tl 


6 


299. 


lusitdnica " 




1 


6 


300. 


anglica 




♦2 





301. 


virgata 




tl 


6 


302. 


tinctdria •> 




1 





303. 


sagittalis - 




1 





«SUy. 


prostrata 




*2 





305. 


C^tisus nigricans 




1 


6 


306. 



t 
t 

♦2 



#5 



6 
6 
6 




6 
6 
6 
6 
6 

6 
6 
6 

6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 

*2 6 
2 6 
t3 6 
1 
1 6 
I 6 



♦2 



t2 



1 
1 



1 
1 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 




6 



♦2 6 
18 



6 




1 6 
1 6 








6 





1 
1 



21 



J^lic Garden f^ H Corporaie T&wn^ 



No. In Na of 

VtalL- Ftantt. 



307. iS'pirae'a lalidfi&l. alba 1 

308. tomentdia - 1 

309. ariselblia - - 2 

310. TYunarix dillica - 1 

311. gennanica - 1 

312. Philad^phiu coro- 

n^us - • 1 

313. floribundns - 1 

314. vemicdsiui - 1 

315. erandifldrus - 1 

316. hirsiktus - • 1 

317. ^dlis - - 1 

318. inodorUs - - 1 

319. RibeSf 20 ornamental 

sorts - - 20 

330. ArJQia Bpindsa - * 1 

321. Lonicera alpfgena - 1 

322. cflenlklea - - 1 
S2a Xyl6steum - 1 
324;. tatarica - - 2 

325. nigra • - 1 

326. Symphoria glomei^ta 1 

327. racenma - * 1 

328. Diervilia hi!kmilM - 1 

329. riburnum dentlktum - 1 

330. Isvigatum - 1 

331. nildum • - 1 

332. Tinud - • 12 

333. lucidum . 12 

334. C6rnu8 allerni^tia - 1 

335. panicul^Lta - 1 

336. stricta - - 1 

337. seHcea • - 1 

338. fl6rida - - 1 

339. Hydrangea arbor^s- 

cens - - - 1 

340. Cephal4nthu8 occi- 

dentalis - - 1 

341. J?dccharis Aalimif6Ua 1 

342. i^rtemlsia i4br6tanum 1 

343. siblrica - - 1 

344. raccinium, 12 sorts - 12 

345. Oxyc6ccus, 2 sorts - 2 

346. i^rctostaphylos ITva 

ursi - - - 1 

347. Andr6i(kied<i, 12 sorts 12 
34a Cldthra alnifdlia - 1 



Pitafc 1 


«. 


d. 


•2 





to 


9 


5 





1 





1 





1 





*2 


6 


*2 


6 


1 





tl 





1 





to 


9 


30 





2 


6 


1 


6 


1 





1 





2 





1 





1 





1 





1 





1 





1 





1 





9 


0. 


tl2 





1 





1 





1 





1 





1 





1 


6 


1 





1 


6 


to 


4 


*1 





36 





2 


6 


1 


6 


24 





1 


6 



Nain 



No. of 
Plantf. 



349. Clethra tomeatAto • 1 

350. panicul^ta • 1 

351. aoumimbta « 1 

352. CaUuna, 6 sorts - 6 

353. £r2ca, 12 sorts • 12 

354. Menzi^sfo, 6 sorts - 6 

355. K&lmta, 2 sorts *- 12 

356. JThoddni canad^niis - 6 

357. AzMea, 20 sorts - 20 

358. JLedum paltistre • 1 

359. rtCB, virginica - - 1 

360. St^TBX gnmdifolium • 1 

361. J^um^Iia tenax * 1 

362. Chion4nthus virgfnica 1 
336. FontanesMi /ihiUyrae- 

bldeB 1 

364. Zrigiistrum vulgkre 

semperrlrara *» 1 

365. Syrhga vulgkris 61ba 2 

366. vol. purpt^rea - 2 

367. chinensis - - 2 

368. p^rsica - ^2 

369. t/asminam fHlitioans • 2 

370. hi^mile - - 2 

371. officiniile - - 2 

372. rinca minor - - 6 

373. mkjor - -6 

374. Buddlea globdsa * I 

375. /Rosmarinus officinalis 6 
276. ritex i^'gnus-distus - 1 

377. .4'triplex Mlimus - 1 

378. Dirca palustris - 1 

379. XMiphne Mezireum - 20 

380. autumn^lis - 20 

381. Sheph^rdf0 arg^ntea I 

382. £uph6rbta amygdaio- 

ides - - - 1 

383. Cliaracias- - 1 

384. Comptonia aspleniifdlia 1 

385. Ephedra distachya - 1 

386. «7iinlperus ^abina - 1 

387. iSbilax 6spera - -1 
387a. Fothergilla alnifdlia 1 
3876. Double roses 100 
387c. China roses - 100 



PrlM: 

s, d, 

1 € 

1 6 

1 « 
♦7 6 
18 

♦12 

30 

9 

60 

2 6 

1 6 
*5 
tl 6 

2 6 



3 
2 
2 

2 
2 



2 
3 
3 











1 6 

2 









1 6 

2 
1 6 

1 6 

3 6 
10 

*30 

2 6 

*1 6 

*1 6 

1 6 

1 6 

1 

tl 

1 6 

75 

50 



Total number, 537. j£40 2#. \d. 



IV. Climbers, Creepers, and TraUers, 



388; Clematis Flammula » 



389. 


Vit&lba . 


89a 


Vi6ma • « 


391.' 


' fl6rida * 


392;. 


Vitic^lla » V 


893? 


• calycinft '« . 



1 
1 
1 

2 
1 
1 



1 





to 


9 


•1 





t3 





1 


-0 


2 


-6 



394. i^trag^e alpina 

395. siblrica - 
396i M^nisp^rmtikn canap* 

dtens^ - • 
397^ AmpeMpsis Aederacea 1 
3981 - bipmnktft^ . • 1 



- 1 



tl 6 
•2 



1 


t2 





€1 
6 



with a Piieed lAstqftkB lree$dnd Sktubs. 



S3 



No. in 
Flu. 



Naof 
PUmts. 



899. FMs laciHiSaa^ < 1 

M). Xabruis^ca - « 1 

ML Cel6strus scdodens - 1 

402. Wistai^ Cansequima S 

1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 

• 1 



403.' 


frut^sceas 


404v 
405. 


C\49rif61ium Jepdnioion 
flexuosum 


406. 


italicum ** 


407. 


diofcum - • 


408. 
409. 


gratum 
lavum 


410. 


hirai^tum (pnbes* 




cens) 



Prte. 1 


«. 


^. 


2 


6 


*2 





1 


6 


5 





5 





2 


6 


1 


6 


1 





1 


6 


t^ 


6 


+2 


6 


2 


6 



Main 



Naof 
Plants. 



41 L Cap. semperrireiis •• 1 

412* implexum ** 1 

413. Periclymenum - 1 

414. JTedera ITelix pafanibta 2 

415. caDarienais • 2 

416. Periploca grasses • 1 

41 7. Bigndoiei radicans - 1 

418. capreoUita • I 

419. 2^;^iuin b&rbarum • 1 

420. chin^nae • - 1 

421. i^ristoldchia sipho - 1 



Pfioe 
s. tL 
I « 
1 




\ 



2 

1 6 

1 6 

1 6 

2 6 
1 

*1 « 

1 6 



Total number, 40. j^ 2s, 6d. 



y. Select Trees and Shryhs^ to be scattered, as single SpedmenSy on the Turf. 



422. ChimoiiaDthua fra- 

giraiis •• - 1 

423* LeiixTus Betmom - 1 

424. Sassafras - 1 

425« Berberis tlicifolia - 1 

426. Mahonia ^quifiolium 1 

427. JEnblscus syrlacus 

purpureus • 1 

428. s. purpureus flore 

pl^no - - 1 

429. Pavia discolor - 1 

430. Paliurus aculeatus - 1 

431. Ceanothus azureus - 1 

432. Pbitacia Xreotiscus - 1 

433. JRh^s Cotinus * - 1 

434. If'le:}^ europae^a flore 

pleno - - - 1 

435. Cytisus Z^aburDum 

pendulum - - 1 

436. Koblnta Pseud- Jcacia 

crfspa - - - 1 

437. Caragdna Chamlcigu • 1 

438. /ragacanthoides 1 

439. Haiimodendron ar* 

g^nteum - - 1 

440. Caldphaca wolg^ica 1 

441. O^rasus semperflorens 1 

442. serrulata - - 1 

443. Photinia serrulata - 1 

444. Ck>tofie&ster rotundi- 

folia - - 1 

445. microph^lla - 1 

446. Pyrus sinaica - -1 

447. Cydonia sinensis - 1 

448. RoBSL, 12 select sorts, 

climbers < - 12 

449. Bibes sangufnaim * I 

450. Escalldnta rikbra * li 

451. Arkliacpnosa •- ''.l 
4t62» Aucuba^apdom" *• 1 



3 6 

1 6 

3 6 

flO 6 

*7 6 

1 

2 6 
2 6 
2 6 
2 6 

*5 

1 6 

1 6 

t2 6 

t2 6 

1 6 

*5 

2 6 
2 6 
2 6 
2 6 
2 6 

9. 6 

2 6 

t2 6 

1 6 

24 

' 1 15 

fl 6 

I/- 2 8 
1-8 



453 

454. 
455. 
456. 
457. 
458* 

459. 
460. 
461. 
462. 
46a 
464. 
465. 



466. 



467. 
468. 
469. 
470. 
471. 
472. 
473. 
474. 
475. 
476. 
477. 
478. 
479. 
480. 
481. 
482i 
48a 
484; 
485> 



ilrctost&phylos U^ 

ursi m m ^ 
^'rbutus CTnedo. 

h;^brida * 
^rica auatray^ 

mediterr^aea 

iihododendron c ataw- 

)Mn$» ** 

pdnticum - 
Azalea p6ntica 

nudifldra - 

viscosa 
Halesia teOr^pteni • 
ZHospyros l^dtus 
2<Vdxinus 0'mus(0'r*. 
nus europae^a), /eii» 
tiscifolia, exc^ior 
jaspidea* and ^cel* 
sior pendula - 4 

Fontanesia j9hiUyra». 
oides . . » 
2^ig(istrum luddiun • 
Dlrca palustris 
2>aphne Mezerettm •* 

Cneorum - 

coUina 

TdrtoH'-raira 
"N^ssa aqudtica 
Inppophae rhamnoides 
Puxus bale&rica 
Borya %6strina 
Maclura aurantiaca - 
Qii^rcus vtrens 

iSiiiber 

coccifera *■ ' ** 

Pallota * 

gramiintia ' 

^^gilops - 

Banisteri •♦..'«' 
' ^sculus '• 



-./ 



• • 





1 


8 




1 







2 


8 




+ 1 


8 




1 

1 


8 


4 


'10 





4 










1 


8 




2 


8 




2 


8 




1 







1 


8 



l-«> 



6 



1 


1 


6 




2 


8 


1 


3 


8 




1 







tl 


8 




2 


8 




2 


8 




1 


6 




1 







1 


8 




1 


6 




1 


8 




2 


6 




2 


6 




2 


8 




*3 







2 


8 




*7 


8 




2s 


6 




2>. 


6 



26 



Description of Woodbine Cottage^ Torquay ^ 



Main 
Flaa 



Naof 



486. Oist&nea pi^mila • 1 

487. C6rylu8 i^vell^a rubra 1 

488. illnus oblongata - 1 

489. glutinosalacinifita 1 

490. oxyacanthaefolia 1 

491. JFamam^is virginica 1 

492. Saiisbiiria odiantifolia 1 

493. T^xus bacckta hiber- 

nica - - - 1 

494. Tazodium distichum 

pendulum . . 1 

495. JBrphedra distachya - 1 



Price. 1 


«• 


d. 


•2 





+0 


9 


•5 





1 


6 


tl 





1 





2 


6 


2 


6 


13 


6 


1 


6 



No. in No. of 
Plan. Plants. 


Price. 
s, d. 


496. t/unfperus iSSablna fol. 








vaneg. - 
497. recurya 


1 


•2 


6 
6 


498. Pinus Inops 

499. TVe'da - 




2 
2 


6 
6 


500. Cembra - 




2 


6 


501. if bies Clanbrasiltana 




3 


6 


502. Pfcea spectibilis 

503. DougUbti 

504. jR68cu8 hypogldssum 

505. Kucca, 12 sorts 


12 


t21 
15 

1 
*40 









Total number, 115. j£l5 lU. &£. 



VI. Supplementary List 

When all the above are planted, then the blanks which remain should be 
up with the following species : — 

ribumum Tinus ; large plants. Is. each ; small plants, per 25, 20s, 
J9(ixus sempervirens arbor^scens ; large plants, ]s, each; small plants, per 

25, 2Qs. 
Cerasus serrulata. Is, 6d, each. 

/Mex i^quifblium ; good plants, 2s, 6d, each ; small plants, per 25, 50«. 
^^<cu^ jap6nica; good plants. Is, 6d, each; small plants, per 25, 20«. 
Chimonanthus frt^^wis, Ss, 6d, each. 
Oaprifolium flexudsum. Is, 6d, each. 

Rwes sangulneum ; good plants. Is. 6d, each ; small plants, per 25, 25#. 
i^irse^a arisefblia, 2s, 6d, each, 
if ^cer riibrum. Is, each. 

Recapitulation, 



I. Bvergreen trees, &c, 
IL Deciduous trees, &c. 

III. Deciduous shrubs 

IV. Climbers 

V. Select trees and shrubs 
VI. Supplementaries, say 



Naof 
Plants. 


£ 


Price. 
s. 


d. 


272 


22 


19 





178 


14 


19 


9 


537 


40 


2 


I 


40 


3 


2 


6 


115 


15 


11 


3 


100 


5 








1242 


101 


14 


7 



The prices in the above list are for plants of the smallest size, and for ready 
money. The manner in which they were procured was, by first sending the 
list to one nurseryman, and asking him to fill in the column of prices for all 
those species of which he had actually plants in his pounds. All those prices 
to which no mark is prefixed were thus obtained. The list was next sent to 
another nurseryman, who filled in those preceded by a dagger (f); and the 
remaining prices, distinguished by a star (*), were filled in by ourselves, from a 
knowledge of the gardens where they are to be procured at those prices. 



Art. V. Description of Woodbine Cottage^ Torquay^ the Residence 
of Mrs. Joknes. By Mn John Gullet, Gardener there. 

The extent of the grounds of this much admired and most 
romaiitic place is about seven acres, on a declivity towards the 



the Residence of Mrs. Johnes, 27 

south-south-west ; and, twelve years since, it was what we call 
in Devonshire a furze brake ; or it might, perhqis, be more prcv 
perly called a furze down, with a great part of it a barren rock. 
In the year 1823, Mrs. Jobnes took a &ncy to build and plant; 
and the cottage she has erected is certainly the prettiest thing I 
have ever seen* From the drawingroom, at the east end, we 
enter a pretty conservatory, 40 ft. long by 15ft. wide, full of 
choice creepers, with canted glasses, reflecting the whole three 
ways. From this we proceed to the flower-garden, in front of 
the house, which is 60 yards by 30 yards, with a fountain in 
front of the drawingroom window, and laid out in beds of dif- 
ferent forms. Here are all the species of magnolia, which do 
well ; rhododendrons, which make no great growth, but flower 
profbsely ; myrtles, geraniums, camellias, Pitt6sporum TMrOf 
CUthra arb6rea, Y&ca aloi'f&lia, now coming in bloom; and 
Agslve americana ; all of which do well in the open air, without 
protection. Salvias, except S. spl^ndens, are also all found quite 
hardy perennials; and in some seasons they become quite hardy 
shrubs, not being injured with the frost. The Cinnam6mum 
CdrnphorOf against the wall, is quite hardy ; the Ribes sanguineum, 
as a dwarf shrub, standing on the grass plot, fruits to great per* 
fection, producing bunches of beautiful blue fruit, 5 in. long. 
From the flower-garden we ascend the grounds by winding walks, 
almost forming a labyrinth : in one of those walks I have a 
vinery, which answers also as a green-house, formed in a lime- 
stone quarry; which, with the natural rock, and other kinds of 
rock that I have introduced, completes a rock house, in which 
are plunged my plants. In this house the Psidium Cattleyantun 
fruits to perfection without fire heat ; the situation being so fap« 
vourable, that I have had no occasion to light a fire but once for 
five years, and then only for a few hours, to air the flue. My 
oranges in this house, I think, are as fine as you ever saw. You 
may think I boast by saying this ; but, should you visit Devon- 
shire at any time, I should be very proud to show them to vou. 
Here I have the cactus tribe in great perfection, suspended from 
the roof by wire ; being of a decided opinion it is much to their 
advantage, and it also keeps them from those enemies the snail 
and slug. From this green-house we ascend, by winding walks^ 
to a grass terrace, from which we have the most beautifiil 
picturesque views in nature. At our ieet, as it were, we have 
Torbay, the finest of the kind in the kingdom ; on the opposite 
side is a fine landscape of hill and dale, woods and vil Wes« 
In the back-gi*ound, fifteen miles distant, is the famous High 
Tor, and its neighbouring hills of Dartmoor, forming a most 
beautiful evening scene. At one end of this terrace I have a 
small garden in the French style, the beds of which are edged 
with sheep's trotters, which gives it a neat appearance. In ^this 
pkoe I have a moss house, paved with sbeep*s trotters in various 



2S List of Ptaces/pvnt which JteiUrn Papers 

devices, mitials, date of year, 8cc. ; and a table in the middle, 
coveted with fir cones, and edged with the same. Here I have 
displayed my winter evenings' amusements, all kinds of figures, 
irom the elephant down to the little mouse, made of fir cones, 
the produce of my own growth and labour. Imagine to your- 
self a Highland shepherd, with lambs in his bosom, and a shep- 
herdess with her pet lamb, with a flock surrounding them, 
frightened, as it were, with a fox and hounds in full chase. In 
another part I have imitated a farm-yard, where the maid is 
milking her cows, and an old woman feeding her geese ; the 
geese, as well as the old woman, appearing quite frightened : for 
here the fox is run up, and the huntsman is seen windirig his 
horn. In another part is a Devonshire plough^ drawft by four 
oxen, with a man driving, &c. ; all made of the same rhoterial. 
Suspended from the roof, by way of lamp, is the ehiblem of 
peace, a dove with the olive branch in its mouth, surrounded by 
a flock of canaries, suspended, also, from the roof. By means of 
vistas cut through the trees, we see, from the moss house, the 
entrance to Torbay from the Channel, Berry Head, Sic. 

From this we turn into another terrace, 300 yards longj with 
borders of dahlias and other flowers on each side, leading to a- 
grass-plot of three quarters of an acre, with beds for roses, cis- 
tuses, helianthemums, stocks, and various other things. Here 
we are feiicefd' itt with a wrought-iron paling, 700 ft. long, allow- 
ing a public path on the outside, which is a great accommodation 
to the inhabitants of Torquay. Here, also, is situated my little 
cottage, commanding a beautiful view of the bay, and also of the 
Channel, the envy of all who see it. A few paces from this, on 
the top of the hill, we have a panoramic view of the country and 
Channel to a great extent, including many of the Dartmoor hills, 
reaching, as it were, to the clouds. 



Art. VI. A List of the Places in Great Britain and Ireland Jrom 
vjhich Return Papers have Been received for the Arboretum Bri- 
TANNicuM, up to the 2Ut ofNovembery 1835. By the Conductor. 

Notwithstanding the immense number of Return Papers 
(that is, of skeletou lists of trees on four folio pages, headed as 
shown in X. 582.) which we have sent out in all directions, 
we have as yet received papers back from those places only the 
names . of which are enumerated in the following list. We 
publish this list in order that, by oaaking known the places from 
which we hay;e rec^iv^d returns, those proprietors or gi^rden^d. 
from yihpv^ we have not received the»(l, but wba are friepdiy . tjOi 
our un^i^aJ^Pgi wi^ rtiU .ha«ei, an flppc^tui^ity of s^i^g, 
Sppa^ al§^,iyj;K> h^fe sf»tJig|sci(jhj}OTaeljyes,i,or j|<^ho,b^ye,o 
tr^(5>fi^;itl|ai] tbi?3£ahinkeWP^lbjbDfe lK>fcm3 m^: S§t iiii«CQM§rtxtbftt,». 



have been received for the " Arboreiun^ ^itd^nicum,^ 29 

number of places celebrated for their trees we omitted. Wn 
should be :greatly obliged to such persons if they would write 
to the gardener at such places on our behalf; or inform us of 
the Qame of the place, and that of its proprietor or gardener, 
in order that we ipay send Return Papers thither ourselves. 

Our readers will bear in mind, that we wish to know the height^ 
and number of years planted, of all foreign trees whatever that 
have been more than ten years standing in any one place; and 
tiie, height^ and circumference of the trunks at a foot from the 
gl'ound, of all indigenous trees in any way remarkable for their 
age, height, breadth, or rapidity of growth. 
, It would be of great use to us to know the height and girt, at 
a foot from the ground, of the largest oak, ash, elm, sycamore, 
&c^. iu the grounds or park of every country seat throughout 
Great Britain and Ireland ; with the kind of soil and subsoil on 
which the trees stand; their exposure, and their probable age* 
Surely, it cannot give much trouble to any gardeaer or forester 
to send us this information. The height may be taken by a 
practical man, with sufficient accuracy for our purpose, by the 
ey^; and the circumference of the trunk at a foot from the 
ground, by passing a string round it, and sending ufi the length 
of the string ; or if this be too much trouble, the diameter of the 
truok may be estimated by the eye, as well as the heigbt of the tree* 

As we find that we shall be able, by publishing double numbers, 
to finish the Arboretum on the 1st of June iiext, : whatever in- 
formation maybe sent to us (and we shall be. glad of hints on 
propagation, culture, uses, the formation of plantaUoas, fences, 
&C., because our object is to produce a complete Evtyclopadia of 
Arboriculture) should be received by the 1st of March. In the 
Gard. Mag. for April a supplementary list to this now given will 
be published ; and, when the Arboretum^ or rather Enq/clopccdiaf 
is finished, both lists will be incorporated into one, and the name 
of the proprietor, and (where it is known) that also of the gar- 
dener or forester who prepared the list, will be added, and the 
whole published, in a tabular form, in that work. 

We may take this opportunity of mentioning that, through the 
kindness of a wealthy and distinguished individual, who volun- 
teered to have a number of full-grown trees drawn for us at his 
own expense, we are enabled to render the work far more com- 
plete than we at first contemplated ; by giving, in addition to the 
portraits of trees of ten years' growth, to the scale of a quarter 
of an inch to a foot, portraits of full-grown trees of one or more 
species of all the principal genera. These full-grown trees are 
ditiawn to a 'Scale of a quartet of an inch to Sft. ; and^ as a spe« 
cbnen df •^hefm we gi^ Pivftf fMva^ {fig*^*) Fig. 3. is a tree of 
t« 5^«liirs''gro#lhj'<yf iche mounuiih ash (^^bug aif^pdiia), to 
» iE^e^df a qoaitiei^'df attt inch' to k id^^ The botanlcat specie 
m^i at the fobt ^oF h^ ti^MQJreitO' tbe^WBafe ttP % ^ W-e^^d&C 



The yeWovr-flowered (Pavia) HoreeclieBtnut. 




Specimens of TVeet in the " Arboretum Britanniaim." S t 



The Fowler's Serrice, or the Mountain Ath, tree. 




39 List tf Places Jrom which Retwn Papers 

*^* In thefMffming Listy all those residences marked with a * 
are supposed to have arboretums ; those with a f appear to have ex* 
tensive collections^ and all the others have trees and shrubs, more or 
less remarkable. From all we have received back the Return Papers 
we sent, or letters containing the dimensions, age, and other par- 
tiadars of their trees : and, besides the above, we have received in- 
cidental notices of several single trees standing at places, the names 
qfvohich are not here given. 



ENGLAND, 

BedfordMre. *Flitwick House, ♦Woburn Abbey, f South-hill, Ampthill. 

Berkshire. Ditlon Park, fHieh Clere, *White Knights, fDropmore 
(pinetum), Englefield Green, Wallnampton. 

Buckinghamshire, f Temple House, Harleyford. 

Cambridgeshire. *c!ambndge Botanic Garden, Christ College, St. John's 
College, (&nlingay, Maddiugley, Wimpole. 

Cheshire. Cholmondeley, Tabley Hall, * Eaton Hall, f Kinmel Park, St. 
Asaph Deanery, f Dickson's Nursery. 

Cornwall. Fort Elliot, Carclew, Heligan. 

Cumberland, Ponsonby Hall. 

Derbyshire. *Chat8worth, Hassop, Kedleston, Bretby Hall, Osmaston Hall, 
St. Helens, Markeaton. 

Devonshire. fKillerton, fVeitch's Nursery, fLuscombe, fBystock, Hal- 
don House, Saltram Gardens, + Endsleigh Cottage, f Mamhead, Brochill, 
^Bicton, Heanton Satchville, Grdston, Pnmley Hill, Woodbine Cottage. 

Dorsetshire, Melbury, Sherborne Castle, Lewiston, Abbotsbury Castle, 
Bryanston House, Castfeton, Cufihels. 

Durham, f Southend, Darlington. 

Essex, Faulkboume Hall, Audley End, f Hylands, Witham, Ham House, 
Upton, Leyton Nursery, Thornden Hall. 

Gloucestershire. The Querns, Readcomb Park, Tortworth Park, Dod- 
dington. 

Hampshire, f Farnham Castle, + Rogers's Nursery, Old Alresford, Test- 
wood. Bishop's Stoke Vicarage, Wilkie s Nursery (Isle of Wight), Strath- 
fieldsay. 

Herefordshire. Hope End, Stoke Edith Park, Eastwood, Haffeild, Eastnor 
Castle, Gamstone, Foxley. 

Her^rdshire. Hatfield Park, Aldenham Abbey, Danesbury, ^Cheshunt, Mr. 
Sanders, Mr. Crawler, *Bayfordbury, f Wormleybury. 

Huntingdonshire. Tetworth. 

Kent. fCobham Hall, Ramsgate Hermitage Nursery, Waldershaw, Hayes 
Common, Lewisham Nursery. 

Lancashire, * Manchester Botanic Garden, j-Latham House. 

Leicestershire. Elvaston Castle, Whatton House, Doddington Park. 

Lincolnshire, Nacton. 

Middlesex, f Kenwood, Mount Grove, + Mr. Bromley (Stamford HilH, 
+Mile End Nursery, f Haringay, Brown's Nursery (Hampstead^ Loddiges s 
(Hackney), Malcolm's Nursery, Lee's Nursery, f Fulham Paiace, 'Syon, 
fEnfield House, 'Purser's Cross, f Whitton Place, *Kew, f Upton House, 
Muswell Hill, Chelsea Botanic Garden, Ridgway House, York House, Botanic 
Garden (Twickenham), Richmond Hill, Brompton Park Nursery, Vere's Villa 
(Brompton), Knight's Nursery, Fulham Nursery, Chiswick Villa, Brentford 
Nursery, Kingsland Nursery. 



have been recfii^JifK tic ^^-Ai-iofeium ^itqnnicum.^ 3S 

Monmotdhsfnre, -|- Tredegar, Gillies, Llanvihangel, Coed Ithil. 

NotjoA, Merton Hsll^fNorwich Nursery. 

NorthampUmshire, Wakefield I^dge. 

Northumberland, Hartburn Vicarage, Bywell Hall, CressweH, Belsay Castle. 

Nottinghamshire, Thoresley Park, Worksop Manor, Eastwood, Strelly Hall, 
Shipley Hall, Nuttal. 

Orforddure, * Oxford Botaoic Garden, Dr. Woodcock's Garden (Christ 
Church), St. John's Garden. 

Rutlandshire, Belvoir Castle. 

Shropshire, Hardwicke Grange, Willey Park, Smethwick, Wallcot Park, 
Kinlet. 

Somersetshire. Leigh Court, Ham Green, King's Weston, Hinton House, 
tNettlecombe, Elm Cottage (Taunton), Hestercombe. 

Stajffbrdshire, * Trentham, f Alton Towers, Blithfield, Teddesley Park, 
Wrottesley House, f King's Bromley, RoUeston Hall, Heath House, *Somer- 
ford Hall, Handsworth Nursery, Weston, f Arley Hall. 

Si^fitiit* Euston House> ^Bury Botanic Garden, Finborough Ball, Liver- 
nere, * Ampton Hatt, St. Edmund's Hill, Hardwicke House, Shrubland 
Park, f Barton Hall, Wolveston, Stretton Rectory, Beigh Apton, Ditching- 
ham, Bungay. 

Siarrey,- ffiagshot Park, fClaremont, Oakham Park, f Walton on Thames, 
Burwood Park, Ashley Park, Barn Elms, Ashtead Rirk, Esher, Sandown 
Places Mlbonie,^West End (Esher), De^dene, Nutfield, ^Milford House, 
Milford Nursery, f St. Ann's Hill, Copse Hill (Wimbledon), ♦Surrey Zoo» 
logical Gardens, ^Buchanan's Nursery (Caraberwell), Mere Cottage, *Gokl- 
worth Nursery, Epsom Nursery. 

Swser, Cowdrav, Kidbrooke, fWestdean, Slau^am Park, Woolbeddmg, 
Easdbourne, Arundel Castle, Chichester Nursery, New Cross Nursery, Do- 
hois' Villa (Mitcham), Howey's Nursery, Woburn, Busbridge. 

Warwickshire, f Coorabe Abbey, WTiitley Abbey, Berk^well, Nenmham 
Paddocks, Aston Hall. 

Westmoreland, 

Wiltshire, f Longleat, Corsham House, f Bowood, f Wardouf Gastle,,Long^ 
ford Castle, Paulton's Park, fFonthill Abbey. 

Worpestershire, *Croome, fHagley, Hadzor House. 
Yorkshire, *Hull Botanic Garden, Kiln wick, Boynton, Percy, Stedmere^ 
Ripley Castle, Hackress, *Grimston Park, Cannon Hall, Hornby Caslle, 
Kiplin, Langton Lodge, Castle Howard, Knedlington, Backhouse's Nursery 
(York). 

Jersey, Mr. Saunders's Nursery, Bagatelle. Guernfeyi 

WALES. 

North Wales. 

Anglesey. Caernarvonshire. Denbighshire. -j'LIanbedeHall. 

Flintshire, Merionethshire. Montgomeryshire., Powis Castle. 

South Wales. 

Brecknockshire. Cardiganshire. Caemiarthenshire. 

Glamorganshire. Penllcrgare, The Willows, Skelty Hall, Margam, f Dow- 
lais House, Swansea, Briton Ferry. 

Pembrokeshire, f Golden Grove. Radnorshire. Maeslaugh Castle. 

SCOTLAND. 

Aberdeenshire. fTh^nston, f Huntly Lodge, Moneymusk. 

Argyllshire, .f Hatfon, f IVJount Steuart, Roseneath Castle, Dunoon Castl^ 
Toward Castle.' , ; 

Ayrshire. Rozelle, ^fcilkerran, poonbole, Blair, passilis, Kiltehzie^ Dal- 
quharraii? * • -^ . ^ -■ - 

Vol. XIL — No. 70. d 



34 Places from *which Return Papers have been received. 

Banfihire. f Gordon Castle, Huntly Lodge, CuUen House. 

Berwickshire. fXhe Hirsil. Caithnest-shire. 

Clackmannamhire. Callander House. Dumbartofuhire, 

Dumfrieufure, Eccles, Drumlanrig Castle (an arboretum is forming here, 
but we have not received any detailed account of it), Cairn Salloch, Jardine 
Hall, Closebum, Springkell. 

Edinburghshire. * Edinburgh Experimental Garden, *Lawson*8 Nursery 
(Edinburgh), f Dalhousie Castle, Newbattle Abbey, Woodhouselee, Cram- 
mond House, Hatton, Dreghorn, The Whim, Go^ House, Moredun, Barn- 
ton, Edinburgh Botanic Garden, Melville Castle, Dalkeith. 

iHgiTuhire. 

Fifishire. Dunbrisal Castle, Raith, Wemyss Castle, Dysart House, Largo 
House. 

Forfarshire, f Rinnardy, * Airlie Castle, Courtachy Castle, Invergowrie. 

Haddingtonshire. Yester House, f Tynningham, Gosford House, f Biell, 
Pinkie. 

Inverness-shire. Inverary Castle. 

Kincardineshire, Ktmross-sJure, 

Kirkcudbrightshire, fSt. Mary's Isle, Cassincarie, Calley, Cairnsmuir, Del- 
vin, fBargally, Kenmure Castle. 

Lanarkshire. ^Glasgow Botanic Garden. 

Linlithgowshire. *Hopetoun House, Dalmeny Park, New Saughton. 

Nairnshire, Orkney and Shetland Isles. Peeblesshire, 

Perthshire. ♦Kinfauns Castle, f IXckson's and Tumbull's Nursery (Perth), 
Taymouth, Annat Garden, Invermay, Moncrieff House, Rossie Priory, Bel- 
mont Castle, Errol House, Gray House, Duncruib, Methven Castle, Castle 
Menzies, Pitfour, Dupplin Castle, The Ballo, Ferigack, Myginch Castle. 

Renfrewsfnre, Scotstoun, Erskine House, North Barr, Bishoptown, Both- 
well Castle. 

Ross and Cromarty. Coul, fBrahan Castle. Roxburghshire, 

Selkirkshire. Hasseldeanburn Nursery. 

Stirlingshire, Woodhead, Buchanan, Drummond and Co.'s Nursery (Stir- 
ling)- 

Sutherlandshire. f Dunrobin Castle, Rhives, Balnadach, Tongue. 

WigtoTuhire, 

IRELAND. 

CoNNAUGHT.— X«7riwi. Galway. fCoole. 

S&go, Makree Castle. Roscommon. Mayo, 

MuNSTER. — Clare. Kerry. Rough Island, &c., at Killarney. 

Cork, f Castle Freke, GlengarifF, 

Waterford. Tipperaiy. Limerick. 

Leinster. — Dublin, f Glasnevin Botanic Garden, Trinity College Bo- 
tanic Garden, Mount Anville Hill, f Cypress Grove, Howth Castle, ♦Terenure, 
f CuUenswood Nursery. 

Louth. Oriel Temple, Dundalk. 

Meath, Kilruddery House, Newtown Mount Kennedy. 

Wicklow, Shelton Abbey, Dunganston Nursery, Shankhill Nursery, Bally- 
arthur. 

Wexford, New Town Barry. Longford, f Pakenham Hall. 

Westmeath. King^s County, * Charville Forest. 

Queen^s County. Kildare. •j' Castletown. 

Kilkenny. "W'oodstock, Robertson's Nursery. Carlow. 

Ulster. — Down. Moira, Hillsborough, ToUymore Park, Mount Stewart, 
Ballyleedy, Bangor, Castle Ward, Spring Vale. 

Antrim. Belvoir Park, Antrim Castle, Cranmore, Echlinville, Summerhill, 
Moyland. 

Londonderry, Mount Hewick, Grey Abbey, Scarvagh. 

Donegal, Fermanagh, f Florence Court, Castle Coole. 

Cavan, Monaghan, Armagh, Tyrone, Barons Court. 



New Modes of Mushroom Culture^ Z5 

Art. VII; iVett? Mode ofgroxjoing Mushrooms > By W. 

Not having seen in your Magazine so easy a method to grow 
mushrooms, for catchup and other purposes, as I have practised 
for several years, at little or no expense, I take the liberty to send 
you the following sketch of my plan. The only expense is at 
the commencement, as it may then be necessary to get a few 
bricks of the best mushroom spawn : afterwards, enough may be 
saved every year from the dung, &c. 

My plan is this. About the middle of July, when preparing 
the ground for early broccoli or Savoy, I have some of the best 
fresh horse dung, that is short, and has not much straw in it, dug 
in the furrow, under the soil where the row of broccoli or Savoy 
plants are to be planted. The furrow is filled pretty full of the 
dung, and trodden rather firm, and a few pieces of the spawn are 
put in it ; the mould is then dug over it, and the digging is con- 
tinued, until where the next row of plants is intended ; which 
furrow is filled with dung and spawn as the former ; and so on, 
as far as the ground is to be planted. After the ground is dug, 
the plants are planted, and nothing further is required. I do not 
use any more dung in this way than would be required for the 
same quantity of ground if spread regularly over it in the usual 
way ; and the plants grow more vigorously by having the dung 
under them. I consider that the broccoli or Savoy plants are 
of great service to the working of the spawn, by shading it from 
the hot sun and heavy rains. 

About the middle of September, the mushrooms come up in 
great quantities, large and fine. I have this morning (Sept. 21.) 
gathered nearly half a bushel of large mushrooms from about 
two poles of ground, planted as above ; and have had two or 
three gatherings before, and expect to have a good many more 
before the season is over. 

September 21. 1835. 



Art. VIII. On the Mode of raising Mushrooms from the Mushroom 
Stone, By Mr. James Alexander, Gardener at Maeslaugh Castle. 

I HAVE no doubt but you, and many of your correspondents, 
are acquainted with the mushroom stone ; but, as I have not seen 
it mentioned in your Magazine, I send you the following account 
of one that was under my care for upwards of two years. It 
was sent to Mr. Thorbum of Murth, from Calabra, in Sicily, 
with directions to give it a little water when it appeared dry, 
which was generally three or four times a week in dry weather : 
and, in the course of a fortnight after I received it, a couple of 
mushrooms made their appearance, which grew to be very large ; 

D 2 



36 Floriadtural and Botofiical Notices, 

I think, about 9 in. in diameter. They were porous beneath, in 
place of gill, as in the common mushroom; consequently, they 
appeared rather to be a species of ^ol^tus than a species of 
^gdricus. However, they were of excellent flavour, and the 
ship captain who brought the stone home told me that it pro- 
duced three mushrooms at sea, which, he said, were very fine. 
In three or four weeks after the two above-mentioned were ga- 
thered, three or four more came up, and so on, for the first year. 
The second year it was not quite so productive; and, in 1833, 
my successor informed me that the mushroom stone was nearly 
exhausted. I think eight or ten such stones would supply an 
ordinary family with mushrooms for two or three years. 
Maeslaugk Castle Gardens^ June 16. 1835. 



Art. IX. Floricullural and Botanical Notices on Kinds of Plants 
newly introduced into our Gardens ^ and that have originated in them, 
and on^inds of Interest previously extant in them ; supplementary 
to the latest Editions of the ** Encyclopcedia of Plants^* and of 
the " Horius Briiannicus" 

Curtis s Botanical Magazine; in monthly numbers, each containing 
eight plates ; 3f . Qd» coloured, 3«. plain. Edited by Dr. Hooker, 
King's Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow. 

Edwards s Botanical Register; in monthly numbers, each containing 
eight plates ; 4«. coloured, 3^. plain. Edited by Dr. Lindiey, 
Professor of Botany in the London University. 

Sweet*s British Flower-Garden ; in monthly numbers, each containing 
four plates ; 3^. coloured, 2f. 3d. plain. Edited by David Don, 
Esq., Librarian to the Linnaean Society. 

An asterisk prefixed to the name of an order, a genus, species, 
or variety, is prefixed to mark it as one not registered in the 
Uortu^ Britannicus or the Gardener^ s Magazine ; a dagger, to 
denote it as already registered in one, at least, of these works, but 
with details more or less different from those given with the dag- 
ger ; a double dagger, to denote a genus, species, or variety, 
either not yet introduced into Britain, or that has been intro- 
duced, but is since extinct in it. 

The late Mr. Drummond. — (Vol. X. p. 583.; Vol. XI. p. 
608.) His Christian name is Thomas, not James, as given in 
p. 608*» in the notice of the fact of his death. 

Baron Ijudwig, — Dr. Hooker, in the Botanical Magazine, the 
number for December, 1835, in his account of Veltheimia glaiica 
var. floribus rubesc^nti-purpdreis, t. 3456., has noted that " We 
are indebted, at the Glasgow Botanic Garden, for our bulbs [of 
it] to Baron Ludwig, a nobleman resident at the Cape of Good 
Hope, where he generously devotes his time and his fortune to 
the promotion of botany and horticulture, particularly with the 



supplemetUary to Ewyc. of Plants and Hort. Brit; 37 

view of rendering service to the colony, by the introduction of 
useful plants. To Europe he has, with the greatest liberality, 
communicated many rare South African plants, and has enriched 
our gardens with several new or little known species." The 
number of the Botanical Magazine for December, 1835, com- 
pletes vol. 62. of that work. Dr. Hooker has inscribed the 
volume to Baron Ludwig. 

A Key to Structural^ Phj/sioiogicalj and Systematic Botany^ for 
the Use of Classes. By John Lindley, Ph. D. F.R.S. L.S. and 
G.S., Professor of Botany in the University of London, and in 
the Royal Institution of Great Britain. — This work, recently 
published, is a more matured edition of both the author's Outline 
of the First Principles of Botany^ and of his Niaus Plantarumyhoth 
included in this one, the Key. The Outline^ published in 1830, 
has been previously commended in this Magazine ; and it may be 
stated of that part of the Key which embraces the same subjects 
as that work, namely, the structure and physiology of plants, 
that information so succinct and comprehensive on them is not 
to be obtained in any other work extant. The Nixus Plantaritm 
is written in Latin ; it was published in 1833 ; its subject and 
office are noticed in Vol. IX. p. 608, 609. : that part of the Key 
which embraces the same subject is written in English, with the 
exception of the denominative botanic terms. The author's ob- 
ject, in both the Nixus and the kindred part of the Key^ is, to 
consociate congruously the natural orders into groups, inter- 
mediate in the rank of comprehensiveness between the orders 
themselves and those few groups of much higher rank, as, dicoty- 
ledoneae or exogenae dichlamydeae thalamifloras, Hortj Brit.y 
p. 492. 495.; dicotyiedonese dichlam^deae calycifloras, Hort. Brit^ 
p. 492. 508.; dicotyiedonese dichiam;^deae corolliflorae, Hort. 
Brit.j p. 492. 523. ; dicotyiedonese monochlamydese, Hort. Brit., 
p. 492. 530. ; monocotyledonese, Hort. Brit.^ 492. 535. ; in each 
of which rather many orders were included, and these less con- 
gruously associated among themrselves than was desirable. His 
proposed mode of effecting this object is, by consociating orders 
by characters of common agreement into groups, named al- 
liances ; and alliances into groups, named groups. 

In application to the species of plants which may be noted on 
in the floricultural and botanical notices anticipated to be given in 
the Twelfth Volume of this Magazine, it is purposed to cite, ad- 
ditionally to the name of the natural orders to which they may 
belong, the names of the alliances, groups, and higher groups, to 
which the cited orders may belong. The fulfilling of this pur- 
pose will have, at least, the effect of placing these botanic terms in 
the way of the cognisance of readers of the notices, and, in some 
cases, may have the better effect of contributing to elucidate the 
end of the invention and first application of them. Relative to 

D 3 



S8 Floriadtural and Botanical Notices^ 

previous notices, the orders cited in application to the species 
noted on have been placed in a course of succession after that 
in which they are placed in Lindley's Introduction to the Natural 
System of Botany ; and the numbers prefixed to them are those 
he has used in that work to denote their successional place in 
his series of all the orders. 

The author, in his system presented In his Key, has employed 
some devices in nomenclature which he has thus explained : — * 
** To prevent confusion in the use of the names of the numerous 
divisions in the natural system, it is to be observed, that the 
names of the suborders terminate in eiB ; of the orders in acece ; 
of the alliances, in ales ; and of the groups, in osce. The higher di- 
visions have merely plural terminations. The ear of the classical 
critic may be offended at many of these terminations ; but the 
distinction which they establish is too important not to outweigh 
all verbal niceties of construction.'* The author has other notes on 
this part of his work, in his preface, thus : — " I have . . . ventured 
to reform the language of botanists in some respects, by carry- 
ing out their own principles to their full extent ; thus securing 
a more uniform kind of nomenclature, and expressing the value " 
of the classes, orders, &c, in all cases, by the manner of the ter- 
mination of their names^ The scheme of arrangement which Dr. 
Lindley has proposed in his Key is a production that no one can 
investigate without high profit. — J. D. 

*«* The deeree of rank of the groups down to the orders : — Ist, the class ; 2d, the subclass j 3d, 
tile groups; 4th, the alliance. 

Class Ex6genfle or Dicotvledbnes, subclass Compldtse (plantae) polyp^talse (the contents of this 
group are about identical with those of the groups I>ichlani^dese thalamifldrse and Dichla. 
mydeae calycifldne in HorU Brit.), group Albumindsae, alliance Rankles, order Aanunculdoea. 

1999. DELPHI'NIUM f 14134 cheiUnthum ** large.lipped ** D. Don. [co Sw. fl. gar. 2. s. 909 

* 2 mtiltiplex D. Bon mu\t\p\\eA'sevaled ^ A spl 3 to 5 jn Dp axure blue O 

See Fenny, in 'Gard. Mag,, VoL IX. p. 48ft 

" The type of this species is decidedly the finest of the per- 
ennial species : it is also rare . . , Flowers," of the variety, "blue. 
In rich loamy soil, it will attain the height of 4 ft. or 5 ft." [Penny, 
as above ; see, too, in the place there cited.) " A double variety 
of one of the finest species of the genus. It is a most lovely 
plant, the flowers being equal in size to those of the double va- 
riety of grandiflorum, and of a still richer colour, a deep azure 
blue ; stems 3 ft. high. A mixture of peat and loam will be found 
to suit it best. Our drawing was taken from the collection of 
Messieurs Allen and Rogers, at Battersea." (Z). Don^ in the 
Brit. Flawer-Garden^ Nov.) 

CL Ex6gen», subcl. Compldtse polypilalae, group Albuminbsse, alliance Grossiiles, order Oros. 

sul&oese. 

719. RPBES *glutin6sum[?j5'«n/Aam] and * malvkceum [SmiYA] 

are the names of two species of Rtbes that are described in the 
Hort. Trafis,^ second series, vol. i. part 6., in a continuation of a 
" Report on some of the more remarkable hardy ornamental 
plants raised in the Horticultural Society's Garden, from seeds 



supplemefUaty to Encyc» of Plants and Hort. Brit. S9 

received from Mr. David Douglas, in the years I8SI9 1832, 1833. 
By George Benthain, Esq., F.L.S., Secretary." The report was 
read on June 17. 1834. Not any of the live plants of either of 
the two species of Rtbes had, up to that date, produced flowers. 
Both are allied to sanguineum. Glutinosuni in foliage only dif- 
fers from' that species in being destitute of down and slightly 
viscous. It promises, from the dried specimens transmitted by 
Mr. Douglas, to exceed sanguineum in beauty : the bunches of 
flowers are twice the length of the bunches of sanguineum, and 
contain at least from 30 to 40 flowers, which are borne on long 
slender pedicels ; the colour of the flowers is red : its degree of in- 
tensity cannot be judged of from the dried state of the specimens. 
Glutinosum *Ms quite hardy, and grows vigorously in common gar- 
den soil." Jkfalvaceum difiers from sanguineum in these points: — 
its leaves are very rough and hispid on the upper side, and clothed 
underneath with a whitish cottony down. The bunches of 
flowers are shorter and closer, and each flower is nearly sessile 
on the common stalk. It is deemed to be as hardy as san- 
guineum, and as easily propagated. {Hort. Tram.) 

CL Ex6g., fubcL CompL polyp^t, group Albumin., alliance Grots&let, order EacaUotMeeit. 
1687. ESC ALLO^N/i< [Conception and Valparaiso in Chile 1831 C pi Sw. fl. gar. 2. a. 310 
•\98S55 pulverulgnta Peri. dusted {deemed accidentalljf) m | or 8 Jl W Common about 

A very handsome shrub, upright, branched, evergreen. 
Leaves on short foot-stalks, elliptic-oblong, obtuse, flat and even, 
2 in. to 4 in. long, 1 in. to Ij in. broad, light green, regularly 
crenulate, pubescent, varnished and glutinous on both sides, es- 
pecially in the younger leaves. Flowers small, petals white, 
anthers yellow. " Some of the flowers in our specimens, we re- 
marked, were ten-cleft and decandrous." The flowers. are dis- 
posed into racemes that are spike-formed, S in. or 4 in. long, and 
terminal ; each raceme consists of many flowers. Flowering spe- 
cimens were communicated from " the Birmingham Botanic Gar- 
den, by Mr. Cameron, the zealous curator of that establishment" 
{Brit. FUyvo.'Garden^ Nov.) 

CL £x6g., nibcL CompK polyp€t, group Albumin., alliance BerberAles, order Berberhcete. 

aga .EPIMETDIUM rmag. S448 

f diphfllum Z^AL Bot cab. twin .leafed ^ A pr } my W Japan 18d0? Dltl Bot 

Noticed in VIII. 721. The flowers are pendent and do not 
include any pouch-shaped petals, nectaries of Linnaeus, such as 
are in the flowers of E. alplnum. {Dot. Mag.j Nov.) 

CL Ex6g., subcL CorapL po1yp§t., group Epigynbse, alliance Cucurbitlilefl, order CmUcck. 

f 1478. CfTREUS {Ceretu in Latin, " Literally, a torch or taper ; a name translated by the English 

Torch.thistle ; and given to these plants in consequence of the upright kinds having some- 
thing the appearance of the tapers used in the ceremonies of the Roman Catholic religion.** 
— Lindley, in Bot Reg., 1 1807.) 11(190 C s 1 ru Bot. reg. 1807 

f IS559 trianguliris Haw. tvi&ngu]aT^temmed ft^ ZD or 7- s W Y Mexico and W. Indies 

**It flowers so rarely, that" its flower " has never," before in 
the figure cited " been represented from a European specimen." 
(Lindley.) In Loudon's H. B.^ Bot. Mag.j t. 1884., is cited for 
a figure ; correctly ? It flowered, in September, 1 834-, at Sir G. 

D 4 



40 FhricuUural and Botanical Notices^ 

Staunton's, Leigh Park, near Havant, under thegood manage- 
ment of Mr. Robert S. Wilson, the gardener. The plant had 
been in the collection upwards of fifteen years without blossom- 
ing. It produced shoots, upwards of 7 ft- long, between March 
and September, in 1 834?. Two flowers were perfected : the one 
which opened first, opened at about six o'clock in the afternoon 
of September 22., and faded at about eleven o'clock in the mor- 
ning of September 23. The flower of C. triangularis is stated to 
exceed in size that of any other species, even C. grandiflorus. 
The sepals are green, the petals <'of the most dazzling whiter 
ness ;" the anthers, yellow, are represented densely disposed into 
abroad ring; the style is shown from within this ring, proq^inent 
above it, very stout, and ended in many stigmas that are disposed 
in a cone rather than spread ; both the part of the style and the 
rays are yellow. {Bot. Beg.j Nov.) 

CL £xi!tg.« sabcL Compl polyp., group Calycbsae, alliance GuttlUes, order ffypeiicdcen, division 

An6inaUe. 

tOCHRA'NTHE ZrmS. PALSBLeoii Lindl. {Xkhroa, pale, aniho$, flower. {LhuUey.) The 

calyx and corolla are whitish.) 5. a sp. 1. [r^ 1819 

targdta XAuff. Unely-toothedJeqfed ilLjor... mr Wsh China 1883 C? 1? Bot 

** It flowered in the garden of the [London] Horticultural So- 
ciety, so long since as March, 1826 ; but shortly after died, and 
has never again made its appearance." A shrub. Attitude, by 
the specimen figured, upright. Leaves disposed in pairs, the 
pairs crossing each other : the disk obovate lanceolate, 4 in., 
less or more, long, about 2 in. broad in the broadest part, the 
margin serrate, the petiole short, a pair of stipules at its base, 
and interior in position io the petioles. Flowers in a terminal 
thyrse, its branches in opposite pairs. Flowers subglobose, larger 
than a pea, sepals 5, petals 5, both whitish, becoming yellow. 
{Boi. Reg., Dec.) 

CL Ex6g., snbcL Compl. polyp^t., group Syncarpdsae, alliance Silenkles, order * Stleniceae. (This 
order is identical with order Caryoph.flles, tribe Sildneae, Hort. Brit., p. 502.) 
1388. SILE^NR 
tll619L rdgiaSlfnu royal ^ A or 4} my.au S North America 1811 C p.l Sw. fl. gar. 2. s. 313 

" The stems are upright, rising to the height of 4 or 5 ft." 
The inflorescence is paniculate, the flowers are numerous, the 
limb of the corolla is large and of a bright scarlet. The plant 
thrives " best in a soil composed of peat and loam, and is chiefly 
propagated by cuttings, as it is found rarely, if ever, to perfect its 
seeds in this <;ountry.'^ The figure is from a specimen " from 
the choice collection of David Falconar, Esq., of Carlowrie." 
{Brit. Flow€7'Gardeny Dec.) 

•1415a. VISCA'^Rl A RoeJder. Rock Lychnis (** Viscus, bird-lime; because the stems of the plants 
are covered with clammy gluten." — G, Don, in his Gen. Syit. qf Gard. and Bot., i. 414b Of V. 
negl€cta G. Don, he has stated that the stem is not clammy.) lu. 4. 5 sp. 1 var. 

r... 1807 D CO Maund's bot gard. 1 523 
t neglecta G. Don neglected to be botanicaUy dittingutshed a* a species |^ A or f my.il W 
Synontfme : Lychnis Viscdria albifl5ra Hort. (G. Don, in his Sj/st. qf Gard. and Bot, i. 415.) 

It may be that this is not rare in gardens : it is eligible for all 
the hardy flower-gardens that are yet without it. Its shoots and 
leaves are disposed into a tuft ; and this is verdant throughout the 
year. The flowers are disposed in the mcde of a crowded pa- 



supplementanf to Encyc. of Plants and Hort. Brit. 41 

nicle about the upper part of short stems ; the corollas are white, 
and not small ; and, as the flowers are not few, the kind is, when 
in flower, ornamental. Mr. 6. Don has deemed it elegant 
Plants of it may be obtained by planting portions of plants pre- 
viously extant. 

1385L SAPONA^RIA. 

*llS71a -censticides ffo. Hoafe.ear.chickweed-like t^ /^f c« i Fk Rnatia? 183S 
These deUib may not be correct 

Stems prostrate. Leaf glaucous to a degree of whiteness. 
Plants of a species thus named have been cultivated in the Chelsea 
Botanic Garden, and in the Cambridge Botanic Garden. 

CL Ex6g., Bttbd. CompL polypit, group Gyiiobaie2M«, alliance GferaniUei, order OxalidkceK. 
lili. 0'XAL1& 

fllSM Fi6tto Coi PioCU*« tf^orl jUu salmon-coloured C. O.H 1816 O t.p Bot rag. 1817 
fieenu nearly allied to oomprissa. (L/mUey.) 

'< A truly beautiful little half-hardy or frame perennial, flowering 
most copiously during the months of July and August. A little 
tuft does not, indeed, produce much appearance ; but a pot filled 
with its dense green leaves, and covered with the large salmon- 
coloured flowers, is a lovely object .... We believe that the 
plant is at present in the possession of no one in this country ex- 
cept Mrs. Marryat, Wimbledon, Surrey, and those of her friends 
to whom she has given it." (Mot. Iieg,f Dec.) 

OOC ALIS t DarwallfdiM, described in Vol. XI. p. 5S6, 5S7., correctlye and wlditional iafiMinatimi od. 

The authority is Westcott : see under Z/^thyrus Armitage* 
dnuSf below, p. 42. O'xalis Darwalliana has its leaflets nearly 
thrice as broad as those of O. tenuifblia Jacq.^ to which it is allied, 
and should be placed next. 

CL Ez6g., subcL CompL polypH, group Apocarpbsae, aOiaace BoAkoBt orier BoUent^ lubovder 

Fftmeae. 

1506l CRATJirGOa > FBot reg. 1810 

?lS898a*Dougias»LindL Douglas*! tHorjtr? ^7 w North.wett America 1830? SO co 

Synonymy : C. punctata /3 brevispina Douglas^ in Hook. Fl. 
Bor. Am., 1. 201. "We believe this [Douglks/f] to be essen- 
tially difierent from all the published species of this genus ; but 
. • . we are by no means certain. ... It is possible that what is called 
C. macracantba in the gardens may not be specifically distinct; 
but, as its fruit is red, it requires further examination." {IJndley,) 

A small tree. Branches ascending; spines, rigid, straightish, 
now short, now very long; leaves, some obovate, some oval, 
gashedly serrate, acute, at the base wedge-shaped, glabrous, in 
the autumn remarkably leathery, and they then acquire a pur- 
plish cast and are shining^ they fall ofi^ at about the same time 
as those pf punctata andjoyrifblia. Flowers produced in May : 
they are of a middling size. Fruit small, dark purple. The 
figure is from a plant in the London Horticultural Society's ar- 
boretum* {Bot. Meg*, Nov.) 

CL Exfig., subcL CompL polypSt, group Apocarpbrae, alliance Rotiles, order Legumlniceft. 

1274. POlNCIif'^^. [grounds about Mendoea in South America 1829 C r.m Sw.fl. gar. 2.0k 311 
• GiUidsi^ Hook. GllTies's ? ^^^ ?tt | spl 10 jl Y Abundant on banks of rivers and irrigated 

'* An erect, slender, branched tree, rising to the height of 8 ft. 



42 Florictdtural and Botanical Notices^ 

or 10 ft.'' May not a plant of such stature be rather deemed a 
shrub ? Leaves alternate, bipinnate, 7 in. or 8 in. long, spread- 
ing ; pinnae about nine pairs ; leaflets^ in each pinna, from 12 to 
16 pairs; oblong elliptical, 4 or 5 lines long. Flowers in a ter- 
minal corymbose raceme ; corolla yellow, 2 in. across, of 5 petals. 
Filaments bright red, slender, about S in. long; anthers dark 
red. Style of about the same colour, length, and thickness as 
the stamens. '^ We have seldom had to record so interesting a 
production as the present, and one so eminently deserving the 
attention of the cultivator." The figure is from a plant at Mr. 
Knight's, King's Road, Chelsea, which *^ has stood for several 
years, placed near the wall of a stove, which it now considerably 
overtops, and even exceeds the height that " the species usually 
attains in its native country. From the tree being deciduous, 
and ripening its shoots early in the autumn, we may infer that it 
will endure our winters in situations less favourable thaa the one 
at Mr. Knight's." {Brit. Flam.-Garden^ Nov.) 

21S6. LA'THYRUa 

tl9S87« ArniiUged»«f Wettcott (Frederick Wectcott, Eiq., one of the Honorary Secretaries of the Bir. 
mingham Botanical and Horticultural Society.) Armitage's ^or I Jn.au Furple>blue 
Brazil, Buenos Ayrei 18S9 S and C Its.! Maund's hot gard. SmT 

These particulars are, some corrective, some additional, to those 
in XI. 525. 689. : of the following, all are additional, except the 
fact of its being a native of Brazil. Raised by C. H. Hope, Esq., 
from seeds collected in Brazil. Mr. Hope communicated it to 
the Birmingham Society. It appears, also, to be indigenous about 
Buenos Ayres ; W. Borrer, Esq., having recognised it as iden- 
tical with one which he raised, a few years ago, from seeds col- 
lected there. (Mr. Maundy in his work, the Botanic Garden^ 
t. 526.) Mr. Cameron has communicated that the kind which has 
been denominated Armitagea;/2/5 was introduced into the col- 
lection of the Birmingham Botanical and Horticultural Society, 
in 1833 ; and that he believes that Mr. Borrer raised it from 
Buenos Ayres seeds, in about 1828 or 1829, but l<Jst it before 
it flowered ; and that Mr, Borrer considered it to be near ner- 
vosus by the foliage. 

1984. ZUPPNUa riow, afterwards dull red Texas in Mexico 1835 S lt.8.1 Sw.fl.gar.2. S.S14 

* bimacuUtus Hook, twin..spotted<^an<tar(fe<f ^^ perhaps t«. ^ or ... s B, the spot pale yel. 

Discovered by Drummond. " Very pretty. Stems procum- 
bent, about a foot long ; leaves of five leaflets, that are glabrous 
and pale green above, and 1 \ in. long ; racemes of flowers ter- 
minal, solitary, 2 in. or 3 in. long, many-flowered ; corolla blue, 
except that the standard is " marked in the centre with a large 
pale-yellow spot, which afterwards changes to a dull red." 
Hardy. Should be planted in light sandy loam. The figure is 
from a plant which flowered in the collection of Dr. Neill, at 
Canonmills, near Edinburgh. [Brit. Flower-Garden, Dec.) 

S071. FSORA^LEA tl8634 glanduldsa. 

A specimen received, on August 18. 1835, from Bury St. Ed- 



supplemenlaiy to Encyc. of Plants and Hort, Brit* 43 

mumls, as *' of a most beautiful shrub, free-bloomer, and quite 
hardy," has been submitted to Mr. D. Don, who has identified 
it as of the species Psoralea glandulosa. Mr. Alexander Scott, 
Pince's nursery, Exeter, has since communicated, orally, that he 
had seen, in some garden that he had visited in the course of a 
professional tour, a plant of Psorlllea glandulosa, with a stem as 
thick as his wrist, and with branches 12 ft. or more in spread. 
In whose garden was it? Was the plant growing against a wall ? 
Had its branches been trained ? The specimen from Bury St. 
Edmunds is about 6 in. long ; and consists of a portion of branch 
more than 3 in. long, some leaves, and five stalked racemes of 
numerous small flowers, whose corollas, when the specimen was 
received, when it was somewhat withered, though not dried, were 
in colour blue and whitish. It is easy to conceive that a plant 
of this species, with numerous branches, thus terminated, and 
very many of the flowers open together, must be beautiful indeed. 
The dried specimen has a remarkable odour, perhaps com- 
parable to that of boiled parsneps : this may be ascribed to matter 
contained in the very numerous minute glands that are situate 
upon the surface of the herbage. The dried leaves of this spe- 
cies are used as tea by the natives of Mexico. 

Cl. Ex6g., subcl. Incompl^tae (plants), group Tubiferdsae, allumoe FroCedfev, wder Protedctor. 

303L ISOPO^GON. 

Ispathulittu* JS. JBr. «pathu1ate-/fa/<rd [Sound 1890 C tji Bot mag: 3450 

*2 linearis K Br. lineu-spathulaie^eqfied il lJ or 2 and above sp Fa P King George*t 

It is a plant of strong growth, flowering with freedom in the 
spring of the year, and deserving a place in every choice col- 
lection. The disposition it manifests to push forth its heads of 
pale purple blossoms at the extreme points of the lateral branch- 
lets, which the plant throws out rather abundantly, and by which 
it is readily propagated, render spathulatus var. linearis well worth 
the cultivator's care. The branches are fully clad with leaves, 
these are wedge-shaped, obovate, or linear-spathulate, with an 
acute point, scarcely 1 in. long, a quarter, more or less, broad. 
Introduced to the nurseries near London from seeds collected 
by Mr. William Baxter. {Bot. Mag^j Nov.) 

CL £z6g., subcL IncompL, group Curvembryftsc, alliance PolygonMes, order Polygondcec 

1218. COCCO'LOB A. (** From kokkos, fruit (fb this case, seed), and -lobos, a lobe ; isi allusion to the lobed 

seeds.*' — Lindley, in BU. Reg., 1. 1816.) 
*lO9O0a Ylrens LindL gteen^acemed-and-lettfed • O cu ... au Yellow-green ** We [Dr. Lind. 

ley] are unacquainted with its native country, but presume it to be tne West Indies ** 1825 ? 

C ,rjn Botreg. 1816 

Virens LindL has been distinguished and elucidated from it in 
a living state, in Sir A. Hume's collection of plants at Worm- 
leybury, in which it flowered in August, 1833. It differs from 
obtusifolia Jac in the form of its leaves, from microstichya W. 
in their size and proportion to the racemes. {Bot. Meg.f Dec.) 

CL JSx6g., subcl. Compldtse (plSnts) monopdtalse, group Polycarpbsfle, alliance £ric&les, order ErU 

cdceai. 
13391 AHODODE'NDRON 11006 maximum 

*v9x.bftxnd\xm Hook, hybrid mw WP ? hybrid ?1830 L p.1 Bot mag. 3454 



44 Fhricultural and Botanical Notices^ 

" It has every appearance of a hybrid." (Hooker.) Dr. Hooker 
has stated that he has little hesitation in deeming it identical with 
the " Rhododendron hybrid um ; bigener LindL BoL Reg, 1. 195." 
and this, it may be inferred from Dr. Hooker's account, ^^ is the 
offspring of the common white glaucous*leaved Azalea, which 
had been fertilised with the pollen of Rhododendron maximum." 
jR. m&ximum h^bridum Hook, has been cultivated, for some time, 
in the Glasgow Botanic Garden ; where it was received under 
the name of JRhododendron fragrans. Dr. Hooker has given 
this name as a synonyme with the authority " Hortulan." to it. 

Rhododendron maximum h^bridum Hooh " is amply worthy 
of a place in every flower-garden and shrubbery : " its flowers 
are fragrant. ( BoU Mag., Dec. ) 

*puIch€rrimumLifuf/. ** the lovely^* or mottheautifijil ilor... mr FaRo Hybrid. <* obtained 

oy Mr. Waterer of Knaphill between R. arboreum and caucaiicum.'* 1892? L p.1 Bot reg. 

I18S0. fig. S. rreg. 1890, fig. 1 

Nobledntim Hort. Noble*v ilor... mr. Dp and brilliant rose colour hybrid ISSt? p.l Bot 

Pulcherrimum is " a most beautiful" variety. " It is of rather 
delicate appearance ; but we are informed that it is quite hardy, 
and an abundant flowerer." Nobleanww " is veiy much like the 
other in all respects, except that its flowers are of a deep and 
brilliant rose colour. Both are among the handsomest hardy 
shrubs in cultivation." {Bot Reg,, Dec.) 

CL Ex6g., subcl. Compl. monop€t., group Polycarpftsae, alliance fric&les, order V&ccinjkceas. 
119i. FACCI'NIUM. (It belongs to DecHndria Monog^nia Hook.) 
*l0lO7a canadense JIo<ai. Canadian ft or 1 my W R Canada 18S5? L p Bot mag. 3446 

It may be readily known from corymb6sum by its dwarf size, 
leafy flowering branches, and campanulate corolla ; from penn- 
sylvknicum, by its large quite entire leaves, and wider mouth to 
the corolla ; from both, by its leaves being very hairy. Stem 
much branched, leaves often 1 in. long, lanceolate, acute at both 
ends. Racemes of from four to six flowers. Corolla short and 
campanulate, white, tinged with red. Berries, blue-black, agree- 
able to the taste. {BoL Mag,, Nov.) 

flOlSO myrtilloldes Mx. Myrtillus-Iike A or 1, "2^' in H. B. apmy Pk N. America: high alpine 
woods of the Rocky Mountains^ about lat 52© j in Canada and Hudson's Bays on the north, 
west coast; on the west side of the Rocky Mountains: so that its place of growtn extends firom 
tiie Atlantic to the Pacific. . 1776 L p Bot mag. S*il 

A shrub with spreading branches; in the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden about 1 ft. high. Leaves oval, more or less acute at 
both ends. Flowers solitary, pendent. The corolla remarkable 
for its flagon-shaped appearance, pale yellowish green, or dingy 
white, tinged with red. Anthers with two rather short awns. 
The fruit large, globose, blackish purple, highly esteemed by the 
natives. {Bot Mag., Nov.) 

CI. Ek6g., sttbd. Compl. mon^§t, group Polycarpbss, alliance Primuldles, ordet PrlmuldcesBs. 
45L FRFMULA d79l sibfrica Bot mag. 3167. 

PAItai Mountains, about the middle of the range 1852 O p.l Bot mag. 3445 
• SinCeg^rrimaHMA:. eniireUetifed ^^orl mr ap Reddish lilac Mai«hes among the 

The picture exhibits a plant with several leaves, and three 
umbels of flowers upon three peduncles ; one umbel is of three 



supplementary to Encyc» of Plants and Hort. Brit. 45 

flowers, one of four, one of four or five ; the flowers upon pedi- 
cels of from more than half an inch to more than an inch long ; 
the limb of the corolla is not so broad as a sixpenny piece. The 
peduncles are described to be from 8 in. to 1 ft. long. The colour 
of the corolla is described to be reddish lilac, paler behind, the 
throat yellow, the tube yellowish. This variety, as well as the 
crenated-leafed one, was received at the Botanic Garden, Edin- 
burgh, from Mr. Goldie of Ayr. {Bot. Mag,, Nov.) 

CL £x6g., subcL CompL monopSt, group Aggregdoe. alliance'ilstecUes, order *AMiejActm (A part 

of the order formerly nunea Conip6sit».) 

•2337a OALATE'LLA Cass. (The etymon is not giren in the Boi. Reg,» t- 1818.) 19. S. wp. 3.— 4^ 
Synonj^me : certain of the species of the Unnsean genus A'ster, 

[elsewhere in the east of Europe : it also occurs in Siberia.** \Sl5 D oo Bot reg, 1818 
tS1290 punctata Nees dottedJeqfed ^ A or 2| jl.s V Y "Salt marshes in Hungary, PoAolia, and 
Smnonymes : Jester punctdtus H^AM. and Kit., Galat^Ua intermddia Cass., A'atut desertbnim 
Fis. ined. 

" All the species of this genus [Galat^lla] are well adapted 
for borders of shrubberies, and for places where shade-loving 
plants alone will grow." {Bot, JReg.f Dec.) 

Dr. Lindley, in his account of G. punctata, has mentioned two 
other species, named * /zyssopifolia and * acris ; but has stated 
that he greatly doubts whether punctata " is really a distinct 
species from G. hyssopifolia and acris, or they from each other ; ** 
and that *^ so very difficult is it to distinguish them with absolute 
certainty, when one has a long series of specimens under exami- 
nation." It can scarcely be doubted that Galatella Ayssopifolia 
is another name for No. 21241. in /f. B., and Galatella acris for 
No. 21291. 

S3«a CINERA^RI A. Pgaid. 1 5S4 

• macroph^Ua long.leafed ^ A orS jLau Y Altai Mountains 1831 S It Haund*sbot. 

'^ It is one of the noblest herbaceous subjects we have long 
met with; and, notwithstanding its flowers, individually, are 
small, the mass of them displayed, during nearly a month, on a 
stem 8 ft. high, emanating from a base of glaucous leaves, each 
2 ft. long, produces a most striking efiect." {B. Maundy in his 
work, the Botanic Garden^ Nov.) 

This species is noticed in IX. 112., from Mr. Cameron, as 
cultivated in the Birmingham Botanic Garden, in 1831. Mr. 
Maund has now made known that it was raised there from fo- 
reign seeds, and that it flowered there in 1835 for the first time. 
*' At present, it possesses no appearance of ofisets, for increase 
at the root. Should this still continue, it will be unimportant, 
on account of the facility of its increaise by seeds. It appears to 
be completely hardy ; and flourishes in light soil. (J3. Maundy in 
his work, the Botanic Garden^ Nov.) 

HELICHRY^SUM. [1835? S co Bot reg. 1814 

% \Aco\or Lindletf goid~and-taumy-eo\oMx^^lLmbraeted^ O or 3? au Y Van I%emen*s Land 

The botanical name for the species of plant that is called the 
yellow everlasting flower, or xeranthemum, is /Zelichrysum brac- 
teatum. Dr. Lindley has stated of bicolor, that " it resembles 



46 JFloriciUtural and Botanical Notices^ 

bracteatum, but is much handsomer : " he has not stated in what. 
The following particulars on it are derived from the description 
and figure : — Stem, 2 ft. high, bearing a branched head ; but 
whether additionally to the height of 2 ft., or as part of it, is not 
stated : stem, glabrous ; branchlets, hairy ; leaves, linear-lanceo- 
late, at the base obtuse, and, in some instances, almost heart- 
shaped ; upper leaves, awl-shaped ; all the leaves ciliate on the 
edge, at least at the base ; and roughish on the upper face (surface, 
in contradistinction to the lower face, subface), it may be supposed 
with hairs ; heads of flowers (flowers in the language of those not 
versed in botanic language) borne singly on the tips of branch- 
lets. The application of the epithet bicolor is not explained. 
" Introduced by Mr. Low of the Clapton Nursery." {Bot, Reg.^ 
Dec.) 

S361. J?E'LLI& 

•intesrrif&lia 3/jr. entire-leafed O pr f jn.JI W Purplish Y Shady hills and banica of rivers 
in Tenessee. {Michaux.) Arkansa Prairies. {Nuttall.) Abundant in some parts of Kentucky. 
{Dr. Short.) Kio Brazos and San Felipe de Austin in Texas. (Drummoiul) 1834? S It Bot. 
mag. 3455. 

The daisy of America. Michaux was the first to record a notice 
of this species. Subsequently certain other botanists had not met 
with it; " and a general opinion prevailed, that no species of our 
favourite daisy was to be found in the New World." {Hooker.) 
The localities that are cited above, additional to that by Michaux, 
are sufficient to show that this opinion has ceased to be well- 
founded. Mr. Drummond *^ sent numerous specimens and seeds." 
From the latter, Mr. Murray [curator of the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden] has raised plants, which blossomed in a cool frame, and 
in the open air, during . . . June and July." The more obvious 
of the features of .Sellis integrif61ia are these : — Stems rarely 
simple and unbranched, generally branched; and, frequently, 
many arise from the same root, and are spreading and ascending; 
branches filiform ; leaves oblong or spathulate, entire ; pedun- 
cles terminal upon the stem or branches, elongated, naked, each 
bearing a single head of flowers, that, before the flowers expand, 
has a pendulous position. Corollas of the ray fourteen to twenty, 
white, with a purple tinge, especially on the outside ; the outline 
of the ray exceeds in extent the breadth of a sixpenny piece. 
{Bot. Mag.f Dec.) 

S418. CALLIO'PSia C^o Sw. fl. gar. S. s. 316 

• 2S016a Drumm6ndilD. Don Drummond's Q orQ s Y with a reddish J)rqwn spot ... 1835 S 

" We have named the species after its indefatigable discoverer, 
the late Mr. Thomas Drummond, whose zeal and talents so 
eminently fitted him for a successful collector." (Z). Don.) " Not 
less ornamental than the more common Calliopsis bicolor [Core- 
opsis tinctoria ^2^.], which it much resembles in habit, but from 
which it differs," in points deemed characteristic of the condition 
of a species. ^^ It is, like that species, a hardy annual of easy cul- 
ture, perfecting its seeds freely in the open border." The figure 



supphmeivtary to Encyc. of Plants and Hoit. Brit. 47 

is ** from plants which blossomed in Dr. NeiU's collection," 
Canonmills, near Iklinburgh. {Brit. Flofwer-Garden^ Dec,) 

Cl. Ezog., subd. CompL mooop^t, group Labibia, alUance IjJ)Ulei, order TaWloee. 
S451. GARDOQUrj. 
Y28881 GiUidatt Grab. GiUiefl'g H J^^ prfjntoiLiT Chile ISSS C pit Hot reg. 181S 

A neat little half-shrubby herbaceous plant, with divaricate 
branches and oblong linear leaves, scarcely half an inch in length, 
and, by the picture, numerous flowers. It is far less showy than 
Hookeri, but is hardier ; it flowers from June to September in 
the open border, but requires a little protection in winter. Cut- 
tings in peat and sand root freely. The figure is from a plant in 
the garden of the London Horticultural Society. {Bot. Reg.^ 
Nov.) 

CL '£^6^.^ flubcl. Compl monopet, group IMcarpiMe, alliance ^hUttei, order Hydioph7lUoM& 

#77. PHACEXIA. rretton Bay, Texas 1835 S oo Bot. mag. 3452 

*3934aIcoDge8ta floolr. grouped.racrm«d O or 1|? jnpn the green-house Bright purpUah blue Gal- 
" Its nearest affinity is with bipLnnatifida of Mich. FL Bor. Am., yoL L p. 134^ t Id, a natiye of 
the Alleghanie8.»» 

It seems that most of the particulars which Dr. Hooker has 
described of congesta are derived from plants of it cultivated in 
the green-house in the Glasgow Botanic Garden. Some of the 
particulars are these : — Annual; stem branched in the cultivated 
specimens, simple and upright in the native ones. Leaves pinnate; 
by the picture, less and more than 3 in. long ; by the description, 
slightly downy, the leaflets alternate, some stalked, some sessile, 
some pinnatifid, some lobed, some cut, the terminal ones almost 
bipinnatifid. Flowers disposed in racemes; of which racemes three 
to five terminate each of the several peduncles; and are rather 
densely disposed upon them in a corymbose manner : the situa- 
tion of the peduncles is on the side and extremity of the stem. 
Corolla, of a bright purplish-blue colour, broadly bell-shaped, 
with a spreading limb. Its pretty blossoms were in perfection, 
in the green-house, in June. It is beautiful ; *^ and, being an an- 
nual . . . there is no doubt but it will soon become a great ornament 
to our flower-borders." Phac^Iia cong6sta was first received in 
Britain *' among the many interesting " species of " plants col- 
lected by Mr. Drummond in Texas, and sent home in his last 
despatches from that interesting country." {Bot. Mag,, Dec.) 

9292. EITTOCA. 

« viscida J^fiM. clammy^cumf O orS j1 B Ro California 1834? S oo Bot reg. 1808 

Annual; perfectly hardy; stem branched, 2 ft. high. Leaves 
2 in. broad, a little longer, gradually smaller towards the tips of 
the stem and branches, the upper leaves coarsely toothed. Flow- 
ers in racemes, many in a raceme ; this revolute, while the flowers 
are unexpanded, becoming gradually straight as the flowers ex- 
pand, in succession, from the base of the raceme to its tip. Co- 
rolla, in its limb, of a pleasing blue ; in its tube, rosy. The 
surface of the whole herbage is covered with hairs that are tipped 
with little black heads, filled with a viscid secretion, and that 



48 Floricidtural and Botanical Notices^ 

stick to tbe fingers like those of henbane. "The blue of the 
flowers is remarkably deep and brilliant, so that the plant has a 
handsome appearance ; but its leaves are rather coarse and weedy. 
We know, however, of no plant better adapted for bouquets ; 
for it will go on growing and flowering, in water, for two or three 
weeks after being gathered." Mr. Douglas discovered this spe- 
cies. The figure has been prepared from the species in a living 
state in the London Horticultural Society's Garden. It will 
grow in any common soil. {BoL Reg.j Nov.) 

CI. End6gen«, group HypogynftMe, alliance LUMiea, order XilUteev. 

1061 VELTHEI'M/il 8489 tUtSca [C 6. H 18S4? O r.m Bot mag. Si56 

* var, fl6nlMU rubescentLpurpIureis Hook. . re±.p\iTp\e-perianiMed X lAI or . 1 ... Reddiah 

The perianths are " of a very difierent colour " from those of 
glauca itself; they are ^' of a reddish colour, marked with paler 
spots; each segment with a little white spot at tbe point; the 
limb purple." The kind is illustrated from the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden, where bulbs of it had been received firom Baron Ludwig 
'at the Cape of Good Hope* {BoL Mag.y Dec) 

CL Ehd6geiiae, group H]rpog3m6Me, alliance LiliMec, order Zili^cee, suborder Jcphodttee. 

• lOSBto. PAUBK'KY J liodL (*' We name this new and carious genus after Dr. Cliarlet Daubeny. 

Professor of Botany at Oxford, wliose interesting researches m vegetable chemistry have mate. 

rtaUy eemkieed to improve our knowledge of the physiology of plants." — UtuUeg.) 6. t sp. 1 

• a<ireaZ,tVM«. goiden. cokmred-Jlowered V |^}ori jn Y C.G. H 1832? O 8.1 Bot reg. 1813 
Symmifme : ntmbnia IQtea Ban.. 

In the bosom of two oblong fleshy furrowed prostrate leaves, 
by the figure, 3 in. or more long, and 2 in., more or less, broad, 
is situate a sessile umbel of numerous densely aggregated 
yellow flowers : the outline of the umbel is about orbicular, and 
more capacious than that of a crown piece. A good share of this 
extent is occupied by the lower lips, three-parted, of the perianths, 
the segments of which lower lips are obovate rounded, very 
much larger than those of the inner lips, and are spread rayedly. 
It *^ is very pretty as well as singular, so long as its blossoms 
remain expanded, which is for about three weeks. From Mas- 
sonm, with which it remarkably agrees in habit, it difiers es- 
sentially in its tubular, not campanulate, very irregular, perianth, 
and in the absence of the honey-pores which form so remark- 
able a part of the character of Masson/a. It was obtained from 
the Cape of Good Hope by Messrs. Young of Epsom, under 
the imme of Massonia lutea. No trace of it is to be found in 
books ; so that it has, probably, been recently discovered in the 
interior of the Cape Colony." {Bol. Reg.j Nov.) 

CL Endfig., group OynandrdMe, order OrcfaidteMB. - 
2537. MAXILLA'RIA. CO p.r.w Bot i«g, 1811 

•edstfttaXiiuttl eteattd-labeUumed ^(2Sor| jl WP Trinidad, near the Mod Lake 18M? 

Pseudo-bulb ovate, furrowed, bearing one leaf: this is oblong- 
lanceolate and plaited. Scape pendulous, bearing two flowers. 
Sepals I}in. long; petals equal to them. The sepals are in co- 
lour white and crimson ; the petals are so too, but not in the 
same mode. " The striping, banding, and painting of the de- 



n 



^supplementary. to Enofc. of Plants and Hort. Brit. 49 

licate white.flowers, with rich crimson, produce a very rich and 
striking efFect • • • • The lip is a most curious organ." It is pur- 
posed to quote here on it only for explaining the specific name* 
that it is deeply divided into three parts, and that the central of 
these is crested in front by a deep white fringe of necklace-shaped 
liairs. The figure has been derived from a plant in flower, in 
July, 1835, at Mr. Knight's nursery, King's Road, Chelsea. (Bot, 
Iieg,9 Nov.) 

255(k EPIDE'NDRUM. 
^28744. con6p8eum Bartr. gnatllkeJIovaered jff (29 ? iZ^ cu Pale ye1Iowi8h.green Southern terrL 

[tones of the United States of N. America 1775 D p^r.w Bot mag. 3457 

The only epiphytal orchideous specie of plants found in the 
United States of North America. {Bot. Mag, Dec.) 

95iS. M ACRADE^NIA R. Br. Lono-gland LituU. {Makros, loner, aden, gland ; in alhuion to the 
kmgcaudieula of the pollen masses. — Lindiea, in Bot. Reg., 1 1815.) SO. 1. sp. 2. 
*tri&ndra I/tiid/. thtee-awlhered jgPCZS cu ^ my PWG Surinam ... Brought by Mr. 

[Lance D p-nw Bot reg. 1815 

Not showy in its flowers. Its leaves are narrower than those 
of lutescens; its raceme is pendulous or prostrate; that of lu- 
tdscens is erect; in triandra there are three lamellae in the middle 
of the lip ; the clinandrium is regularly and strongly serrate ; 
and there are three anthers ; two of them abortive, which are al- 
ways present. In the possession of the London Horticultural 
Society. " A strong damp stove-heat is required to keep it in 
health." (Bot. Meg., Dec.) 

fiSQS. EULO'^PHIA. TBot reg. 1881 

• laridalifMf/. \uTid'Jknoered £ \S^ or U? all sea PYW Sierra Leone 1833? O p.r.w 

The scape is branched ; the flowers are disposed in racemes 
along the branches, except about the base of them : the flowers, 
when expanded, are not so broad as a sixpenny- piece, but the 
whole inflorescence of them must render the species a pleasing 
one when in flower. It is very easily cultivated in an atmosphere 
hot, damp, and uniform. It then flowers profusely at intervals 
through the year. Great quantities of plants of it are occasions- 
ally brought from Sierra Leone. The figure is from the species 
in a living state in Messrs. Loddiges's collection, Hackney. (Bot. 
Beg. J Dec.) 

256*. VA'NDA. Fthe Burmese Empire 1828 ? C ? p.r.w. Bot reg. 18G9 
•tdresZlndL txper Jeqflen £ [SJ el Dp P, W C Y Sylhet, and near Medown in 

It has produced flowers in the Duke of Northumberland's 
collection at Syon. " Nothing can exceed the flowers of this 
platit, in ddicacy of texture or softness of colour ; the deep purple 
of the petals softens away to the margin, and seems to melt, as it 
were, into the purer white of the sepals; while the rich crimson 
and yellow of the lip render the brilliancy of the other parts 
still more conspicuous." Flowers produced from two to three 
in a spike. Dr. Lindley has two preserved flowers, that were 
produced during Dr. Wallich's importation of the species from 
India to England, both in one spike, and are all that were in the 
spike, that individually measure 4^ in. from the tip of one petxil 
to the tip of the other. [Bot. Reg,^ Nov.) 

Vol. XII.— No. 70. e 



50 



Covent Garden Market. 



MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE. 



Art* I. Covent Garden Market. 



tke Cabbage Trtbe. 

Cabbages, per dosen : 
White . - - 

Red . . - 

Plants, or Coleworta 

Skvoys, per dozen 

BriuseU Sprouta, per sieve - 

German Greens, or Kale, 
perdosen . . . 

Cauliflowers, per dosea 

Broccoli, per bunch : 
White 

Green - - - 

Purple - - 

Tuben and Rooia* 
r per ton 
I^oUtoei - -{per cwt 

C per bushel 
Kidney, per bushel- -^ 
Scotch, pNer bushel - 
Jerusalem Articbokei, per 

half sieve 
Turnips, White, per bunch 
Carrots, per bunch 
Farsneps, per dosen 
Red Beet, per d0s*n 
Skirret, pier bunch 
Scorzonera, per bundle 
JBalsify, per bunch ^ 
Horseradish, per bundle . 
JlAdisbes ; 
Red, per dozen hands (24 

to M each) 
White Turnip, per bunch 

Tke Spifuch IW^. 



sieve 



Sonrel 

TkeOnkm Tribe. 

Onions, old, per bushel 

Green (Ciboules) per bunch 
Leeks, per dozen bunches - 
Garlie, per pound 
Shallots, per pound . - 

A$part^fnous Plantg, 
Saiads^ g[c. 
Asparagus, per famidred - 
Sea-kale,. per punnet w 

Lettuce, per score : 

Cos 

Cabbage - < 
Endive, per score 
Celery, per bundle (12 to 15) 
Small Salads, per punnet . 



Froi* 
£ t. d. 

1 6 
1 
5 
2 6 
2 


S 








To 

$. d. 
8 
3 
7 
3 
2 6 


1 
3 










I 6 
6 


2 
1 
1 



6 
6 







IS 

2 


3 10 
4 
2 
2 
1 





3 
9 


4 10 
4 10 
2 6 
2 6 
2 8 


1 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


8 

4 
5 


6 
3 
3 














1 6 
6 

8 

1 6 

1 6 

2 
1 6 
1 6 
4 






8 
2 






1 
3 


8 
1 
1 


6 
6 
6 







3 
1 9 
8 



0' 
1 




6 
3 

6 
6 



.0 

8 




4 

4 

1 6 
8 
8 


10 
1 



6 


12 
8 


1 

8? 





6 
6 
9 
6 
2 


2 
9 
0J8 6 
1 6 
3 



Watercress, per doK.«BiaU bun. 
Burnet, per bunch 

Fot and Sweet Herhi, 

Parsley, per half sieve 
Tarragon, drv, per dot. bunch. 
Fennel, per dozen bunches 
Thyme, per dosen bunches 
Sage, per dozen bunches 
Mint, dried, per dozen bunches 
Peppermint, dried, per dozen 

bunches - - - 
Maijoram, per down bunches 
Savory, per dozen bunches 
Basil, per dosen bunches - 
Rosemary, dried, per doi. bun. 
Lavender, per dozen bunches 

EdOOe Fungi and Fuci. 

Mushrooms, per pottle 
Morels, dried, per pound - 
Truflles, per pound : 

English « 

Foreign 

FruHt. 

Applet, liessert, per bushel : 

Nonpareils 

Ribston Fipinna - - 

Golden Pippins - •• 

Baking . - 

American, per barrel 
Pears, Dessert, per half sieve: 

Chaumontel - -i - 

Chapman's Seedlkig 

Glout Morceau 

Baking . • . 

Medlars, per half sieve 
Almonds, per peck 
Cranberries, per gallon 
Chestnuts, French, per peck 
Filberts, English, per luO lbs. 
Pine-apples, p^ pound 
Grapes, per pound : 

Hot-house 

Spanish ... 

Portugal 

rk-. noa. f P«' dozen 
^""««*{ per hundred - 
Bitter, per dozen 

Lemons [ P|J h SnSed" ' I 
Sweet Almonds, per |iound 
Brazil Nuts, per bushel 
Spanish Nuts, per bushel . 
Barcelona, per bushel 



From i 


£ s. 


d. 





4 





2 


8 





2 





4 





2 





2 





1 





1 





1 





1 





1 


6 


3 





8 





1 





18 





3 


6 


12 





10 





6 





6 





2 


3 


15 





2 





4 





5 





2 





3 


6 


7 





3 





3 





1 15 





5 





3 


6 


1 


2 


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9 


3 


6 


1 


6 


1 





6 





3 





16 





14 





ll 






To 

£ s. d. 
6 
S 



3 


3 






8 
5 
3 



12 
10 
18 

6 

1 

5 
8 
10 
3 



5 


4 
5 

8 



5 
1 
1 
2 
14 



12 
4 

16 





O 






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e 






16 
14 

5 
14 





















4 
6 


8 6 
8 








During the latter end of Norember and the early part of December, the 
weather was extremely mild, and favourable to the growth of vegetables ; in con- 
sequence our supplies became more general, and the prices somewhat more 
moderate. A few days of severe frost intervened, which created a considerable 
change; but, during the last week, the weather has again become open and fine, 
and most of the articles usually furnished at this season have been more plentiful. 
Sea^-kale and asparagus have been brought to market during the last week, bat 
are not as yet in much demand : prices moderate. Broccolies, of various sorts, are 
now in fair supply ; but, as the effect of the dry and hot weather during the pre- 
ceding summer must have in a great measure prevented the cultivators from 
planting out so extensively as usual, the quantitv as yet brought to market is 
rather limited. Savoys and coleworts are also less plentiful than usual, -and 
realise good prices. Turnips are more abundant, being brought from farther 
off; the prices being such as to pay the growers for their extra labour. Carrots 



London Hortiadtural Society and Garden* 51 

are ishort in supply, owing to the same canses. Potatoes hanre been, until the 
last week, plentiful : the prices have fallen materially; but, as the supply of the 
market depends altc^ther on the coasting trade, being almost exclusively, this 
season, confined to the growth of the distant counties, should any interruption 
from frost take place, a considerable difference in their value would be the con- 
sequence ; although it is generally understood that the crop is not so large as 
usual. Onions are not as yet in much demand : the crop is supposed to be 
much smaller than that of the last and preceding years ; consequently, should 
the winter prove severe, a considerable advance m price might be expected. Of 
fruit we have an excellent supply, with the certainty of any farther quantities 
that may be required, should the prices warrant it being sent from the dis- 
tant counties : at present the market is principally furnished from the home 
districts. Of apples the crop is very large. Of pears of the more hardy and com- 
mon sorts, such as Chaumontels, swan's eggs, &c., the crop has been good : 
they are as yet plentiful. The supply of oranges has not been so large as 
usual up to this period ; but the prices have been very moderate. The crop of 
grapes has been so good, that, as yet, there has been but little demand for the 
foreign varieties. Nuts and chestnuts are rather i^ort in supply, but not in 
extensive demand. -* G, C, December 19. 1835. 



Art. II. The London Horticultural Societi/ and Garden^ 

Kor, 3. 1835. — Read. A Note upon JIflmulus * cardinalis, a newly 
introduced species of hardy herbaceous plant ; by Dr. Lindley. 

ExfMted, Citrons, and pears of the kinds Uvedale's St. Germain and 
Chaumontel, from C. Dixon, Esq., F.H.S. Apples of the kinds Wadhurst 
pippin, winter pearmain, and unnamed, from J. H. Slater, Esq., P.H.S. 
A pomegranate off a plant in the open air, from J. L. Goldsmid, Esq. Pome- 

franates produced on a plant or plants in the open air, from Miss Player, Ryde 
louse. Isle of Wight. Oncidium dliatum, from Messrs. RoUisson. Buws, 
from J. Rogers, Esa., F.H.S. Calceolarias and seedling heartseases, from Mr. 
Glenny. Rhodochiton volubile (synonyme Lophospermum atrosanguineum}, 
from Mrs. Lawrence, F.H.S. Catasetum tridentatum, from W. Harrison, 
Esq., F.H.S. 

From the Garden of the Soaety^ — Cyclamen sp., from Mr. Bentham. Pears 
of the kinds pomme poire, Seckle, poire Neill, beurr^ Diel, Bezi de la Motte, 
Colmar Neill, Doyenn^ gris, sucre and vert, and figue de Naples : the speci- 
mens of all these kinds, except the beurr^ Diel, were from standard trees. 
Apples of the kinds Court of Wick, kmg of the pippins, Warwickshire pippin, 
Foxley, Sam Young; Orack Elma, Persian, only a kitchen apple ; pomme de 
Neige, royal russet, Dumelow's seedling, gloria mundi, Pennington seedling, 
Caroline, golden russet nonpareil, black American, golden reinette. Except 
where grown in particular situations, little favourable can be said of fruits this 
season. Even the new sorts of pears, that usually grow large and juicy on 
standards, are small, dry, and contain a bitter, in consequence of the trees 
having nearly lost their leaves in the dry weather. Mr. Thompson deemed the 
specimens of poire Neill exhibited of but a third of the full size of this kind. 

Dec.jl. — Read. A communication on the cultivation of Bigndnta ven6sta ; 
by Mr. G. Phillips. An account of several varieties of grapes grown at Kiplin : 
by Mr. J. B. Whiting. 

Presents. Of the works, these are two : — Arbres Fruitiers, tome i.j leur 
Culture en Belgique, et leur Propagation par la Graine : presented by the 
audior, J. B. van Mons, M. D. De la Botanique, de ses Avantages, et des 
Mbyens faciles de I'^tudier avec succes ; par M. B. Gaillon : presented by A. 
Cruckshanks, Esq. 

Exhibited. Bigndnta venusta, from Mr. G. Phillips, gardener to the Misses 



53 Queries and Answers. 

Treror, Tinsrith, near Woburn. Rhodochhon volubile, grown in the open 
air, from Mrs. Lawrence. A miscellaneous collection of flowers, from the 
Hon. W. T. H. F. Strangways. Epiphyllum truncatum, from Mr. Dennis, 
King's Road, Chebea. Chrysanthemum, from £. Johnston, Esq. Two sorts 
of seedling apple, from J. Cobbold, Esc}., the ClilT, Ipswich. A dmwing and 
specimens of the Bedfordshire foundling apple, and specimens of flower- 
defenders, from Mr. T. Levitt of Wandsworth. 

AUoyfrom the Garden of (he Society, — Specimens of sorts of pears, and of 
dessert tuples. Of these it is stated by Mr. Thompson that the pears are all 
of good sorts, and all from trees against walls, except those of the bergamotte 
cadet ; and that the beurre d'Aremberg is not so good from a wall as from a 
standard ; and, at the same time, the trees are not so hardy as those of the 
glout morceau, and that, on this account, the latter has the preference. The 
apples are dessert sorts, kitchen apples being of no size worth exhibiting this 
season. 



Art. III. Queries and Ansivers, 

The Manner of making a Peach taste of Wormwood is, to set a wormwooA 
plant, root by root, near a peach tree. A large green plum grafted on the stem 
of the long black fig has been tried here, and answers very well. (Letter of John 
Ford to Mr, Ellis ^ dated Rome, July 8. 1775. Smith's Correspondence ofLinmeus^ 
vol. ii. p. 64.) Are such absurdities as the above still believed in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Holy City ? How strange it appears to us now, that any one 
should write such stuff to Mr. Ellis, who must have been known to be a scien- 
tific man. £!an any of your readers inform me whether such tricks as that of 
pretending to graft a plum upon a fig are still played in Italy ? — ^. ^. Lon- 
don, Feb, 1835. 

Freeing Fire Stones of Flues from SmoJce Stains, — Can you or any of your 
correspondents suggest the means of getting fire stains out of a sandstone flue ? 
The outside of the stove is covered with large clouds, as it were, of smoke 
stains. Do you think that any chemical preparation could be made that would 
wash them out ; any infusion, for instance, of alkali ? — D, R, Alton Towers^ 
July 14.. 1835. 

Qrafting Forest Trees in Parks and Plantations, — Why should not gentle- 
men head down oaks, elms, horsechestnuts, and other forest trees, and graft 
them with the finer American kinds, in the same way as large apple trees are 
headed down and regrafted in cider countries ? — 7\ S, Hereford, 

The Red Spider on tlic Ribes sanguineum, — Having several plants of this 
beautiful shrub, all much infested with the red spider, though in different parts 
of my garden, and though it appears on no other plant in my possession, I 
should be glad to learn, through the medium of your Magazine, whether the 
plant is particularly liable to the attacks of that destructive insect. — T. W, 

Currants and Gooseberries for Wine. — What is the most suitable variety of 
red currant for growing to produce wine ? The largest variety is generally 
chosen by gardeners; but, considering that the largest grapes .are never chosea 
for planting vineyards, in wine countries; may not some c^ the smaller va- 
rieties of red currants be preferable ; on the same principle that small and 
harsh-flavoured grapes are preferred for making the strongest wines ? Will not 
the same doctrine apply to gooseberries ? Has wine ever been made from un- 
ripe currants, or unripe grapes, as it is from unripe gooseberries ? — Jd, 

Melont*'^ Mipht not Uie smaller kinds of melons be grown against hot-walls 
in many parts of the country ? If grown on a peach wall, furnished with a co- 
ping, and a bunting or net curtain, the latter might be let down in cold evenings. 
— RtuOcus in Urbe, 



THE 

GARDENERS MAGAZINE, 

FEBRUARY, 1836. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 



Art. I. Remarks on improving the Approach Road to a small 
Villa tvhich is now {Nov. 1835) undergoing Alieration. By the 
Conductor. 

The following remarks referring to the plan (J^. 4.), writ- 
ten on the occasion of oiir being consulted professionally, we 
think it may be useful to publish (of course without naming 
either party or place), as a specimen of the manner in which we 
would recommend young gardeners to prepare and arrange their 
reasons when proposing alterations to their employers ; as the 
very endeavour to do this will be of the greatest service to them. 
These remarks may also serve as a hint to the employers of land- 
scape-gardeners and architects, to require a reason for every thing 
which these artists may suggest. Nothing is more common 
among professional men, whether architects, landscape-painters, 
or landscape-gardeners, when they object to any thing or recom- 
any. thing, to say that it is in bad or in good taste, without ex- 
plaining why it is so ; but dicta of this kind are worth nothing 
in point of reason or instruction, and they ought never to be ac- 
cepted by either employers or the public. There is just as much 
room for reasoning in matters of taste, as there is in matters of 
common sense ; and that taste for which a reason cannot be as- 
signed by the person possessing it, and such a reason, too, as can 
be understood by those who can understand reasoning on any 
other subject, cannot be depended on as either just or correct. 
We would also strongly recommend the reasons for alterations, 
improvements, or new creations, both in architecture and land- 
scape<^ardening, to be given by the artist in writing. This has 
always been our practice (however imperfect our earlier re- 
marks or treatises may have been), from the time that we first 
made a plan for laying out a small garden in Leith Walk, in 
1803, to this present November, 1835, when we gave in a copy 
of what is printed below. 
VouXII. — No. 71. r 



Remarks on improving 



WOKKINO PLAN 




4t 




a, FolH HMman wblch ud ihe kouK U 
t, Potninnn w)ikli&eh«iKlJtntK< 




It* ground on larii Mt of It an B^b I* 

li Ift be niKd on cieh lidc sTU. 

lue to th* entnnce lodu 

mine Ui*t K 1< »ett«ctfilerd, 01 ocHlT Ml 

\ .-'■' 



the Approach Road to a small Villa. 




^HniuDUlKcaaiuiiftniiiUiiriuictnailcMdTeiWliiC. . 
j& BmdlHUmaodihnititaltHdjruialiif In bdU, wbkta ■» b 
^ betblDiiednit,*ultbMODlTMl(rl£:hiratfaaiilw»ii. 

^Treei ad thruhi to be jUntEd of the klodi niHitioiwd bdmr. 

1-*-" IT; lumli, or othei nergmiu, now nlnlob oi u bi 

ptinted ignlMI Ihg nU. 
-->4 TrmTbleh uut baaut don, in nn 




56 -Remarks on improving 

In the accompanying plan for forming a new approach road, 
it will be observed that it is proposed to retain the entrance in 
the same place where it is at present, but that it is intended to 
alter the position of the gate and lodge. The reason for retain- 
ing the entrance in its present situation is, because there is no 
other point in the boundary line along the public road which is 
so well adapted for entering from ; and the reason for altering 
the position of the gate and lodge is, in order to accommodate 
them to the new direction of the approach road within the gates. 

The superiority of the present position for an entrance con- 
sists in its being marked out by a space outside the boundary 
wall, on which are three large trees of the same kind as those 
within ; and in the direction of that wall forming a recess, ap- 
parently, and doubtless really, made on purpose to give dignity 
and consequence to the entrance gate. To form an entrance 
anywhere else, and more especially on the south of the present 
gate, would appear, to a stranger passing along the public road, 
altogether forced, and as though some untoward circumstance 
had obliged the entrance to be made in an unsuitable situadoh. 
South of the present entrance, it would besides be very incon- 
venient for a carriage, either to turn in, or go out, on account 
of the narrowness of the public road in that directibn. It will be 
observed, that, in altering the position of the gate, another large 
tree is thrown outside the boundary wall, in addition to the three 
already there. This we consider a fortunate circumstance rather 
thaff otherwise ; because, in a small place, the appearance of trees 
an^^6f a space belonging to that place without the walls, con- 
yeys the idea of there being no want of room within, of the lands 
of the proprietor not being limited to the space enclosed within 
the walls, and of his possessing that liberal spirit, and abundance 
of wealth, which render two or three poles of land, and two or 
three large trees, of no consequence to him. Finally, it gives a 
favourable idea of his patriotism, in not enclosing these trees and 
the ground on which they stand, but leaving them to ornament 
the public road. There is nothing gives a more contracted idea 
of the owner of a small place, than to see every inch of ground 
belonging to it carefully walled in, a piece of waste ground, or 
common, perhaps, encroached on, and the public road pared as 
closely as the law will permit. 

The direction which is given to the approach road is made, 
iirst, in order not to proceed abruptly in a direct line from the 
gate to the house, in the commonplace manner which would be 
adopted in making a road through a field, from a gate in its 
boundarv to a shed or barn in its interior; and, secondly, in order 
to afforcf an opportunity of lengthening the road, and thus giving 
It a more graceful line of direction. An additional reason for 
lengthening the line of road arises from the unfortunate circiim- 



the Approach Road to a small Villa. 57 

stance of the house being placed in a lower position than the 
entrance gate, and, ofcourse, the approach road descending to it 
There i$ always something derogatory from dignity, in the in^- 
pressioq conveyed to. the mind by having to descend to a bouse; 
and the more abrupt the descent is, the stronger will be the im- 
pression. 

By lengthening the road over the declivity, the degree of slope 
IS dioMuished, and the actual descent rendered less obvious. 
The same object, of concealing the undimified position of the 
house^ is aided by the bends in the line of direction of the road ; 
because by these bends, and by the trees to be planted, the eye will 
be, prevented from seeing the house till exactly on a level with it. 

In the execution of the approach road, one uniform slope must 
be. formed from the entrance gate to the point a, near the front 
of the house. As the difference of level between these two 
points is 6 ft, and the length of road 360 ft., the slope will be at 
the rate oi-^ of an inch to a yard, or 1 ft in 60 ft* 

The house will scarcely be seen till the spectator is directly in 
front of it ; and the reasons for this are, that he may not see it 
from a higher level than that on which it stands ; and that, as^ 
from the confined situation in which it is placed, there is no pos- 
sibility of procuring an angular view of the house from any point 
on the approach side, the want of this angular or perspective 
view may not be felt Even on the supposition that the surface 
of the ground, from the entrance lodge to the portico of the man- 
sion, were a perfect level, we do not conceive that, in a place of 
this limited extent, and where the house, as an object, has no- 
thing to recommend it but its front elevation, it would be 
desirable to show a view of it sooner. As we propose it to be 
seen, the objections of a descending approach to it, of there being 
no angular view, and of the space to the right and left of the 
entrance front being extremely confined, will be in a great mea« 
sure done away with. , , 

The names of the trees which it is proposed to plant are in- 
dicated by the list on the plan ; their positions are such as to 
conceal the house from the approach road till it is seen from the 
point b; and to conceal the boundary, and increase the apparent 
extent of the surface, not only from the approach road, but firom 
every other point of view. 

It is particularly to be observed, that no thick plantations, 

cliunps, or belts of trees, or shrubs on dug surfaces, are proposed 

to be planted^ for the following reasons : — First, because closely 

planted clumps or belts always convey the idea of there being 

something to conceal ; or, in the case of belts, of there bemg a 

boundary fence behind them; besides which, they are heavy and 

lumpish features in themselves. The object of concealment can 

be equally well effected by scattered trees and shrubs, placed so 

p 3 



S8 Approach Boad to a smalh Villa. 

as te form groups ; which will «t once convey the ideas of extent 
and freedom by the sUmpses of open space, and glades of turf 
which will be seen through them, and which, by the varied po- 
sitions in which the spectator will see them as he moves along, 
will produce continued variety. From the open airy appearance 
of trees and shrubs so disposed, the idea of there being some- 
thing behind them to conceal never occurs to the mind of the 
spectator. Secondly, the trees and shrubs already existing 
being for the most part old and full grown, a new plantation of 
trees and shrubs planted in dug ground, would not harmonise 
with them, either with reference to picturesque effect, or to the 
hidividual beauty of the plants. Clumps of young ^rees and 
riirubs, if placed so near the old trees as to be affected by their 
diade^ by the drip from their branches, or by the extent of their 
(Toots, cannot thrive ; and, if placed at such a distance fr<Mn the 
old trees as not to be affected by them in any way, they do not 
group or combine with them so as to form a whole. The only 
mode, therefore, of introducing young trees among old trees is, 
to introduce them singly, or in small groups of two, three, or four, 
together, as indicated in the plan. 

The plants ought to be procured, if possible, not less than 
10 ft. or 1^ ft. high ; and they ought to be planted in a circle of 
prepared soil, at least 12 ft. in diameter, and 6 ft. deep, the sur- 
face of which should be covered with turf close'up to the stems of 
the plants, so that they may not appear to have been recently 
planted-: they will, in this case, grow rapidly ; and plants of the 
sorts recammended to be planted in ■ ■ Park, will make 

shoots of from 18 in. to 2 ft. every year after the first year. 

As the soil should be prepared to the depth of 6 ft., due al- 
lowance must be made for its sinking, which it will continue to 
do for five or six years after the trees are planted. The soil, 
therefore, for every single tree or group must be formed into a 
small hill, which will by no means nave a bad effect on the land- 
scape ; provided the sides of the hill are not convex, but con- 
cave, so as to be gradually united with the general surface. The 
hill should be of such a height as that the tree, when the soil is 
finally settled, may still appear to rbe from a prominence, rather 
than from a level; since nothing can be more contrary either to 
what is found in natural scenery, or to what is advantageous for 
the growth of trees, than to see them rising abruptly out of a flat 
surface. Another advantage of planting single trees or groups 
on raised hills is, that their effect, immediately after they are 
•planted, is rendered much greater by the height of the hill. 
Where the ground is prepared to the depth of 6 ft., the summit 
of the hill from which the tree proceeds ought to be at least 3 ft 
above the level of the general surface ; which height, added to 
that of the hollies, cedars, ilexes, Luccombe oaks, and such other 



Trees and Skrubs of Scandinavia. B9 

evergreen trees as are purchasable in the narieries of AOfk. or 
12ft. high, win produce an immediate effect. 

As the lowering of the ground, in order to reduce the slope of 
.the road,' will require the removal of from 1500 to 2000 cubic 
yards of eartii, that earth may be employed in increasing the 
undulations of the surface, by laying it on the highest parts of 
these undulations ; and in softening down certain inequalities in 
xthem, whidi are at present too abrupt and unpolished for the 
scenery of a lawn. 

The greatest care^ however, must be taken not to heap up this 
earth round the roots of trees already existing; because diis 
* would ti6t only injure the growth of these trees, but would de- 
prife them of that appearance of stability and age, which is pre- 
dubed by the spreading base formed by the trunk at its junction 
with :lhe roots and. the ground. In all cases of plmting single 
trees or abrubs, or small groups of these, the advanti^, in point 
ibotfa of effect and culture, of this appearance of thebiKe ought 
never to be lost sight of; and hence it is that all youne trees, 
whether die soil is prepared or not, ought to be planted sorao- 
what above the general line of sur&ce. Old trees, also, in wh^ch 
this appearance of base is wanting or undecided^ should have 
the earth removed from them to the depth of a few baches all 
round the root, so.as to show its connexion with the ^nnlu An 
appearance of truth and nature, and, at the same time, of age, 
may thus be given with very little trouble* 

All the above remarks have reference to the appf oacfli coady. 
and the ground on each side of it, between the entraDeeL:front of 
the mansion and the entrance lodge. The impimeiBents n»- 
quired in the pleasure-ground, and on the tower fraat etthe 
house, which are numerous and important, owing to the difi- 
eordance of the parts connected with that fronts hsve not here 
been taken into consideration. — J. C* L. 

BayMater^ Nov. SO. 1835. 



AaT. II. On ike Geographic of the Trees and Shrubs of ihe ScaHdi- 
nmnan Peninsula, dj Pro&ssor Schouw of Copenhagen. Com- 
municated by M. Jens Phtea Petersen, Gardener to the Kii^ 
of Denmark. 

■ 

Tms Scandinavian peninsula extends from 55^® to 71^ notth latit^de^ and 
oonseqaendy presents great direrstties of climate, particularly in the interior; 
the clunate of which is distinctly separated from that of the coast by the lofty 
range of mountfuns which intersects the penmsula. This portion of Europe is, 
consequently, particularly well calculat.e^ to afibrd a view of the northern 
boundaries of the principal v^^etable ' produetions, bcich wM imd' ([Cultivated, 
and tbda to iHusfcrate 'the pecu&ritiea or climate .reonired h^ eadhvy i - 1 ->—, f 

There are no tre^ to b0.fQui»4oa the. sfeor^ olf the IfiJ -9/fa^ jio^.bfjslfjs 

F 4 



60 Geography of the Trees and Shrubs 

of SiiwH n^na, and of some of the spedes of wHlow, are only to be met with. 
Th6 common birch is found at Hosperdet, in a bay of the Icy Sea ; only, 
however^ in th^ form of a low bush. At Alten the birch becomes a lofty tree, 
forming wood3 ; and to it are soon added Pdpulus tr^mnla, 56rbu9 aucuparia, 
and i^^nus inc^na, nvhich are found at Kiratrahd, and at Tana Elv, in lat.70|. 
Proceeding southward, the next larg^ tree met with is Pinns syly^tris, which 
is found at Alten, in lat. 70^. Cerasus i^dus and t/unipenis commiinis reach 
to the same degree of latitude, i^^bies exc^sa is found on the east side of the 
Scandinavian mountains, in lat. 6&>69^ ; but, on the western side, not before 
coming to Kunnen, in lat. 67^. On the whole^ the coast climate is less 
favourable to the fir than to the pine ; the former is, therefore, more scarce oA 
the western coast of Norway than to the eastward of the ScandiBaviaa 
mountains, and does not grow wild in Scotland. 

The climate of the coast is more propitious to C6rylus itfv^ana, whidi ts 

found on the west side of Heligoland, in lat. 6^ ; while, on the easttm side of 

the great mountain range, it reaches only to lat.6(MSl% andthoogh.met 

^with more to the northward, in the Gulf of Bothnia, yet it does not ^beyond 

'6^° at Agermanna Elf. The lime tree (T^lia europee^a) is first met with at 

Oeland, on the western coast of Norway, lat. 64-° ; bat, in the Ouif of 

'Bpthnia, it reaches as far as Agermanna Elf, lat. 63^ 

On the western coast of Norway, in lat. 63°, several important trees make 
thei^ appearance for the first time ; viz. Qu6rcus jl?6bur, {/Imus campestris, 
*' Jl^cer jolatanoJdes, T^xus baccata, l^xinus excelsior, ^Inus glutinosa. The 
bale is found in the west of Norway, at Egsiind, in Sondermor (lat. 63°) : in 
the east of Norway it reaches only to Skudsmoe, lat. 60°. In the west of 
Sweden its northern boundary terminates in lat. dd°; but it ascends agam in 
the Gulf of Bothnia to 60^°, at Gefle. CTlmus campestris, which is also found 
at Sondermor, extends in the Gulf of Bothnia to the same degree of latitude. 
Tile boundary of the i^^cer jtilatanSldes is on the west coast of Norway, at 
Roesdalen *, in the midland districts of Sweden Jt descends to 60°, but rises 
again on the east coast to 63^. The yew (T^xus baccata) extends to the 
same degree of latitude on the west coast, but in Sweden not ferther than 60^**. 
The ash, on the oth(.j hand, extends in Sweden to 62^, only one degree more 
southward than on the west coast of Norway. Alnxxs glutinosa is found east 
ward of the Scandinavian mountains only as far as 61-^2^; but on the east 
coast it ascends again to the same degree of latitude as on the western 
coast, 63°. The hawthorn is found at Vedoen, on the coast of Norway, 
lat. 62^°: in the east of Norway it does not go beyond 61°, and in Sweden 
iiot beyond 60°. The northern boundary of the /Yilnus spin6sa is, on both 
sides, at 60°. 

The northern boundary of the beech (2^us sylv&tica), on the other hand, 
descends considerably towards the east. Laurvig is the most northern point 
where the beech is found in Norway (lat. 59°). On the west coast of Sweden 
it goes to 58° : on the east coast, not farther north than Calmar, 56-57°. 
The hornbeam (C^rpinus ^etulus) and the common maple {A'cec camp^stre) 
are only met with in the southernmost parts of Sweden. The northern 
boundary of the former is at 57°, of the latter 56°. 

. The most common trees in the Scandinavian peninsula are, the birch, 
Scotch pine, and fir. Of these, the birch is founa growing nearest to the 
bummit of the mountains, and is succeeded by the fir. With respect to 
elevation, therefore, three regions may be assumed : that of the Scotch pine 
and fir j that of the birch, where the pine disappears and the birch forms 
woods; and, lastly, the rocky r^ion, where there are no trees to be found, 
but only herbs and low shrubs, such as the dwarf birch, and the smaller sorts 
o^ willow. 

The boundary of the woods of birch descends considerably towards the 

msim. In Lapland, in lat. 67°, on the east side of the Scandmavian moun- 

l^ns^it.is found at 2200 ft. above the level of the sea ; but on the west side at 

' iSeoll*. InOhe south of Norway, in laL 60^ it is 3600 ft. on the east side ; 



i^ike Scandinavian Peninsula* 



61 



1900 ft. on the west. The most northern islands, on the west coast of 
Norway, are destitute of wood. The declension of the tree boundary, from 
north to south, amounts to 2000 ft.; bdng 1600 at 70^ and 3600 at 60°. The 
fir extends, at lat: 70°, to 750 ft. ; in the south of Norway, to 3000 ft. 

The boundaries of the cultivated plants are always more indeterminate than 
those of the plants that grow wild ; and it must be remembered that these 
boundaries may sometimes show how far northward the plants are cultivated, 
and not to what extent the climate allows of their cultivation. These bound- 
aries, therefore, may be often extended by industry and new experiments. 
The cultivation of com reaches much farther northward than we might be 
inclined to suppose. At Malangerfiord (lat. 69^) com succeeds every year ; 
and even at Lyngen, and at Alten (70^), and on the east side of the moun-' 
tain range, in the so-called companquy districts (69-70°) com is still cul- 
tiviated. At Enontekis (^69°, and 1430 ft. above the level of the sea) corn is 
BtiQ to h» seen in snuul quantity, though it cannot be expected to ripen 
oftener than everv third year. Barley is, however, the only species of grain 
tliat is found so mr to the north. Rye ceases at 67" on the west side, and at 
65*^ <Hi the east. The extreme boundary of wheat is 64° in the west of Nor- 
way, and 62° in the east of Sweden ; but the general cultivation of it does not 
reach higher than 60°. With respect to altitude above the sea, the cultivation 
of com ceases, in the south of Lapland (67°), at 850 ft. ; in the south of Nor- 
way (60-61°), on the other hand, at 2100 ft. 

In the west of Norway, the most northern apple and plum trees are found 
at Tuteroen, near Trondiiiem (63^°) ; and the most northern cherry trees at 
Ertvaagde (63°). The pear tree extends no farther than 62°. On the east 
side of the Scandinavian mountains, the most northern apple trees are at 
Sundsval 02^°, and the northem boundary of the three otner fruit trees 
mentioned is also about 62-63°. 

Potatoes, cabbage, turnips, carrots, spinach, and salad succeed at Saltdal 
(67°') ; nay, even at Kamerssest (70-7 P) ; though they are but rarely met with 
nortn of 64-65°. The cultivation of peas ceases at 64^° on the west side, at 
63^ on the east; and asparagus, in the open ground, is not met with more 
northward than 61-62°. Hemp still contmues to be cultivated on the west 
side, at 67°, though sparingly ; but, on the east side, till 66°. Flax ceases at 
64-65**. 

The annexed table of the relative temperature of the Scandinavian penin- 
sula will give an idea of the climates required by the different plants above 
mentioned: — 

Indigenous Ti'eet. 



Dnii:gbirk« J?^tula n&na - 
Birk, ifitula ftlba 
E^ /\)pulijs titmula 
Ron, S6rbu8 aucup&ria ! 
Graal E), A^\a Incftna - 
FyTr Pfaiiu sylvifltris . - 
EnekMsr, Juniperus cominClnis • 
Haqgebaer, Cerasut P&duB . 
Gnn, ii^ies exc^Iaa 
Ha8$el, C<Srylus ^Ivel&na - 
Lind, rtHa europee^a 



West 
flida 



Cast 

side. 



Eeg, C^i^rcus ^bur 

Elm, {/''Imuscampdstria- 

Aborn, ^l^cer platanoldes - 

lax, Ttxun bacckta] 

El, ^'InuB glutintea ... 

Ask, P!r&xinus excelsior - 

Hvidtorn, Chitse'^us Oxyac&ntha 

Slaeentom, Pr&nus q>ino8a 

B<^, ^us sylvatica 

Avnbfig, C&rpinus i9£tulus - . 

Naur, ^^cer campdstr^ • 



West 

side 



63 

63 

69 

63 

63 

€5i 

60 

59 

57 

56 



Cultivated Plants. 



Byg, Barley 
Rug, Rye 
Havre, Oj^ 
Hved«, 'Wheat 
AMeUTM, White Poplar . 

tl^mmetrsK, Aj^ple tree 
irsebcrtrae«, Cherry tree 
PsTttme. Pter tree . 



West 


Eas 


side 


side 


70O 


690 


67 


65 


65 


63i 


64 


es 


^ 


6^ 


w 


6»-es 


m 


60-63 



Karstopler, Potato 
Kaal, Cabbage 
Roer, Turnip 
GhilerMder, Carrot - 
Arter, Peas 
Asparg*^, Asparagus 
Hamp, Hemp 
Hor>Tla» . - 



West 

side 



70O 
70 
70 
70 

61% 

67 
64-65 



East 
side. 



70© 
70 
70 
70 
63 
61-«2 

OS 
J3t6« 



62 



Arboriadtural Flora of Sadden. 



















Difference 




North 
latitu^de. 


Year. 


Winter. 


Spring. 


Summer. 


Autumn. 


between 

Summer & 
Winter. 








Fahr. 


Fahr. 


Fahr. 


Fahr. 


Fahr. 


Fahr. 


Mageroe - 


71° 


10' 


23-2° 


23-7^ 


29-5" 


435 


31-8 


19 8^ 


Enontekis,1430Fod. 


68 


50 


22-3 


2-6 


250 


54-7 


27-1 


52-1 


Umea - 


63 


50 


35-4 


13-3 


33-2 


57-4 


37-6 


44-1 


Trondhiem - 


63 


26 


39-6 


23-4 


381 


590 


37-8 


356 


.Herndsand 


62 


38 


360 


17-2 


32-4 


56-0 


38-3 


38-8 


Ullensvang - 


60 


20 


43-9 


30-2 


41-4 


601 


44-1 


299 


Christiania 


59 


55 


41-6 


25-2 


391 


59-4 


42-3 


34-2 


Upsal 


59 


52 


41-9 


24-8 


39-4 


60-5 


42-7 


35-7 


Stockholm 


59 


20 


42-1 


25-6 


38-3 


610 


43-6 


35-4 


liund 


bb 


42 


45-0 


29-7 


41-7 


621 


47-0 J 


32-4 



Copenhc^en^ Sept. 1835. 



Art. III. On the Arboriculiural Flora of Svoeden. By Dr. Agardh, 
late Professor of Botany at Lund, now Bishop of Carlstadt. 

The arboricultural flora of Sweden may be divided into three 
regions; 1. that of the beech; 2. that of the oak; and 3. that of 
the birch. 

1. The Region of the Beech is the most southern, and it terminates'bbliquely 
towards the north; its boundary line extending from the east coast at Calmar 
(56° 45^) through the province of Smoland, and West Gothland, to tiie river 
of Gotha, at 57^ 45'; and thence proceeding to the south of Norway, near 
Christiania and Laurwig. The vegetation of this r^on has ^e character of 
that of the north of Germany; but modified by the fertile soil of Scania, and 
the mountainous surface of Smoland. The climate resembles that of die 
south of Scotland and the north of England. The peaches, apricots, and 
grapes ( Fitis vinifera^ rinen every year in Scania, as does also the sweet 
chestnut (Castanea vesca). The low shrubs of this region are, EtioA [Calliina] 
vulg^iris and E, Tetralix, ^'mpetrum, and, in some places, C^sus #c<^liius ; 
Genista germ&nica, pUosa, and tinctoria; Thymus ^erpl^llum, Tacciirium ap^ 
and the small salixes. Of large trees, we find woods of beech, birch, oak, elm 
( CTImus campestris), alders (i^^nusglutindsa),and of pines (j^nus sylvestris). 
Of low trees and shrubs, we possess ^^cer campestre, ^6dera H^lix, D&phne 
Mezereum and f^aureola, Capnfolium Periclymenum,andZonicera XyMsteum ; 
various roses, rubuses, and salixes ; iSiambucus nigra, Zigiistrum vulgare, Cir- 
pmiis ^etulus ; Tllia bore^lis (interm^ia Dec), Berberis vulgaris, P^tus 
communis and ilfalus, Cotoneaster vulgaris, i?u<5nymus europas us ; iS6rbus 
A^Tia, intermedia, and aucuparia; T^xua baccata, Corylus ilvellana, i^ham* 
nus cath&rticus and Fr^ngula, JPri^nus splnosa, Cerasus P&dus and avium, 
CVatae^gus Oxyacdntha and [Ox.] mon6gyna; P6pulus tremula, nigra, and 
41ba ; Mynco, Gale, and Comus sangulnea. 

2. The Re^^ of the Oak is to the north of the region of the beech, and it 
also terminates obliquely, though in a contrary direction, descending from 
Gefle (90°* 40'), and following almost the limits of Weshnanland, and Ner&e 
on the south of Warmeland, to the same point on the west, where the foiwer 
re^on is terminated by the river of Gotha. With the exception of the beech, 
which fails totally, and the elm, which is only fi)und occasionally, the woods 
partake of the character of those in the lower region ; though the shrubs and 



>' 



y^ 



ArbaricuUural Flm*a of Sweden. 6S 

uiideK;rowth are etsentially difierent. The woods consist chiefly of pines and 
firsy m& pines (Pinus sylvestris) being principally in the plains ; and the firs 
(vfbies excelsa) on the mountains ; and of birch and alders. The low trees 
and shrubs are quite changed ; we no loncer find ifcer canip^tre, If^dera, 
iSlambticus, Zigiistruni, £u6nymus, Cerasus avium, Ctorif&lium Periclyroenum, 
iSS6rbus il^ria, P6pulus ilba and nigra, i^rica 7(gtraux, or Ofiirpinus ; and in 
their stead begin the ^ipp6phae8, illnus inckna, Ledum paldstre, and^Jff^tula 
n^a. 

3. The Region of the Birch is bounded only by the limits of ycigetation itself. 
As it extends farther and farther towards the north, it gradually drops 
many of the former species, and others arise in their stead ; such as Lonfcera 
caerulea, and more especially all the plants belonffing to the Lapland flora, as 
many of the salixes, the andromedas, azaleas, diapensia, &c. The Tlimarix 
germdnica exists in Sweden, only in this region ; and we find here three 
singular varieties, with laciniatCKi leaves, of the birch ^^^tula hybrida Moen.) 
near Fahlun ; of the alder (i41nus glutinosa var. Iacroi4ta) in the north of 
Warmeland ; and of Ainua incana (^^tula pinnikta, Landim in Act, Hoim,)^ also 
in the north of Warmeland. As the woods of pines and firs disappear, firom 
being destroyed by fire, the birch takes their place, and thrives so well in the 
burnt soil as to give quite a different appearance to the country. 

Different regions of vegetation may also be formed by boun- 
daries taken longitudinal Iv, or from east to west These consist 
of: 1. the two islands, of Oeland and Gothland; 2. the eastern 
maritime district; 3. the western maritime district; 4'. the in- 
terior region ; and 5. the alpine region ; all of which have different 
kinds of vegetation. 

1. The two Islands ofOeiand and Gothland have a chalky soil, and a maritime 
atmosphere, with what may be called an island climate. They possess many 
shrubs which are not to be found in any other part of Scandinavia ; such as 
Coronilla E'merus, Helidnthemum Fum^na and oel&ndicum, and Potentllla 
firuticdsa; and some trees, such as ITimus effusa and iSforbus hybrida. 

2. The Eastern Maritime District is poorer in v^etation than the western 
one ; and its flora bears a strong resemblance to that of the Russian continent. 
TMixus baccata and ^ipp6phae rhamndides are principally found in this 
region, as is also Comus sanguinea. 

3. The Western Maritime District possesses an extremely mild climate, and its 
flora partakes of the character of that of the British Islands, most of the trees 
and snrabs of which country we find there; especially the Genista, Z>ig6strum 
vulg^re, ^ipp6phae rhamndides, iS6rbus if ria, EncsL T^tnSix and cin^rea, 
and A'cer campestre. Asparagus belongs to both coasts. The holly and 
the furze fail totally in Sweden ; but both are foimd in Denmark, and the 
holly in Norway. 

4. The InteriorEegion ia the poorest of all, so that we may invert the law of 
iLinnams, who stated that vegetation has descended from the mountains; as 
here, the principal station of the plants seems to have been the valleys, from 
whic^ they have ascended to the hills and mountains. An interior shrub is, for 
example, Berberis vulgiUis. The most interesting of the shrubs found in the 
interior is Linnae^a borealis. 

5. The Alpine Flora is certainly poor in the number of its species, though it 
is rich in species which are to be found in no other part of Sweden ; it is not, 
however, essentially difierent firom that of the southern European alps, except 
in shrubs, some salixes, the diapensia, and iZhodod^ndron lapp6nicum. 

Having thus given a short sketch of the regions into which the 
arboricultural vegetation of Sweden may be divided, I shall next 



1 



6^4 JrbaricuUural Flora qf Sudden. 

{^ttempt to convey an idea of the proportions of the natural i 

Qnler3, by roughly estimating tlie number of plants it contains \ 

of each. " 

'iilidoe<e, I sp. 

Aon^neiB. 2 sp. . 
' Celastrine€B. jfeu6nymu8, 1 sp. 

Vk^netB. Plex, 1 6p. 

BhdmwtB, 2 sp. ^iihanmus). 

Legunmow. C^tisus, 1 sp. ; {yenista^ 3 sp. ; Coronilla» 1 sp. In all 5. 

'Rosacea, R^bas (ligneous sp.), 5 sp. ; Potentllk, 1 sp. ; iZosa, 8 sp. ; 
JP^ras, 2 sp.; jS^rbus, 4 sp. ; Cratae^gus, 1 sp. ; -fl/espilus, 1 sp.; Prunus 
[and Cerasus], 3 sp. In all 25. 

Tamaris^neee. ] sp. 

Grottularidip, 4 sp. (Rtbes), 

Arttlihce€B, I sp. (Hedera). 

Capnjblidcea. C6rau8, 2 sp.; nburnum, Isp.; jS'ambucus, Isp.; Lonicera^ 
3 sp.; liimsBi^a, 1 sp. In all 8. 

Lordnihem, 1 sp. (Flscum). 
., Waccmecsj, 4 sp. (Vacclnium) [and Oxyc6ccus]. 

"EaicdcecB, il^utus, 2 sp. ; Rhododendron, 2 sp. ; Xr^dum, 1 sp. ;^ AndnS* 
med/i, 4 sp. ; Menziesia, 1 sp. ; Calluna, ] sp. ; j^rlca, 2 sp. ; i^iap^osia, 
1 sp; In all 14. 

OlehuB, I sp» (i^Vaxhiufi). 

LabtdUe. I sp. (TTiymus). 

Thwnelce'ce, 1 sp. (i)aphne). 

'Bladgnea, 1 sp. (-ffippdphae). 

Vlmdce€e, {Tlmus, 1 sp. 

Salkinea, iSalix, 33 sp.; P6pulu8, 3 sp. In all 36. 

'Bettdinets. J?etula, 3 sp. ; il'lnus, 2 sp. In all 5. 

CupuUfercB. Quercus, 2 sp. ; Coryius, 1 sp. ; jFiagus, 1 sp. ; Carpinus, 1 sp. 
In all 5. 

M^rioea, ? ilfyrlea, 1 sp. 

Comfer<s. Pmus, 1 sp. ; ^^bieSy 1 sp. ; Juniperus, 1 sp. ; and Tk&jBj 1 sp. 
In all 4. 

"Empelrece, 1 sp. 

According to this enumeration we find, in the Scandinavian 
peninsula, 134 indigenous ligneous species. 

We now come to the foreign trees and shrubs. The central 
points from which these plants have spread over the whole coan* 
try are, Lund, Upsal, Stockholm, and Gottenburg. Some of 
the introduced trees, such as Zarix europoe^a, .^sculus Hip- 
)x>castamim, some species of P6pulus, and ^cer Pseudo-PMtanus, 
thrive here as well, and are almost as common, as the indigenous 
trees. .Of firuit trees, all that are cultivated north of the Euro- 
pean.' alps grow in Scania; such as peaches, apricots, grapes, 
^iBiondB, chestnuts, walnuts, and mulberries (ilforus ^Iba and 
nigra)^ ofid they appear to sufier very little from the cold : even 
figs : (i^rfii» Carica) have lived through some winters. The 
Japao^ shrubs endure the climate ofLund tolerably well, as 
Klmajaponica^and'BrouBsonitm, which- last had gr&wn to the 



ArbaHcidtural Flora qfSwedefi. 65 

size of a large tree, one third oF a foot in diameter, fn the botatiie 
garden at Lund, till accidentally (and not, as it seemed, by the 
severity of the winter) it died off. But very few evergreens en- 
dure our winters ; not even the Aicuba jap6nica, or the Portu^i^l, 
or the common laurel ; and the holly with great difficulty. The 
few exotic evergreens that we do possess are, JSuxus sempervirens 
and var., Oatse^gus Pjrraclintha, ^nca sp., and the Coniferae. 
Many of the Swedish noblemen have contributed much to the 
spread of foreign trees throughout Scandinavia, by planting them 
on their estates ; as, for example. His Excellency Count Trolle 
Wachtmeister, His Excellency the Count de laGardie, Baron Gyl- 
lenkrook, and several more in Scania ; also, the late M. Thouse 
in West Gotha, His Excellency Count Trolle Bronde in Upland, 
M. Wares in Warmeland, &c. The Mbnis dlba thrives well, 
even as. far as Upsal;,and, under the protection of our adored 
Crown Princess Josephine, there is a large plftot^tioo of it at 
Stockholm, for the purpose of breeding and feeding silk^worms ; 
and the silk obtained from them is not only abundtint in quantity, 
biit the quality of it is excellent. 

At Stockholm there are several patrons of arboricutttti*e« as re- 
gards the cultivation of foreign trees. Some of the most distin- 
guished are, the Counsellor de Pontin, M. SibfwenStfale^ ^rid M. 
Rofenblad ; the latter, of whom has the richest collection pi* plants 
that can be found in any private garden in Scandinavia^ 

Of the botanic garden at Upsal I have only a superficial know- 
ledge; but, judging from a slight inspection, it appears to contain 
as rich a collection of foreign trees and shrubs as the climate will 
endure; and to be worthy of having had such renowned directors 
as Lionfieus, Thunberg, and Wahlenberg. 

There are two public plantations of foreign trees at Stockholm; 
viz. that of the Forest Institute, directed by M. Strom, and that 
of the Agricultural Academy ; both of which po^ess a great 
number of foreign trees, of which I am not yet able to give you 
a catalogue. As to the height of the trees, I can find no differ- 
ence between, those in Scandinavia and those in Germany, or in 
any other country north of the European alps. The beeches and 
oa^s are as well grown trees with us as they are in Germany. 
The sweet chestnut tree and the Kobin/a Pseiid-^C£Lcia are some- 
what smaller, as they have hitherto never attained a greater height 
here th^n 50 ft. ; but others, as the .^sculus, the&re^ tilias, 
P6pulus> the foreign pines, Juglans, &c., may be compared 
wiui those of Germany. The Platanus occident^lifr attains a 
height of 30 ft. The Piatanus orientals does not $tand in the 
free ground in our garden. Tbe tulip iree is perfectly hardy. 
We have npt yet tried the cedar of Lebanon in the opcti air ; 
but we hppe to, be d^leitP.-dotlsi^Lid' soDi^xfitinr^ 

Lundj Sept. 23. 1835. 



Designs for laying out 



Art. IV. A Series of Designs for laying out Suburban Gardens and 
Grounds, Jrom One Perch to several Acres in extent. By Mr. T. 
RuTGER. Design 5. Frontages to Two detached Houses. Design 6< 
Frontages to Four double Houses. 

Is the design ^. 5. tlie Irontages of two detnched houses 
are given, with the princip^ entrances to both in the centre. 




These houses are supposed to be occupied bj such as keep a 
one-horse phaeton or stanhope , a carnage entrance to each is 
therefore given, and a small stable, gig-hcuae, and yard to each, 
ou the one side , with a yard and buildings on the other side, 
supposed to be for offices or other conveniences, and to which a 



Suburban Gardens and Grounds. 67 

small walk from the carriage-road leads, by which a back en- 
trance is efiected. Mucli may be done in rroBtages of this der 
scription to render them attractive, by the introduction of a 
fountain in the centre, or a basin for gold and silver fishes, and 
by a few articles of embellishment placed here and there as 
fancy may point out. 

The design ^. 6. consists of frontages to four double 




houses, or such as have rooms on each side the entrance. The 
wdks aM all intended to be Itud down with stone. There are 
aboW sevffl pwcbes of ground to each of these frontages; bu^ 
incaaeswbcxttso miich.gi»uiid (winot be a^rded, they may be 



Form (^Stages and Shelves 




curtailed in their length, which will render a little alteration in 
the sizes and Forms of the clumps necessary In frontages of this 
size, a coDBtderable variety of elegant plants and flowers might 
be introduced, and such a selection made as would give con- 
siderable pleasure in theur culture to amateurs in a small way 
Porilatid Place, 18S5. 



Art, V. On ike Best Form of Stages and Shelves Jbr the DUplat/ of 
Green-house Plants. By Mr. T. Rutger. 

The green-house and conservatory always afford me a high 
treat, and particularly when stocked with the more rare and 
beautiful plants : but it is one thing to have a good collection of 
plants, and another to have them so disposed as to enable spec- 
tators to view each particular plant with advantage. High stages 
are by no means w^l adapted for this purpose; and we gene- 
rally find [dant^houses in the nurseries more suitable for dis- 
playing green-bouse plants, than green-houses in gentlemen's 
gatflcns. These last are, indeed, generally constructed rather 
ioT the sake of coavenieuce^ tban for making a display and 



for the Hii^ay of Green -house PUinls. 
■ 6 




showing the plants tliey contain off to advantaf^ ; snd, besides, 
honses of such a construction as to be suitable for the latter 
purposes might not be deemed sufScientlj ornamental Ibr the 
shrubbery or flower-garden. High stages are inconvenient for 
watering and cleaning the plants, as well as for viewing them in 
such a. way as to satisfy those who really delight in noticing 
their progress. . 

Opinions may vary as to the precise height that the stage 
ought to be ; but, upon the principles I have in view, namely, 
those of- enjoying all the advantages necessary for convenient 
inspection, and of watering, cleaning, &c, I should recom- 
mend it not to exceed 4 fU 6 in., or, at the most, 4 ft. 9 m., in 
bright. 11)18 height woult}', I think, be found advantageous in 
watering, as well as for viewing the plants; and by tbts>. nieana 
a sighe would be obtained of the surfiice of the romiklifn all the 
pots, which would prevent a careful person from giving an in>* 
discriminate supply of water, which k loo frequenUy, done in 
ckses where the sxr&ce of the mould in tbe pots- is abpve thd 
line «f vision. ' 'But sMncmay say tliRt this, even withhiHi ■ 
slsji^,' otrfji reqotrei ^cha'perEDA to;piue sac fool -iDTHmi the - 
VoL-XH.— No. !1. o 



Fiirm of Stages and Shelves 



L_--^ - - --- 


,- 


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I:i 


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lii!illMr;i:,l!;.||.li' 


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';....?...". 



Fc between the phnttSg 
I aiD amure that this is 

I frequently done, but, I fear, 
too frequently at the ei^nse 
of mutilating many of the 
plants; and this wSl always 
prove a source of regret to 
the onner if he values his 
collection, and particularly 
should a plant of value be 
injured. 

In order to carry out the 
principles I have in view, it 
is obvious that the stage 

I must be constructed differ* 
intly to those we generally 
iiid where collections of 
plants are kept; and this I 
some time since carried into 
ef^t, by altering a stage 
which reached from the 
ground to the back of the 
house in the usual way, the 
sket(^ of whi<^ (j^. ?.) I 
now send you. The plants, 
when placed upon this stage, 
had rather a pleasing and 
unique appearance, preaentr 
ing something like the sec- 
tions of three pyramids, and 
at the same time affording 
all the convenience neces- 
sary for viewing, watering, 
cleaning, 8cc. For the sake 

I of economy the okl materials 
e worked up for this 
stage^ otherwise I should 
have given it the form df 

L^- 8., which, I think, is an 
improvement, both as it re* 
spects the platform in the 

I front as well as the stage. , 
Following up the same 

Y prii)ciples &r a span-roofed 
green-house, I submit^. 9. 
fqff approval ; which might 
answer &t a. conservatory 
as well as for a green- 



Ike JXapUof (fGrtcn-kme Planti. 




>1 



house, by placing BeiCdf 
composts in tfie same 
form as the stages and 
platforms are represented 
in the sketcfa. 

But let it be nnder> 
stood, that, in giving these 
sketches my principal aim 
is to draw the attention 
of your readers to the 
subject, with the hope of 
seemg other designs given 
upon better principles 
than those now submitted 
to the public. 

A plauiiible objecUon 
may arise on account of 
there being a small space 
sacrificed By this mode of 
CDUstrnctmg the stages; 
but whidi, I think, is 
more than compensated 
by the convenience it 
offers to the real ad* 
mirer of plants. 

The dotted lines across 
the footpaths near the 
back, ill ^s. ?. and 6., 
are intended for small 
borders to plant creepers 
in, to be trained against 
the walls over the stages, 
so as to meet in the 
centre. 

If these boards are 
painted twice with the 
an ti- corrosion pain^ 

which you have so 
strongly recommended ia 
the Ena/c. (^ Arch., they 
will have the colour of 
stone, and a rough sur- 
face like that material; 
and they wiH endnre 
much longer than when 
painted with comrnon 



72 I^nn ^Green-house Stages and Shelves. 




Flon'cullural and Botanical Notices. ^ 79 



Art. VI. Fhricultural and Botanical Notices on Kinds of Plants 
nevoly introduced into our Gardens^ and that have originated in ihcM^ 
and on Kinds of Interest previously extant in them ; supplementary 
to the latest Editions of the ** Encyclopadia of Plants^** and of 
the " Hortus Britannicus" 



Curtis s Botanical Magazine; in monthly numbers, each containing 
eight plates ; Ss. 6d. coloured, S; . plain. Edited by Dr. Hooker, 
King's Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow. 

Edwards* s Botanical Register; in monthly numbers, each containing 
eight plates; 4«. coloured, 3s. plain. Edited by Dr. Lindley, 
Professor of Botany in the London University. 

Siveet^s British Flower-Garden ; in monthly numbers, each containing 
four plates; 3^. coloured, 2s. Sd. plain. Edited by David Don, 
Esq., Professor of Botany in King's College, and Librarian to the 
Linnsean Society. 

Embryo dicotyledonous : Corolla polypetalous, 

OR not any. 

IX. Crucidcea. 

183a FESICA'RIA. fco Bot m«r. 9464 

• grandiflbra Hook, large-flowered O or 1^ Jl to o Y Tezaa, Mexico 1835 or, die, ISSi S 

M. Berendier has discovered three species in Texas of Mexico, 
namely, lasioc^rpa Hook, ms.y gracilis, and grandifl6ra Hook. Mr. 
Drummond, also, found the last two. He sent seeds of, at least, 
grandiflora ^^ in the spring of last year, which produced plants 
in the summer, exhibiting a profusion of blossoms, a!nd a bright- 
ness and size in the flower [by the figure, the corolla is farther 
about than a sixpenny-piece], equalled by kvf plants of this 
natural order, and which render the species most highly deserving 
of cultivation, whether in the flower-border, or on the shelves of 
a cool green-house. The almost sessile, spreading, and concave 
petals give it an appearance very unlike that of most cruciform 
flowers. The blossoms are long-lived ; and the same plant will * 
yield a succession of flowers from July to October." (Bot. Mag.^ 
Jan.) 

XLVI. Cactdceie. 

1472L CE'REUS. 

•12559a Napoledius Graham Napoleon's tt ID spL 6 s W ... 1825? C al Bot. mag. 5468 
Sgnonymes : Ciuctm Napole6D/« Hort, Cdreus trianguliris var. ro^for Salm^Dydk. 

Dr. Graham has described this species. As compared with 
triangularis, the far greater length of its joints, their different 
form, and the shape of the edges between the tubercles, have led 
Dr. Graham to conclude it to be not a variety of that species. 
Its flower is very like that of grandiflorus : one was 8 in. long,, 
and, when fully expanded, 6 in. across. The outer segments of 
the perianth are straw-coloured, lanceolate-linear; me inner, 
pure white, spathulate-linear. Stamens yellow; sdgma yellow, 
protruded,- of many segments. * This kind was received at tho 

G 3 



.'-' 
..*• 



74 .' . Floriciditiral and Botanical Notices^ 

Edinburgh Botanic Garden^ from Mr. Mackay of Clapton, in 
about 1825. It had repeatedly formed buds; but no blossoms 
expanded until Se})tember, 1835. The flower opened in the 
morning, and closed towards the afternoon : it is slightly, and not 
very agreeably, perfumed. (BoL Mag^ Jan.) 
liX. Protedcees. 

SDSL iSOPOHKTN. C^ ^P -^Bdin. n. ph. jotmi. vol xx. p, IM 

f B&xXmi R. Br. Baxter** ft uJ or 2 Id.Um ^ecimeii deicribed mr.tsp Bo N. Hoa 1831 

Stem orect. Leaves hard, stiff, pubescent; once or twice 
triiid, ciuieate^ and once or twice twisted at the base ; edges 
piaoed vertically ; the segments terminated with long pungent 
macros ; the lower leaves undivided, rounded, and toothed at 
the apex ; the teeth terminating in pungent mucros. Capitula 
crowded at the termination of the stem and branches. Perianth 
rose-coloured. *^ This is a handsome species, of which seeds 
were sent by Colonel Lindesay, from New Holland, to the 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, in July, 18S0; it was raised in 
1831, and flowered in the green-house in March and April, 1835. 
{Dr. Graham^ in the Edin, New PhiL Joum.^ Jan.) 

L»XII. Aj'istolochidcea. 

S58SL ^RIi9TOIiO'CHIA. TC p.1 Bot reg. 1894 

•2284&1 foeHeiw Lindl. iMxkklng^loviered f. O or SO ? jn Va. with P and Y W. Indies 18S2 P 

'^ It is chiefly remarkable for the lai*ge size and singular colour 
of" the limb of the calyx, which is " beautifully variegated with 
purple and dirty yellow.*' The flowers " have a most disagree- 
able disgusting smell, which will prevent the plant from becoming 
a fiivourite. • • 4 Nearly allied to A. grandiflora." The figure is 
from the species in a living state, in the collection of Mrs. Marryat^ 
Wimbledon, Surrey, who obtained it from the West Indies* 
{Bot* B^g'i JauO 

LXV. Thi/meldcea. 

87.PIMEL£*A. ZISSS C cp Bot r«s- 18^7 

f797 iigdstrina Lab. TtiveMeqfed ft lJ or 10 ur W Van Diemen's Land to Fort Jacluon 

A striking species in the largeness of its leaves, to those who 
only know the species with smaller leaves, as glauca and decus* 
sata. Zrigustrina is pleasing in its foliage and heads of white 
flowers ; tne flowers are small ; but many are comprised in each 
head. The figure is from the species, in a living state, in the 
nursery of Mr. Low, Clapton, in March, 1834. It grows, in its 
native places, as much as 10 ft. high. {Bol. Reg^' Joxi.) 

In Vol. X. p. 347, 348., is some account of Ayperlcina Cun.f 
another species with large leaves, on which it is there quoted, that 
*^ it has much of the habit and strength of growth of P. 
/igustrina Zjob* 

i hlipida JL ^^ a figure of a AiU specimen of, u in Boi vaag. aiS9. 

' This species, noticed in Vol. IX. p. 364., from the BoL Reg. 
t. 1578., and from observation, is figured in the Bot.Mag^y Jan., 
t. 3459., and there thus remarked on, " This is, assuredly, the 



supplementary to Entyc. qfPlant$and Horf, Brit. 75 

handsomest of tbid very pretty Australian genus^whellieMre'OMli^') 
sider the beauty of its blossoms, or the great quantity of them prcM 
daced by a single plant, of which one now before us, scarieely ^ 
a foot high, is loaded with upwards of forty heads of flowers/^ 
The figure of this species that is in the Bot, Beg* had been 
derived from the species in the collection of Mr. Knight, Chdsea. 

197. D A'PHNS lOltf odbra rpJf.m. ud a Sv. fl. gar. ft n alO 

*2 rabra D. Don ttd-perktiUked tt^oraDdfra 8 n, latter end Fk China VSSif C 

The figure shows an upright branch well furnished with leaves, 
and terminated by a group of more than a dozen flowers, whose 
perianths are described to be of a rich pink colour. The leaves, 
are described to be lanceolate, or cuneately lanceolate. The 
f^re has been derived from the kind in a living state, in the 
collection of Mr. G. Smith, nurseryman, at Islington. ^< It ap* 
pears to be of a hardy constitution, having been exposed for 
some time to a considerable decree of frost, without, apparently, 
sufiering." Mr. Smith, considers it a most desirable kmd ** for 
the green-house or conservatory, as, if growing vigorously, it 
will continue to blossom during the greater part of the year. 
The flowers are produced in heads at the extremity of almost 
every shoot ; they are of a dark red in the bud state, becoming 
paler and glossy after expansion, and they are then highly fra- 
grant** {Brit. Flow.''Gard.i Jan.) 

LXXVlI. Legumindcea. 

WISTA'^RIJ sin^nnB Dee. (Conaequ&jia Loudon), circumstancet under which a certain plant of 
it produceB ftuit annually. 

<< Never having observed in your Magazine any notice of the 
Wist^rm sinensis having fruited in this country, and having a 
plant of it here, which fi:*uits annually on the open wall, I send 
you some pods, together with a few observations upon the circum- 
stances under which it produces its fruit; and, as I fancy its 
fruiting is rather a rare occurrence in this country, perhf^s the 
observations may not be uninteresting to some of the readers of 
your Magazine. 

*^ The plant which produces fi*uit here is, as far as I have been 
able to ascertain, about eight years old, and is planted on the side 
of a gravel walk, with its branches trained on a wall with a south 
aspect Shortly after I came here, I was induced, by the stunted 
appearance of the plant, to examine its roots, and I found that 
all the roots it had had run into the gravel walk, by the side 
of which it is planted ; indeed, it seems to prefer the gravel to 
the neighbouring mould, as I found, on examination, that at any 
part where the roots had come in contact with the latter, they 
had invariably receded from it into the walk again. The plant 
is, certainly, a diminutive specimen ; but it seems to me that its 
fructiferous habit is entirely to be attributed to the nature of the 
soil in which it grows ; and, I have no doubt, were this species 
planted in a gravelly, instead of a rich, soil, in which we generally 

6 4 



76 FloricuUural and Botanical Notices^ 

find it planted, we should soon have an abundance of seed from 
it; from which many varieties might be obtained of this most 
interesting of all our hardy climbers* — A. Sleigkj Gardener to 
jR Bernasconif Esq, Harrow Weald, Middlesex, December 31. 
1835." 

The pods are of about the size of those of the white Dutch 
runner: the seeds are considerably larger than those of the 
laburnum, of about the same figure, and not of so dark a colour.' 
The seeds have been distributed. 

CXL. Caryophylldcece. 

*141Sfl. AGROSTE'MMA. gard.2L 0.317 

*i2005a Bungeana D. Don Bunge'i k A or 1 jl S ? Asiatic RuMia 1834? SCO 1 Sw. fl. 
Synonyme : Lfehnis BungedtuTHortulanorum. 

" The species comes near to f61gens [that is, to i^chnis ful- 
gens Fis."], but is distinguished at once by its longer leaves, 
attenuated at the base, larger flowers, longer calyx, with subulate 
bristle-pointed teeth, more frequently [numerously] lobed petals, 
and longer torus." Those who know of the showy beauty of 
Z/ychnis fulgens in its flowers, and would choose it on account 
of this, will readily conclude that A. Bungea?2a is a species 
choosable for the gratification of themselves with its beauty. 

It " is a hardy perennial, requiring a loamy soil, and it may 
be increased by cuttings, or by seeds, which it appears to perfect 
freely." The lamina of the petal is described to be l^in. long : 
this would render the circumference of the flower more than 
3 in. in diameter. In the figure, two flowers are represented, 
each of about 2 in. in diameter. The figure is derived from the 
species in a living state, in the collection of Dr. Neill, Canon- 
mills, Edinburgh, who had received it from Messrs. Booth of 
the Flotbeck Nurseries, near Hamburgh. {Brit, Flam.'Gard,, 
Jan.) 

Eaibryo djcotyledonous: Corolla monopetalous. 
CLXXI. Epacriddcece. 

517. COSME'LIA R. Br. [C ^p Bot reg. 1828 

t4324 rilbra li. Br. xed-coroUaed il (_J or " 1| " my Ro R South coast of New Holland 1826 

It resembles, in its general aspect, a species of E pacris ; in 
its foliage, perhaps, E. grandiflora. Most or all of its flowers 
are pendulous. Its corolla is tubular, more than half an inch 
long, inflated in the middle of its length, tapered to each end, 
most to the tip one. The native locality of rubra is marshy. 
The figure is derived from the species in a living state, in the 
collection of Messrs. Loddiges. {Bot. Reg., Jan.) 

CLXXXVI. Compositce. 

2198. TRO'XIMON 19792 f glaticum J^«/. 

*1. The scape and the leaflets of the involucre, which are spreading, hirsutely tomentose. {Hooker.) 

.|tf ^ or 1 jn,au Y Rocky Mountains Raised from seeds gathered by Mr. Drununond during 

Capt. Sir John Franklin's Expedition. Bot. Mag. d^^S&. [mag. IQSJ 

t3. Sheapa|«B and the leaflets of tne involucre, wjblcb are er^t, perfectly glabrous. (Hooker.) Bot 

,' jbr. Hoi^cer has cited cuspfd^tum Ph., arid marginatum Nut., as synonymes of var. $., with a 

. ' . doubt tf> each. 



supplementary to Encyc. of Plants and Hort. Brit. 77 

' ** So different is the appearance of this handsome plant [var. 1.] 
from that of Troximon glaucum of Dr. Sims, in the Botanical 
Magazine [var. 2.], that, were I not possessed of native specimens, 
exhibiting intermediate gradations, I should certainly have pub- 
lished it as a new species." [Dr, Hooker , in Bot. Mag.^ Jan.) 

LASTHE'NIA Catnni, 

(t califdrnica Dee. Californian O or 1 ? " About six wecki, at diifoeiit periods of tbe'yMr, 
according to the aeaaon at which its seeds are sowa** Y Calilbrnia 1834? 8 oo Bot reg. 
1823L 

See in G. M, vol. xi. p. 475, 476. Dr. Lindley has stated that 
Professor De CandoUe, in a manuscript list of the genera of 
Composites which he has just received from him, has included 
Lasth^nia in his first series Tubuliflorae, 4th tribe, Senecionideae, 
5th subtribe HeJen2V<P, 1st division GaillardiV^, 2d subdi- 
vision EtAi^Veiiiece. [Bat. Beg.^ Jan.) 

S374. CURYSA'NTHEMUM S1G64 sininse 
fTar. the sulphur yellow.. 

* var. Wheeler's sanguineum. 

* rar. Wheeler's expanded crimson. 

In Vol. X. p. 188. is a notice that ^^ Chrysiinthemum sinense 
Wheeler/awMTw, and six other seedling varieties, from Mr. Isaac 
Wheeler, Beaumont Buildings, Oxford," were exhibited to the 
London Horticultural Society on December 3. 1833 : this was at 
a meeting of the Society of that date. In the Floricultural Cabinet, 
the number for Jan. 1836, is a plate of coloured figures of the 
three kinds of chrysanthemum named above ; and a statement 
on the t^o varieties designated Wheeler's, that " they are a most 
valuable addition to this pleasing tribe of autumnal-flowering 
plants." The sulphur yellow is described in our Vol. IX. p. 223. 
by the deceased Mr. Haworth : more fully in the Floricultural, 
Cabinet. 

CCXI, Scropktdari&ce^e. 

45. VERCNICA. tested as a synonyme. 

fiSS labidta K Br. is figured in the Bot. mag., Jan., t S461., where V. Derw^ntia, Andr., rep. 1 531., is 

There are appended descriptions of four species recently dis- 
covered in New Zealand, by "Mr. Richard Cunningham : these 
are named, — 

tspecidsa R. Cun., 't^gustrifblia R. Cun., tdiosmifblia R. Gun., and Jcalyclna R. Br. 

Speciosa is a shrub 3 ft. to 6 ft. high, with many ascending 
robust stems. Flowers blue pinple, resembling those of Lu- 
binm atropurpurea. Mr, Allan Cunningham has remarked 
that ** we know of no shrub more to be desired to enrich our 
collections than this very remarkable and beautiful speedwell ; 
judging, as we do, from the fine specimens we have received, 
and from the description given of it on its native hills by its 
discoverer. Z/igustrifolia is a slender shrub, 2 ft. high ; its flowers 
are whitish. Diosmifolia is a slender twiggy shrub, 3 ft. to 12ft. 
high : its flowers are white. The other species discovered by Mr. 
R.Cunningham is deemed to appear identical with calycina-B. J57'., 
originally found by Mr. Brown in Van Diemen's Land. This 



78 Ftoriculfural and Botanical Notices^ 

is ft berbficeous species, with repent or decambent stems, in many 
instances 5 ft. to 6 ft. long. {Dot. Mag.y Jan.) 
CCXX. \erhendcea. 

1743. FERBITNA. Tgar. 2. 8. 318 

»29321a rug5«a D. Dm mtbnXk^Je^ed ^ A or S Jl Vi Buenoi Ayrat 1883f D CT lU Sw.fl. 

Stems about 2 ft:, high. Leaves on very short footstalks ; 
cordate-lanceolate, serrate, veiny and wrinkled ; grass green oh 
both sides ; 2 in. long, nearly 1 in. broad. Flowers in short 
dense spikes, disposed in a corymbose panicle. Corolla violet. 
'^ A very showy species, raised at the Birmingham Botanic 
Garden. It is evidently allied to venosa, and is principally dis^ 
tinguished by its stalked leaves, cordate at the base, and more 
hairy corollas, with deeper-notched lobes. A hardy perennial.'* 
{BriU Flow,'Gard.j Jan.) 

Embryo monocotyledonous. 
CCXXXIX. Iriddcea. 

19tSL CYPE'LLA. [18S4 O 8.p Ed. n. ph. Jflimi. vol. 9a n. 190 

« Druinm6nclxi Graham Drummond's A ? tf S3 or ... Jn, in the stove P Y B San Filipe 

Stem erect, flexuose, leafy. Leaves sword-shaped, plicate, 
distichous, sheathing at the base. Spathe 2-flowered. Perianth 
rotate, 6-partite, purple, yellow, with brown spots in the centre ; 
inner segments rather more than half the length of the outer. 
Tubers, or else bulbs, of this very pretty species were received 
at the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh; by Dr. Neill, Canonmills^ 
Edinburgh ; and by Mr. Cunningham, nursery. Comely Bank, 
Edinburgh ; from Mr. Drummond, in 1834. The species flow- 
ered in the stove, in all these establishments, in July, 1835. (Dr. 
Graham^ in Edin. New. Phil. Journ.^ Jan.) 

CCLI. Liiltdcea. 

101& FRITILLA^RIA. [Ed. d. ph. joum. vol fia a 192 

*cQprea(SrraAa«i eofppet..cplomred-per<anthed tf^orl^ jl Cop? Mexico 18M? O ... 

Stem 15 in. high, leafy. Leaves somewhat glaucous, ovate, 
acuminate, stem-clasping; in the iixils of the upper two are two 
ovate bulbs. Flower solitary, terminal, campanulate, nodding; 
perianth of six elliptical copper-coloured segments. •* This very 
graceful little plant flowered in a close green-house, in the nur- 
sery of Mr. Cunningham, at Comely Bank, Edinburgh, in July, 
1 835. He believes it was imported from Mexico. {Dr, Graham^ 
in the Edin. New. Phil. Joui-n.^ Jan.) 

CCXL. Orchiddcea. 

S539. PLEUROTHA'LLia Iteg, 1825 

«pictaliiutf. painted-^fotMretf ^ CZ9 pr i ojat WR Demerara 1833? D pir.w BoL 

Close akin to P. Groby/ : see in Gard. Mag.^ vol. xi. p. 589. 
** It is a graceful pretty species, and well deserves an attentive 
examination." The figure is derived from the species in a flow- 
ering state, with Messrs. Loddiges. It seems to require the close 
atmosphere of a bell-glass : its tufts are readily formed under 
good management. {Hot. Reg.^ Jan.) 



supplementcay U> Efuyc* qf Plants and Hart* Brit. 79 

£517. DENORO^BIUM. TBot. nt- VOSB 

• detisifldnun TTo/. 6&a»e-injhretcenced ^ T7^ orpendulom 1| my Y Nepal 1890? p.r.w 

In the figure is depicted a branch, or part of one, bearing 
three leaves, and a raceme of 24 flowers : that part of the raceme 
upon which the flowers are seated is about 6 in. long. The 
coloiir of the flowers and bracteas is yellow; the Jabellum is of 
a golden yellow, and pubescent The flowers are rather large* 
Toe figure has been prepared from the species in a living state, 
in the collection of 'Messrs. Loddiges. <* Beautiful as is the 
specimen represented, it is still inferior to what is produced in 
India ; so that eultivators have still a point to gain in respect to 
this charming species." {Bat. Meg., Jan.) 

?t?SS706a eMssFth^des JIL OMk Ousytba-Hke AlJ en ... lo flower on the eMteniiide of Sjdiiesr 
Core in Oct 1834 BrowniA or golden yolow, white Port Jaduon .m D |».r.w Bot re^ 
1828, in the text 

Leafless, stoloniferous. Racemes tribrachiate. Perianths of 
a brownish or golden-yellow colour, and the labellum white, ami 
elegantly penciled within, as in D. Pier&rd/. This species has 
been discovered growing from the crevices of sandstone rocks, 
on the eastern side of Sydney Cove, Port Jackson. Dr. Lindley 
had derived the account published from Mr. Allan Cunningham, 
who had derived it, and a specimen, from his brother, Mr. Rich- 
ard Cunningham, who has called it cassythiiides, from the 
resemblance that, at first sight, it has to the laurineous '^ genua 
cassytha, not only in its leafless character and short racemes of 
flowers, but in its peculiar chocolate bronze or japanned papulose 
stems." It is deemed remarkable of this species, that it should 
have been so long overlooked, in a locality which, it is considered, 
has, doubtless, been traversed by botanists of many coimtries of 
Europe. It seems to be the fact, that this species has ilot yet 
been received in a living state in Britain. {Bot. Reg^f Jan.) 

257& LI'PARia C 0|k r.w Ed. n. phi Joum. vol. flO. |x IM 

* WalkdnVE Graham Mrs, Coi. Walker's ^ Jsl cu ? i ... FY Ceylon 1834) June 

Leaves subrotundo-ovate, cucullate, acute. Spike man}^- 
flowered, cylindrical. Germen purple. Sepals dark purple. 
Lips dark purple in the middle, yellow and crenulate at the 
edges. Received at the Edinburgn Royal Botanic Garden, 
from Mrs. Col. Walker, Ceylon. It has flowered tvncfi since 
in the stove. ^' It ought to stand, in the arrangement of the 
species, between L. purpurascens and L. atropurpiirea, and is 
distinguished from the former by its spike, and from the latter 
by its acutely angled, almost winged, stem." (Z>r. Grahaniy in 
the Edin. Nem. Phil. Joum.y Jan.) 



80 Tran^ctiofis of the L/mdon Horticidtural Society*-. 



REVIEWS. 

Art. I. Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London. Second 
Series. Vol. I. Part IV. 4to. London, 1833. 

(Continued from Vol. X. p. 504.) 

35. A Report upon the principal Varieties of the Cherry cultivated in 
the Garden of the Society. By Mr. Robert Thompson, Under- 
Gardener in the Fruit Department. 

36. A Note upon the Brabant BeUefleur Apple. By John Lindley, 
Ph. D. F.R.S., Assistant Secretary. 

39. Notes upon some French Stewing Pears. By John Lindley, Ph. 
D. F.R.S., Assistant Secretary. 

The essence of these three papers may be considered as given 
in the new edition of the Encyclopedia of Gardening. 

37- Journal of Meteorological Observations made in the Garden of 
the Horticidtural Society, at Chiswick, during the Year 1830. By 
Mr. William Beattie Booth, A.L.S., till June, 1830; subsequently 
by Mr. Robert Thompson, Under- Gardener in the Fruit Depart- 
ment. 

Another of those elaborate and most valuable papers, from 
which, at a future time, most useful generalisations may be made 
respecting the weather. 

38. On the beneficial Effects of the Accumulation of Sap in Annual 
Plants. By Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq., F.R.S., Fresident. 

This is a most valuable paper, both in a scientific and prac- 
tical point of view, and we shall therefore make large extracts 
from it. 

*' Biennial plants very obviously form, in one season, the sap which they 
expend in the following season in the production of blossoms and seeds ; and 
the capacity of the reservoirs the}' form is greater or less, in proportion as ex- 
ternal circumstances are more or less favourable. Trees also generate, in a 
preceding season or seasons, the sap which feeds, in the spring, their unfolding 
blossoms and young leaves. Annual plants, on the contrary, possess no such 
reservoirs ; and they must generate, in each season, all the sap which they can 
expend, exclusively of the very small portion derived from, the seeds from 
which they spring. But, by appropriate management, and creation of varieties, 
annual plants may be made to accumulate, in one period of their lives, the sap 
which diey expend in another, with very great advantages to the cultivator. 

" The first produced female blossoms of the melon plant, particularly of the 
larger and superior varieties, do not often set ; and, if they set, the fruit they 
afford never attains as large a size, or as much excellence, as the same plants, 
at a more mature age, would have given to it under the same external circum- 
stances. This, I imagine, arises not only from the different quantity, but from 
the different qualities, of the sap in the young and in the more mature plant ; 
for I have found the sap of very young birch and sycamore trees to be speci- 
fically much lighter, and to contam much less saccharine matter, than the sap 
of trees of greater age, of the same species, and growing in the same soil, and 
in the same seasons. Under the influence of abundant light, in those climates 



Transactions of the London HorticuUural Socieiy. 8 1 

in which the melon was placed by nature, the first formed fruit probably 
acquires a high state of perfection, possibly peater than it can ever be made to 
acquire in less favourable climates. But this I am much dbposed to question, 
and to believe that, bv proper management, the melon may be made to acquire, 
in the climate of England, a degree of excellence which it is very rarely round 
to possess in any climate ; and that the degeneracy of the finest varieties may 
be totally prevented. 

*5 Very young plants of the sweet melon of Ispahan (the variety which, till 
within the present year, I have chiefly cultivated) very rarely show fruit j and, 
in my melon-house, I never suffer a lateral shoot or blossom of this variety to 
be produced at a less distance fnJtaa the root than that of the fourteenth or 
fifteenth joint above the seed leaves ; and, when I am anxious to obtain the 
fruit and seeds in the highest state of perfection, I do not suffer a blossom to 
be produced nearer the root than its eighteenth or twentieth joint. Under 
this mode of management, the expenditure of sap, being confined to the 
extremity of a single stem, is very small comparatively with the creation of it, 
and it consequently accumulates, and the fruit is therefore most abundantly 
nourished; I conceive, more abundantly than it usually is in any natural 
climate : and its growth is always enormouslpr rapid. 

*' Every gardener who has been in the habit of raising cucumbers in winter, 
perfectly well knows the advantages of raising his plants in July or August, 
and preventing their expending themselves in the production of blossoms or 
fruit till they have been introduced into the stove. The general opinion of 
gardeners is, that such plants succeed best only because their stems are more 
firm and ligneous than those of young plants ; but I feel confident that the 
real cause of their succeeding best is, the* existence of accumulated sap within 
them. 

*^ By delaying the period of sowing the seeds of many species of plants (the 
turnip and some varieties of the cabbage afford examples), those which would 
have afforded flowers and seeds within the same season, form reservoirs of 
accumulated sap in autumn, which becomes, during winter, the food of man 
and other animals. 

** Proportionably late varieties of different species of annual plants generate, 
in one part of their lives, the sap which they expend in another. I, every 
season, plant, in the beginning ot June, and a little earlier, a large quantity of 
the very late variety of pea which bears my name; and, by supplying the 
plants abundantly with water, I prevent (as I have stated in a communication 
to the Society many years ago), to a very great extent, the injurious effects 
of mildew ; and by these means I regularly obtain a most abundant supply of 
peas in September and October, and of better quality than I can obtain in the 
month of June. In this case the sap which is prepared in the summer is 
obviously expended in the autumn. 

** Th« good effects which I have proved to arise firom planting large tubers 
of the potato plant, obviously spring from the large accumulation of sap in 
them. Fed by means of this, not only a large breadth of foliage is produced, 
and exposed to sight more early in the year, but that foliage contains much 
disposable organisable matter, which once formed a part of the parent tuber. 
Any person who will pay close attention to the growth of produce of early 
crops of potatoes which have sprung from large tubers, will readily obtain 
ample evidence of the truth of this position. The variation in the comparative 
growth of fruits of different species in similar seasons frequently arises, I have 
good reason to believe, from the more or less perfect state of the reservoir 
formed in the preceding year ; and every experienced gardener knows that, 
under any given external circumstances, the blossom of his fruit trees sets 
best when the preceding season has been warm and bright, and when his trees, 
in such season, have not expended their sap in supporting heavy crops of 
fruit." 



82 TransaclioHS qfthe'Lomhn Hortidfdiural Soeief;j^. 

40* Off the CtUUvaiian of the Vine, By Mr. John Smkh, Gardener 
to D. Alexander, Esq., St. Matthew's, Ipswich. Communicated 
by the Ipswich Horticultural Society. 

Mr. Smith prefers the long running m^od of pruning the 
vine ; that is, laying in the young srtioots of the last year of 
nearly their whole length, and, after they have borne a crop, 
cutting them out, and replacing them by other young shoots of 
similar lengths. The difficulty is, to get such shoots to break, 
or burst their buds, equally from the'commencementof the shoot 
to its termination. To effect this, Mr. Smith began by making 
the following experiment : — - 

^ When the external air was cold, I tried the heat of a hot^house near the 
glazed surface, and found the thermometer averaged from l^^ or 2^ of heat higher 
at 10 in. or 12 in. from the glass than at 1 in., or nearly in contact with it. The 
roof of the house in which the experiment was made is two lights deep, ami the 
trellis is attached to the rafters at an equal distance ; consequently, the vines, 
heing fixed thereto, are at a greater distance from the glass at the upper part 
of the house by the thickness of the lower light, on which the upper oncJ 
slides, and therefore, in midmnter, are in a warmer air: of course, this assists 
the disposition of the upper buds in their natural habit of breaking fifst. Xo 
counteract this, I fixed the shoot at about 10| in. from the glass at itshaae^ 
bringing its extreme end close to the glass, by a gradual inclination, at about 
the twenty-sixth bud, and running the remaining part in close contact with the 
glass to its endi In the beginning of Fdi)ruary, the plant began to break its 
eyes, and, as I purposely kept the house rather dry, a very fine piece of wood, 
on the same plant, but trained to the trellis, broke only eight buds at its. ex* 
treme end, while the one above described broke every bud, and nearly o£ 
equal strength, except those at the extreme end, which, by lowering a Jktie 
from the glass, broke also ; and this piece of wood, of about half an indi in 
diameter, with thirty-two buds, showed sixty-five healthy bunches of grapes, 
or two on every bud, with an additional one on the fifth bud from the basa 
Having satisfied my mind in bringing an important desideratum to a settlement, 
I heaoed it back to its twentieth bud ; and though I intended cutting it out 
entirely in the outset of the experiment, I now chose rather to leave about 
half a dozen bunches on it, disbudding, of course, the remainder, &c. That 
to study the variation in the heat of tiie glazed surface of a hot^house, caused 
bv radiation, is a subject worthy our attention, will be readily admitted ; lor, 
although it appears that the uppermost surface is the coldest in midwinter, 
yet an effect directly coutrary to it is produced as the season advances* and a 
practice contraiy to the one above stated is required, which can only be oxm* 
veniently and edectually obtained by the use of a movable trellis, fixed at its 
lower part, but capable of elevation at its upper end. This would not only 
secure, by its use m the dreary months of wmter, a good breaking of the viae 
at an early season, but it would give an advantage above the fixed tcellis in 
other particulars, especially in the prevention of a disease common to grapes 
at then* approaching a state of maturity ; for whatever conclusion experience 
may end m as to the cause of the disease, it is certain that the rays of the sun 
falling upon condensed vapour produce an air not very fit for a delicate planti 
loaded with fruit, to live and to flourish in ; but, as Mr. JIudd expresses it, 
one that b calculated to produce an effect equal to scalding, in consequence 
of which the fruit becomes deformed, and ceases to acquire that state of per« 
fection it otherwise would do. But suppose the rays of the sun to raise the 
thermometer in a hot-house to 00^; and suppose that, with all the air that 
can be admitted, it rises still higher, say to 95^, at 10 in. from the glass it 
would be considerably increased, say 10° ; while, at a similar distance, or at 



Transaciians qftht London HoriieuUural Seeieiy. 85 

oae foot lower, it will be fbimd that it is increased very litde ; cooeequentljiv 
by the use of the movable trellis, we shoold have an opportunity of lowering 
the vine, and thereby placing it in a more temperate atmosphere of from 5 to 
6, 7, or 8 degrees." 

41. Observaiions on ihe Quality of the Oat Timber produced in Great 
Britain. By \^lliaai Atkinson, Esq,, F.H.S. 

This is an important paper* What is called the durmast 
oak is merely a variety which produces mast or acorns of a dun 
colour ; and such dun-coloured acorns are found on trees both 
of Quercus pedunculata and Q. sessilifldra. 

^ The Q. peduncul^ is easily known by ^ acorns having long stalks, and 
the leaves having very short footstalks, or, in some specimens, hardly any, 
in the Q* sessiUfldra, the leaves have footstalks from a quarter to one mch m 
IcHgth, and the acorns sit close to the branch, having hardly any stalks. 

** With respect to the qualities of our two native oaks, the Q. pedunculi^ 
contaois a great ouantity of the alver grain, which shows, when uie wood is 
planed, wh^ workraen call the flower m the wood In conseouence of this, 
the wood ^lits clean and easy, and is best adapted for split paling and laths. 
It is also a sdfler wood ; and, though it may be lMt>ken with a less weight than 
the Q» sessilifldra, yet it requires a much greater weight to bend it, and is 
tbti-efore best calculated for beams, or to bear the greatest weight without 
beodnig. 

<< The Qt sesnlifidra contains so small a portion of the sQver grain, or flower, 
that wood of that kind from old buildings has generally been mistaken for 
sweet chestnut (Castiknea vesca). During the liet thirty years 1 have taken 
eveiy opportunity of procuring specimens of wood from old buildings, and 
particularly what the carpenters called chestnut ; but I have never, in a single 
uwtance, seen apiece of diestnut from an old building : what has been taken 
for that wood, I have always found to be the Q. sessQifldra, mistaken for 
chestnut from its deficiency of the flower or silver grain. 

^ The roof of Westminster Hall lias been said to be chestnut : while it was 
under repair, I procured various specimens from di£ferent parts of the roof; 
the whole of them were oak, and chidiy the Q. seBsilifldra. Most of the 
black oak from trees dug out of die ground I have found to be of the same 
kind. From finding the wood frcnn Uie oldest buildings about London to be 
chiefly of the Q, sessilifldra, I should suppose that, some centuries ago, the 
chief part of the natural woods were of that kind; at present the greater part 
of die oak grown in the south of England is the Q. peduncutkta. 

** Specimens of oaks that I have procured fix>m diflerent parts of York- 
shire and the county of Durham have been all Q, sessilifldra, which is very 
scarce in the south. There are some trees of it at Kenwood, the Earl of 
Bfansfield's, near Higfagate, which I believe to be one of the oldest woods near 
London, and a greater part of the Q. sessiliflora appear to be trees from old 
stools. 

** Q. sessilifldra appears to grow emially well with Q. pedunculikta : it is a 
handsomer tree in the foliage; and, nrom finding so much of it sound in old 
bnildings, I suspect it may be the most durable. It bends fit>m a weidit much 
sooner than Q. pedunculata, but requires a much greater wdght to break it. 
Fromf its toughness, I consider it best calculated for ship timber. The old 
Soivereign of the Seas was broken up after forty-seven years' service, much 
longer than the general durabilitv of ships ; and, as the wood the ship was 
built of was had from the north of England, it is venr probable it was the Q. 
setsiiifldre. 

^ Tuiitey oak (Q; Cerris) is a native of the Levant, and, I believe, is found 
in many parts of Polatid, particularly about Warsaw. The introduction of 
this odL mto BngteAd has been within the last century; therefore wc have 



84 Transactions of t fie London Hortictdtural Society, 

very few tfees of large dimensions. The largest I have deen are at the Mar- 
quess of Downshire's, East Hampstead, in Berkshire. I had never been able to 
obtain a specimen of the wood grown in England, till about five years ago^ 
when two trees were cut down at East Hampstead, and the wood was made 
into doors for the principal rooms of the house. It is much finer in the 
prain than our British oak, or foreign wainscot. It takes a better polish, and 
18 more beautiful than any other oak I have ever seen. From only a single 
specimen I had broken, it was not so strong as our native oak, but equal in 
toughness ; but my specimen being rather cross-grained, it was not a correct 
experiment, and I suspect it is equal in strength to our oak. For all orna- 
mental purposes, where the wood has to be polished, it is superior, and must 
be a profitable tree to plant, as it grows much quicker than our common oaks, 
and I have seen it thrive rapidly in poor land. 

" Oak timber has, for a great length of time, been imported into this 
country, from Holland, by the name of Dutch wainscot, which is generally 
used for floors, doors, and fiirniture. It is more straight in its growth, tender, 
and more easy to work than British oak ; does not require so much seasoning ; 
and stands better without warping : but it is not equal in strength or durability 
to British oak. 

" Some years ago, I procured acorns from the Black Forest in Germany, 
where this wood is grown. Three varieties were sent me by a botanist, who 
collected them in the forest. Some of the trees from the acorns are now 
about six feet high ; but I can only discover two distinct species, which appear 
to me to be exactly the same as our Q. pedunculata and Q. sessilifldra. The 
Dutch wainscot being from a natural wood, and the trees growing close, may 
account for the straightness of the wood, and its being more tender than our 
oak, which differences may also partly be owing to the soil. 

" There is no other oak that appears to thrive in this country, or likely to 
be worth cultivating for timber, except the white odt (Q. dlba) of North 
America. Of this there are not many large trees in England ; but the young 
trees appear to grow well, and I have seen them do best m a peaty sand. The 
white oak imported from America is heavier than British oak : it appears to 
be as strong, and is more difficult to work. There are a great variety of oaks 
in America; but all, except the white oak, appear to be of an inferior quality. 

** As ornamental trees, there are many of the American kinds that are 
beautiful in their foliage ; and, from the various and rich tints the leaves take 
in the autumn, are a great ornament to landscape scenery, and ought to be 
planted more than they have been, as ornamental trees in parks and pleasure- 
grounds." 

42. On the Advantages of irrigating Garden Grounds by Means of 
Tanks or Ponds. By Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq., F.R.S., Pre- 
sident. 

** The quantity of water which may be given with advantage to plants of 
almost every kind, during warm and bright weather, is^ I believe, very much 
greater, than any gardener, who has not seen the result, will be inclined to 
suppose possible ; and it is greater than I myself could have believed upon 
any other evidence than that of actual experience. 

*' My garden, in common with many others, is supplied with water by 
springs, which rise in a more elevated situation; and this circumstance 
afforded me the means of making a small pond, from which I can cause the 
water to flow out over every part of my garden whenever I wish. I am thus 
enabled to irrigate my strawberry beds while in flower, and my alpine straw- 
berry beds, and plants of every other kind, through every part of the summer; 
and I cause a stream to flow down the rows of celery, and along the rows of 
broccoli and other plants which are planted out in summer, with very great 
advantage. But the most extensive and beneficial use which I make of this 
power to imjigale. my garden by the means above mentioned is, in supplying 



Prince PucHer Miakau on Landscape-Crardening* 95 

my late crops of peas abundantly with water* by which the ill eftds df nil* 

dew are almost wholly prevented ; and my table is most abundantly suppliad 
with very excellent peas through the month of October, as I have stated in a 
former communication. 

" When water is delivered in the usual quantity from the watering pan, its 
effects, for a short time^ are almost always beneficial, by wettine the surface of 
the ground. But if water thus given be not continued rmiuarly, iajurioiis 
eSbcts frequently follow; for the roots of plants (as I have down in the Pk^ 
losophical Traruactiont, in a paper upon the causes which direct the roots) 
extend themselves most rapioly wherever they find proper moisture and food; 
and if the surface alone be wetted, the roots extend tmnselvca superficially 
only, and the plants, consequently, become more subject to iqjury from drought 
than they would have been if no water had been given to them; a circum* 
stance which can scarcelv have escaped the notice df any observant gantener* 
When, on the contrary, tne soil is irn^^ated in the manner above recommended, 
it is wetted to a great depth ; and a smgle watering, once in eight or ten days, 
is, in almost all cases, fuUy sufficient. 

** It may be objected, that excess of rain is more often injurious, in the 
climate of England, than drought; but, in wet seasons, plants sufier owing to 
want of lig^t, and,' generally, of warmth ; and I feel co«fident that, if the 
same Quantity of rain which the soil receives in our wettest summer, were to 
fall only between the hours of nine in the evening and three in the iiAkowing 
morning, and the sun were to shine brightly and warmly through the whole of 
the days, no injurious effects would follow; and every experienced gardener 
knows with what luxuriance and rapidity pliuits of every species grow in hot 
and bright weather, afler the ground has been drenched with water by thunder-- 
storms. ' 



Art. IL Observations on Landscape-Gardeningf with an AecounH 
of its practical Application in Muskau* By Prince Puckler Mus- 
KAu. Fol., with forty-four views and four ground plans. Stuttgard, 
ISS^, Hallberger. 

Though we subscribed for this work, yet, owing to an unforeseen cause, we 
have not yet received it. In the meantime, in order that our readers may 
form some idea of its contents, we have translated the following extracts from 
the Berlin Gardener** Magazine, The editor of that work, in his review, 
says, — '' Nothing has appeared for a long time uo worthy of the attention of 
landscape-gardeners as the work before us. We consider it a duty to make 
long retracts from this work, as, on account of its high price, it is not in the 
power of every gardener to obtain it ; and, as we believe it is now only sold to 
subscribers, it is not to be met with in every bookseller's shop. We are also 
convinced that it will be of great use both to gardenere and amateurs, and that 
it is wortiiy of being held up to all persons concerned in the laying out of 
groHuds as amodel. 

^ The work is well arranged, and is divided into sections. The introduc- 
tion contains many important observations, and b^ns as follows : — 

** * The inhabitants of a great part of Ctermany, it must be confessed, are 
only bcn^ning to turn their attention even to what is useful; and only a few 
have directed their endeavours to produce what is merely beautiful without hav- 
ing any ^prospect of reaping advantages by it ; a combination of both these 
objects 18 stul more rarely met with. 

^ * This chiefly refers to the art of landscape-gardening ; and it is certain 
that England, in this bcanch of ctvilisatioo, is nearly a hundred years before 
Germany. That which is done there every day with the utmost facility, re- 
mains here at present impracticable. It is time, however, that wealthy Ger- 
man proprietors should trv, without slavish imitation^ to improve thehr places 
4icoorame to their respectnre localities. Wiien I tlins «Et(J England, it does 

V0L.XIL — No. 71. H 



Sfi Piince Puciler Musiau's 

ivU,pfrpc€;fd from Anglomania, but from the certain conviction that. England 
iaijt^r. superior to any other part of the worldyin respeot to desirable and (if t 
jnf^ beallow:^ the«xj[)ressM>n) gentlemanly enjoyments, particularly in refer* 
ence to a country life. In E^land we continually find general comforts 
united, with the satisfaction arising from noble occupations^ and a style of 
living equally &r removed from Asiatic revelry as from that sparing Cond- 
iiental ecanomy, which has not its foundation in actual poverty, but in bad 
customs and ne^ected household arrangements, and is but too common 
among us. In this respect, then, we must look up to England as a modeL 

. *' ' Trom this high state of civilisation has landscape-gardening been more 
fsjctiensively encouraged than was ever known at any other period or in any 
other country; and, notwithstanding its cloudy skies, England has produced 
the greatest number of the most delightful abodes for the lovers of nature, 
and u>r those who prefer what is effected by the united aid of nature and the 
(land of man ; so that such places may be compared to the diamond, not in its 
rough state, but which has obtained the height of its beauty from the hand of 
the polisher. I do not mean to assert that nature in its wildest state and 
simplicity cannot produce the greatest excitement, and call forth the most 
j^ublime feelings ; yet, in order to preserve nature in this state, the trace of the 
judicious hand of man is necessary. Even in the painted landscape we seeip 
to wish to behold traces of the hand of man to enliven it ; and this is still 
much, more necessary in the real landscape, which would appear doubly agreer 
able to us, if we acted as they do in England, where, from a manly and gene- 
rous, feeling, their rural improvements extend not only to their palaces and 
gardens, which excite our admiration by their splendour and beauty, but to 
the humble dwellings of the smallest farmers, and even cottagers, which are 
equally well laid out and agreeably situated, and which thus aid in forming 
harmony of the whole. In England small farm-houses are to be seen, like 
proud palacea, surrounded by ancient trees, or on luxuriant meadows, orna- 
mented by flowering shrubs; and they manifest the taste and good. sense of 
the owner by the appearance they display. Even the poorest man ornaments 
his thatched cott^e with flowers; and, notwithstanding his poverty, cul- 
tivates with care a well-hedged small garden, where there is notning but the 
green velvet grass perfumeabv roses and jasmine. 

" * Are we not overpowered with shame when we take the same view of 
our country ? We here find a great number of noblemen's seats with a dung- 
hill in front, and the pigs and geese ^ing out and in at the door the greats 
part of the day ; while the only mark of cleanliness the interior can boast 
]s, that the floor is strewed with sand. Independent people, indeed even 
those who are very rich, I have of):en seen, in the north of Germai^, living 
in such pseudo-palaces, as such houses may be called, as an English farmer 
wpuld undoubtedly take for a stable. 

** ' Such is a nobleman's seat in the north of Germany. The kitchen-gar- 
den is generally near the house ; and its greatest ornament is a few plants of 
sweetwilliam and lavender round the beds of onions and greens. Crooked- 
grown fi;uit trees look melancholy round the beds of cabbages and turnips ; 
and a few very old oaks or limes, that have stood many a mast, are clothed 
with dry and scanty foliage, so that, like naked victims, their bare branches may 
not be stretched out to heaven imploring vengeance.' 

'* ]ki jthe more cultivated parts of Germany this is not the case: tbe^farm- 
,yard an4 kitcKenrgarden are always behind the house, while in front, there-is 
a lawn with flowevs and plantations. The prince afterwards observes: — ^ 

'' ' ]Lt4s<a8 muchto be lamented when the proprietor lays out his place in 
what Is called, .with us, the English st^le. The straight walks are then so 
for(mi%jinade serpentine* that the only difference is, a longer road is made be- 
tween yQW9« biir<wsy popla93» 'and. laTiChe^ iiyhiohyin wet weather, is almost 
iiDpa^99l>l^(W*dir^ar)i4in fdrjr < we^thei^j, fWA ^ depth of the.loio3Q saufj. 
|$qm€i feiTi^igii^ tseef^kt^j^ytniyuM^hm^f^mmtwhem as the ]«4i- 
genous ones, mixed with pines, are planted by the sides, of thef)aths;. but,Kin 



Observations on Landscape* Gardening. S7 

the course of afbw years, the pines grow over the path, and must be pruned; 
afterwards the under branches drop ofT, and the stems are left naked ; while, 
below, the badly grown grass and stunted foreign trees neither present a 
picture of lovely nature, nor one which the art of the landscape-gardened 
should produce.* Where the subject is more earnestly and more extensively 
pursued, unsightly stagnant water is turned into running brooks; and abridge, 
made of the rough stems of the birch, with suitable arches, is thrown across 
the gentle stream ; a fbw vistas are cut through the forest to produce beauta- 
fbl views; ami here and there a temple and a ruin are erected, though, also, 
the former usually too soon becomes what the latter is intended to represent. 

** * This, in some degree, is the h^est point of perfection ever reached in 
such an undertaking ; and which, indeed, only causes us to regret that such 
good land is not cultivated for a more useJful purpose. 

^ * This innovation is oft^n laughed at with more or less reason ; and, when 
it is attempted, there is seldom any improvement made ; and, therefore, I 
repeat, that when large and expensive gardens are laid out with the greatest 
care, they only bear testimony that the art of landscape-gardening in Ger- 
many has not, at present, advanced one step. There are, indeed, some 
exceptions, but they are but very few; and I Know of none which, like the 
English gardens, I could hold up as a model.' 

** When the grounds are perfectly well laid out and finished, it seldom 
happens that they are loi^ kept in that state ; and, therefore, they do not look 
well long. The groups of trees and shrubs are soon neglected, and the grass is 
badly managed, and unseasonably mown ; so that, in the course of a few years, 
the whole thing falb to decav, and no longer resembles^ a park. In large parks^ 
the greatest attention is paid to the grass for its utility ; but how unpardon- 
able it is, that in small ornamental gardens, where the best sorts of grasses 
are sown, as English ryegrass, species of P6a and Age6stiSy Phl^um, &c., the . 
turf is so carelessly managed, and the grass suffered to grow so Ions, that it is 
completely spoilt. Why such a grass-plot is not mown every dght days, tf 
the weather permit, and also swept and rolled, as in England, 1 cannot under- 
stand. Probably the reason is, that, in general, the proprietor keeps cows or 
goats, or the grass is the perquisite of the gardener ; so that the small grass- 
plot is not regularly mown, but only as much is cut every day as is necessary 
for the cattle. Nothing is so unsightly as a grass-plot, near a house, mown 
here and there at different times, and therefore looking so ill, that the whole 
has the appearance of a barren heath, instead of a piece of velvet I also 
agree witn the author, when he says that the Germans never display either 
exalted ideas, taste, or decoration, in the laying out and keepme of our 
pleasure-grounds. Sometimes this is the fault of the proprietor ; but more 
generally it arises from the want of sense and taste in the gardener. 

** The first section of Prince Puckler Muskau's book treats of the funda- 
mental idea and plan of pleasure-grounds. It is short and conclusive. The 
author then continues his subject in the following manner : — 

^ ' In my {opinion, landscape-gardening, when on a great scale, must be 
directed by a fondamental idea. 1 must be allowed here to use the word idea 
as is customary in common conversation, and not according to the new system 



** * It is to be lai^ented that unsuitable trees are too ofbea planted by the 
road sides, or in groups ; and I was lately astonished to see tliat Taxodium 
dfstichum had been conudered as a shrub, and thickly planted by Ihe side of 
the road. If there had only been a few of them, it m^nt have been supposed 
that the gardener had made a mistake ; but, unfortunately^ they are innameir- 
able. V^oever knows much about these trees; or even has seen them in f^l 
their beauty at Woiiitz, will be astonished how a tree which grows to the 
height of 80 ft. in its native country (America) -ooiild be considered as a 
rfirub. I saw, «il^ Qeveml" other Ifrec^ utted ht Hke manner, of which I shall 
say more Miothcr time. -^ CIWo.'^ 

H 2 



8B Pnnce Puckler MuskaiCs 

of philosophy. In landscape-gardening, the word idea Is generally used in its 
most extensiTe meaning ; yiz. that from the whole of nature's landscape the 
idea of a concentrated picture is formed ; a picture such as that a poet fancies ; 
that this idea is such as would give existence to a work of art in another 
sphere, and from which man himself frames a kind of microcosm, a world in 
miniature. A large undertaking should, consequently, as much as possible be 
be{;un, directed, and finished by one experienced hand. The ideas of another, 
it 18 true, mipht be used ; but they must be so acted upon that they may com« 
bine in formmg a whole. I shall, perhaps, be better understood when I say. 
that a fundamental idea refers to tne whole ; that no important work should 
ever be done at random, but should proceed from one leading principle, 
which should be observable in every part of it, whether taken separately or 
together. This original idea, or pkm, may arise firom the particular condition 
of the artist, from the circumstances of his life, or firom family l^ends, as well 
as from the particular locality in which he lives ; but I by no means wish that 
every part of the plan, as originally conceived, should always be adopted and 
strictly followed up ; in certain circumstances, I should recommend quite the 
Gontrarv : because, although the whole thing may be arranged, the artist is 
not obliged to follow the first dictates of his fancy. New ones may spring up ; 
the subject is ever creating something new : for mstance, nature in its primi- 
tive state, lying before him in various d^ees of light (biecause, as a beautiful 
comparison, li^ht is bis principal material), is observed by him in the circle of 
his small creation; he studies cause and efiect; and then the original general 
idea directs the manner in which they may be combined, or is entirely ^ven 
up if a better thought strikes him. The painter, also, occasionally deviates 
firom his first plan, and continually touches up his picture without ever making 
it perfect ; parts are altered to make it look better or more natural ; a shadow 
. is strengthened, or more effect is given to a line : how, then, can a landscape- 
gardener be expected to make a thing perfect at first, who has often such per- 
verse and difficult materials to work upon ? 

*^ * I know nothing so much to be lamented as when a thing has been badly 
done, and not undone, if afterwards a better idea has arisen : it remains a 
blemish to the whole ; and, though it may occasion regret that the cost of 
forming it should be quite thrown away, the fear of wasting a trifle should not 
be sufiered to destroy the efiect of the whole. Indulgence should be granted 
to the progress of every art, because frequently, from want of money, the im- 
provement of the old is preferred to a totally new arrangement.' 

** At p. 18. the author treats of the mode of executing plans and maps 
without a knowledge of the neighbourhood and locality ; on which subject we 
perfectly agree with him. He says as follows : — 

'* ' It may, therefore, easily be seen how useless it must be to send for a 
draughtsman from a distance to stay a day, a week, or even a month, to make 
a plan of a road or plantation which is well known already ; though nothing 
is more common than for a landscz^&gardener to set about making a plan for 
laying out grounds, without obtaining the necessary information, without any 
knowledge of the locality, of the near and distant views, or of the efiect ofhiU 
and dale, and of high trees and low ones, in the intermediate distance, and 
also at the greatest distance. Plans thus designed may look exceedingly well 
on paper ; but, when they are executed, they'generally produce an efiect that is 
extremely pitiable, fiat, unsuitable, unnatural, and unexpected. Whoever 
wishes to make a proper plan for laying out grounds, cannot be too well 
acquainted with the locality; and he must also understand the staking out 
and the execution of it extremely well ; because, if he does not, he will find 
that the materials he has to work with are quite different from those of the 
painter on canvass. The beauty of a real landscape may in some degree be 
known by looking at a very good painting ; but it is not so with a plan ; and I 
can confidently assert, that (except in a very flat situation, where there are no 
distant prospects, and which, therefore, is a place that nothmg can be made 
of) a plan wnich looks exceedingly well on paper can never produce anything 



Observations oh iMidseape^Gardenhig. 89 

fine in nature when executed ; and, on the eaotany^ that, in order to produce 
anything worthy of admiration in execution, a union of forma must be made 
which would appear, on paper, quite inconsistent.' 

** The second section treats of the siae of parks. Amongst other things, the 
author says that it is not necessary to make a park very extensive, in oraer to 
produce a fine efiect. He, however, states (at p. 83.^ that, * when a park can 
be made verv large without committing a sacrifice^ it is very desirable to make' 
it so,' and that, * its imposing magnitude renders permancDt the all-subduing 
charm which novelty creates.' 

** With respect to the English parks, which the author holds up as a modeL 
of taste and agricultural improvement, we find the following observations : •— 

** * It appears to me that the beauty of most of the English parks is lessened 
by attemptmg to make too much of them, that is, making them appear as large 
as possible ; and that they thus soon become more tiresome and monotonous* 
than any thing that ever came under my observation in such a beautifully cul- 
tivated and open landscape scenery. Many of the English parks are, in fact, 
nothing but very extensive meadows, spriakled with picturesque groups of high 
and low trees. Partiy to ailiven the landscape, and partly for use, the £i^- 
lish generally having in their parks some tame animals, such as sheep and blaoL 
cattle, or horses. 

^ * The first siddt of such an extendve space Ls imposing, and almost always 
presents a s[^enmd picture ; but the impression once received is incurable of 
improvement, and soon becomes monotonous. 

*^ * If you then examine the same more closdy, many fiuilts will be found. AH 
the trees are eaten up to a certain height by catUe; and often in such a re- 
gular manner as if they had been cut by hed^ shears ; the forms of the trees 
nave, consequently, very littie variety. The groups are never without some 
kind offence ; indeed, every young newly planted tree has a fence also, which 
produces a very stiff and formal appearance; and the groups can seldom be 
used to intercept the view sufficiently, to form out of the principal landscape 
several smaller ones. Only one road leads, through this extensive desert, to 
and fix>m the house, which, without the trace of the hand of man, is situated 
on a lawn in bare and cold majesty, the cows and sheep feeding close to the 
flight of marble steps, which lead to the entrance door. It is not astonishing, if, ia 
auch a monotonous and extensive place, an involuntary shudder should be f^t ; 
and it is a place where none but a John Bull would live. The scene would 
be much improved if a particular place were allotted for the cattie and deer, 
instead of giving them the range of the whole park. It, however, seems a rooted 
idea in England, that a landscape cannot be lively without cattle, though if en- 
livened by man they consider it quite insupportable, and the gardens of a 
private gentleman in England are senerally hermetically sealed to every stran- 
ger. They are quite unacauaintea with the kindness of our nobility, and give, 
as an excuse for their iliiberality, the excessive rudeness of the common 
people.' 

*< The autiior continues, to the third section, to say a great deal on the 
size of the English parks, and (at p. 28.) he speaks of their enclosures, and 
says, — 

"^ * I have often heard it remarked, that there is nothing in landscape-gardening 
more contrary to nature than the enclosures of parks, f 

^ * I am of a contrary opinion, and agree with the Englishman, who carefully 



^** I do not mean to include in this censure either their pleasure-grounds 
or eardens, which are full of variety, but only their parks." 

•f The proper meaning of the German word for ** park " (TVuergarUm) is 
an enclosed place or garden for wild beasts. The word '* park " b, however, 
now used in Germany for every extensive place laid out as pleasure-grounds. 

u 3 



90 Prince Piidkier Mushau's 

ettdlosei hSti parkf : the boundary fenc&i should, however, be ingeniotuly con- 
cealed from within. Slight and almost invisible fences are more suitable to 
the English style of gardening, than walls or any other kind of fences, which 
are more avowedly works of art ; and, conseauently, I prefer them, though at 
the same time I do not mean to say that I despise art. How often are the 
most beautifiil scenes of rural nature partially concealed by enclosures, and, 
by that means, how much are their charms mcreased I A thick forest, an 
apparently impenetrable rock, enclosed valley, or an bland surrounded by 
water, are objects which each produce in our minds a feeling of secresy, of 
certainty of perfect possession, and of security against intruders, which makes 
us to enioy tne spot with double pleasure. A para, to a certain extent, creates 
nmilar feelings when provided with a wall or hedge; which, indeed, may be 
considered necessary to enable us to enjoy perfect freedom and r^[>ose ; as 
fVom such a spot the uncalled-for intruder is excluded, while those within can 
go out and be at liberty when they please. But this strange representation 
of freedom, when seen, is very unpleasant. These limits will soon be done away 
with, and every thing of the kind will be abhorred. In England, as I have 
already said, not only their parks, but all the subdivisions, groups, and single 
yonng trees contained in them, are enclosed, on account of their cattle ; and, 
altlKKigh these enclosures are so common, and, generally speaking, so ofienisive, I 
have yet often found that, by an enclosure here and there, particularly where 
the character of t^ neighbourhood is varied, a picturesque effect is produced ; 
and [ ma^ even say that it seems to prepare the mind for a new impression, 
and to point out a peaceful retreat which it longs to obtain.' 

^ The author proposes the following kind of enclosure for the parks in Ger- 
many, where the locality and soil will permit : •— 

^* There should be a piece of ploughed ground, about a yard broad, round 
the park (particularly where there is no distant prospect), sown with black- 
thorn and acacias, which, in the course of a few years, if the soil is tolerably 
good, will form an impenetrable fence. Next to that a plantation of firs, 
which should also surround the park, and always be adjusted according to the 
view, and mixed with only a few of the deciduous trees and shrubs, to form a 
variety of colours in summer. In low and sheltered spots, in our climate, we 
must plant junipers, yew, the low-^owing firs, and, also, such of the common- 
need pines and white firs as can, by means of pruning, be kept as shrubs. 
Along this plantation, which may be sometimes broad and sometimes narrow, 
but which, however, should never exceed three yards, there ought to be a path 
of grass 24 ft. wide, which should be of this breadth to leave room for the 
spreading branches of the pine and fir tribe. On the inside of the park, the 
same kind of mixed plantation of ornamental shrubs, in groups, would have a 
fine effect from the opposite side i the deciduous trees predominating, which 
would, in a great measure, conceal the monotonous appearance of uie pine 
and fir tribe, which should be only allowed to appear where it might be thought 
desirable. It is inconceivable how much this mode of arrangement would en- 
liven a park during our long gloomy winters'; and the grass pathway, which 
would be seldom covered with snow, though every thine around it looked 
barren, would afford the most delightful promenade. The evergreens in the 
foreground, which, of course, would remain green all winter, would give life to 
all around, and afford that appearance of vegetation which is so much wanted 
in German scenes at that period. With respect to the general appearance, if 
the park is well laid out and grouped, the effect will be very good, without a 
variety of colour in the tree ; particularly in winter, when they are deprived of 
their leaves ; though yet, by the harmony of the masses in which they are dis- 
posed, the grass and pieces of water, the agreeably formed outlines, paths, and 
baidcs, an mteresting picture is produced. How these border plantations of 
pines anr to be formed, so as to resemble nature, will be easily understood, 
aadcbpious directions on the salyect are ^ven in the section on plantations.' 

^ The fffiartki aetium treats of 'tfte form and grouping of larce masses of trees. 
It is particularly well arranged, and rules are given how to lay out and group 



Observations on Landscape^Gardening. 91 

iQ the l)«fit manoeF ; aiul» 1^80^ the cfffpra emanerated tkabarecamiiitttedj»lh« 
distribution of them in hum plcasuro-grounds. At p« 96. the mithor a«jf$» *^ • 

'^ * In lUmoft every landscape, great or small, a judicioua grouping ia b%hlir 
necessary* Natural taste, however, is a Yery great assistance; and, thov^ I ahaU 
hweafiier give directions for the detail, the following observaitions ma^ be con* 
sidered as a general introduction :-*-Light and shade are every where dislnbuted' 
in a picture ; it ought to be so also in grouping in masses. The grass, water, 
and level ground throw no shadow, but rather take it ftom* other ofcgeets, and 
are themselves used as lights bv the landscape-gardener. Trees, forests, and 
faM^uses, on the contrary (and also rocks, where they can be found), prodnce 
his shades. The disagreeable eliect should be avoided of what is abrupt and 
unconnected, amongst so many varied objects, in an interrupted l^t; aiad 
almost all the other side should be darkened by an enormous shade. Let a part 
of the meadow and water be seen, to its full extent, in a free and open space i 
hut arrange it so that they may be here and there lost in the shade of vcge* 
ta^n ; or, like a weUomanaged light, let them suddenly emeige as if from the 
dark ground. BuHdings should not be entirely seen, but should be treated in 
the same way as objects on which nature has not been too lavish. 'Whatever 
is half exposed, has its beauties increased by something being left for the tecy 
to guess at. The eye often dwells with more pleasure on a mere chimnev iu 
a distance, with its grey cloud of smoke arising from amidst the trees of an 
andent forest, than on a naked palace, which is accessible OA all aidei ; where 
no animating vaHety. presents itself, and where nature nowhere> secretly and 
delightfully insinuates her charms. 

** * It is lughly necessary that the buildings should be always in character iwith 
the landscape that surrounds them. Many of our German arehitecta pay too 
little attention to this rule. Buildings, in a city, require quite a (Uffinrenl style 
from those in a park : the one produces its efibct by itself elone ; wfajle the 
other both gives effect to the other puts of the scenery, and receiivea from 
them a picturesqueness which alters its original character, and thus makes it 
form a part of the whole. The near and d^tant pros(>ect of such a buitding 
should, therefore, be carefully attended to ; and its relative, as well as lbs inune* 
diate, effect should be fully considered. In general, park builduags should be 
rather irregularly built, as they thus become more picturesquci attd,'oonse» 
quently, hfumomse better with the natural objects around them. A sacred 
temple, a theatre, or a museum, in which art is displayed, should, undoubtedly,' 
be symmetrical, and in a pure state of art; but the mansion, or country seat, 
should be constructed for convenience, as well as for exterior ^otU 

** * The situation selected for a building ought to be particularly attended to t 
viz. a nobleman's house in the middle of a com field, as at Washem, near 
Leipzig, is almost ridiculous ; so is, also, an Egyptian pyramid in a beautifhl 
birch forest and romantic scenery, or surrounded by a French parterre. 
Every thing that is incongruous disturbs the harmony produced by judicious 
contrasts. The pointed Gothic style of architecture has also a very bad effect 
am<Hig8t tapering pines and Lombardy poplars; but, amooj^ ancient undulating 
oaks, beeches, and spreading firs, it would be exactly in its proper placew 
Those pines and poplars belong, on the contrary, to an Italian villa, to which 
they are suitable, on account of the contrast they afibrd to its horizontal lines. 

* ' If the beauty of harmony is particularly desired, it should also be shown 
by the suitableness oi the construction to the purposes which the building is 
intended for. A Gothic house, for instance, without a reason for making it so, 
but merely because something Gothic was wished for, occasions an unpleasant 
feeling. It is unnecessary ami unsuitable as a dwelling-house; and,4is a mere 
decoration, it has no connexion with any thing around it, thereseems no suffix 
cient reason for having it there: when, however, the tower of a Gothic- chape) is 
seen on a distant momitain, rising from amongst the tops of old treea; and when 
youleam that it has been a family burial-place, or, perhaps^ a fr^uented tem^ 
ple,€ott8eerated to sacred worship; you wilt fed sattsfiedybecauae thentt*ition 
aiul scenery are sttitabley > 

H 4 



92 General Notices. 

*^ ' The most important buiklii^ in a park is, certainly, the dweliing-house* 
It should be built, and the grounct^ laid out, not only according to the wealth 
of the proprietor, but even in reference to his business. The ponderous 
castle, with its pinnacles and towers, does not suit the merchant ; but is in ac- 
cordance with the aristocracy, whose families have inherited it for centuries, 
and whose forefathers, indeed, found it absolutely necessary to inhabit strongly 
fortified castles, to secure themselvea from their foes. The elder Repton car** 
ried this idea so fiir, that he shut out a beautiful view of the city before a mer- 
chant's house near Bristol, merely that the proprietor, who bad retired firom 
business, might not see the buildings whicn would call to his remembrance 
the by-gone days of trouble and care. This is completely English ; so is, also, 
the endeavour of several egotists there, who would conceal all objects, how- 
ever picturesque the^ may b^ which do not belong to them. I will not attempt 
to remove this feelmg, but shall only state that the view from the house 
should always be acQusted according to the taste of the possessor ; that both a 
near and a distant prospect are desirable, though both can rarely be obtained 
firom park buildings.' " 

(To be continued,') 



MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE. 

Art. I. General Notices. 

The Coccut bromeluF, — At a meeting of the Entomological Society, on 
July 0., Mr. Children called the attention of the members present to the de- 
struction of the pine-apple by the C6ccus bromelise, a small apterous insect, 
which infests it in immense profusion, so as to become a perfect pest. Speci- 
mens were exhibited by hmi from the stoves of Sir John Lubbock, and the 
heads of the fruit were found to be almost covered vrith a cottony secretion, 
in the midst of which the eggs and young of the coccus were deposited. A 
peculiarity observable in this, and other species of insects infesting hot-houses^ 
was noticed ; viz. that their production is not annual, as in the ouMoor species, 
but continuous, thereby occasioning greater obstacles against the application 
of remedies. The subject was discussed by various members at great length, 
by whom various remedies were suggested, and it was considered sufficiently 
important to form the subject ofone of the prize essays of the Society. 
(AtheruBum, July 18.) The circumstance of the breeding of insects being 
continued throughout the year, in plant4iou8es kept in a continued state of 
growing temperature, will confirm gardeners in their practice of occasionally 
leaving vinenes, peach-houses, and other forcing-houses, an entire winter with- 
out being warmed artificially. 

Fordng Cherries in England in 1755. — '' Wednesday, Jan. 1., at His Ma- 
jesty's {Geo. II.) dessert after dinner, a large plate of fine ripe duke cherries 
was served up ; to such perfection b the art of promoting v^etation arrived 
in England." (Gent, Mt^.y vol. xxiii. for 1755, p. 40.^ 

Extraordinary Produce oftmgle Grams of Wheat, — Accounts to this efiect 
have lately been published bv Mr. Lance as something remarkable ; but the 
practice of exciting wonder m the ignorant in this way is as old as the time of 
the Romans. A writer in the Gent, Mag, for 1754, who dates from Basing- 
stoke in 1754, produced 50 stalks from a single grain, each stalk containing 
60 gnuns. He kept some of the plants as a curiosity, which Mr. Lance also 
has done. — A, B, Jan, 1835. 

Sugar was extracted from Beet Root and Skirrets previously to 1754, and the 
mode of effecting it is described in the Gent, Mag, for that year ; where it is 
stated, that, from half a pound of the root of white beets, half an ounce of pure 
sugar was obtained; from half a pound of red beets, l^oz.; and from ^ lb. 



Foreign Notices : — Bussia. 98 

oi skirrets* } ox, of pure sugar. The first chemist who extracted the sugar 
was Marcgraff. — Id. 

Liquors may he cooled in hoi weather^ and are cooled in hot countries, by 
immersing the vessels which contain them in deep wells, or placing them in 
cisterns in a good cellar. Cucumbers, onions, cabbages, turnips, and other 
y^etabfes are salted in casks, and the casks sunk in weus, or buried deep in the 
earth, and thus preserved the whole year, in Poland and Russia. The casks 
are, of course, watertight. This last practice may be useful in America ; and 
^e first, Mdth rc^gard to liquors, in every fiunily in Britain, where beer, or even 
water, is drunk.-— fT^nify DUke, BrounCi Cloie^ Edinburgh^ Feb, 18dd« 



Art. II. Foreign Notices. 
RUSSIA. 



Isle of Cronstadt, near St, Petersburg, June, 1835. — Accident, which we 
cannot always guard against, occasioned my not seeing the 40th Number of 
your Magazme [Vol. V III. p. 559.] till this spring, else I should have re- 
deemed my promise to you last summer. I must, however, before I proceed 
further, embrace this opportunity of returning you my best thanks for the 
handsome manner in which you are good enough to notice my communica- 
tions, assuring you that I shall feel the highest satisfaction, if my feeble efforts 
can, in the sligntest degree, aid the comforts of the poor. 

By the Wesleys, Captain Tindall, I send vou samples of the produce of 
various kinds of grain used in this country, which might assist the rising gene- 
ration ; for I am convinced, from what I have read, and the little I have seen, 
that the adult population of England will not use grits, though by the number 
of different grain employed, and the various ways of cooking them, the labour- 
ing population might have occasional changes of diet at a cheap rate. The 
first pioint is to encourage the use of broth, which, thickened by any of the 
grits, would be pleasant and nutritive. The bones of the meat should be 
boiled a lon^ while, or digested, and the meat added, so as not to have all it& 
nutritive juices extracted. I think Rumford observes that an Englishman 
throws half his dinner up the chimney : a Scotchman does better, his porridge 
and kail are good settlers of the appetite. Another most extensive source of 
food in this part of the world is broth made of dried fish, of which I shall send 
you samples, if I can get them in time from the fishing stations up the coun«* 
try. In the meanwhile you will get one specimen of what is used m common, 
ciuled by the Russians snetky, and in Latin, I think, 5dlmo Eperldnut minor. 
The manner of drying, I am told, is to throw the fish, when caught, into brine, 
and then dry them in a cool oven, laying them on straw, to prevent them fi*om 
being burnt. Soup must be made of them, without boiling them to rags, and 
thickened with one of the kinds of grits, Iwley, perhaps. I can eat it without 
repugnance, nay, with satisfaction ; and it forms the broth of my servants, as 
well as of all the lower ranks of society during the long fasts. What led me 
to the idea of sending you this sample was, reading that small fish were so 

Elentiful with you, that they are used for manure ; and, surely, it would be more 
umane to dry a part, and use it to vary the food of the poor, than to plough 
it down in a field. The baker's oven, when the bread is baked, might be used 
for the purpose of having the fish dried. 

Owing to our long winters, we are forced to pay the most particular atten- 
tion to our supply of vegetables, and, among the rest, we salt French beans, 
spinach, and the green of celery and parsley, usiug the latter two to relish our 
soups. The process is simple, and, I think, ftdlv explained in Vol. VIII. p. 184. 
A layer of vegetables and one of salt, put in altematdy till the keg is full, and 
a stone resting on a board, to press it down, iotm the whole pjro^as. Biroad 
beans and peas are dried, and the latter, taken young,, are most excelloit You 
will ever kindly keep in mind that the dishes I recommend arc not for luxury, 



M Foreign Notices : — Mussia* 

esicept the finer grits. Manoa and Snolenskaia grits, when boiled in iiii)k» 
and sweetened with sugar^ are most delicious ; and be not alarmed, I beg,* at 
the i4>pearance of the dry fish : a little boiling will take out the wrinkles. The 
most effectual way would be to get any Russian cook, if such is to be found 
in London, to make the dishes ; or, perhaps, a cook might be found among' 
the Jews; but a Russian would be best. The operation is very simple ; and, if 
you have eaten your porrid^, as I suspect you have, you will understand me at 
once, only substituting bakmg for boiling. The former is, in this country, an 
easy matter, as every peasant must hare an oven in his house to keep him 
warm, and all the ovens are made in the form of a baker's. This is well ; but 
my hope of rendering what 1 have said really useful is grounded on a renewal 
of my former recommendation of sedulously cultivating bees, as their honey 
will make many an insipid dish palatable, especially for childi«n. Should tfa!e 
care of a few hives be too much for a labourer's family, several fiunilies might 
join, collect all their hives into one place, and get some old man, past the years 
of working in the fields, to look after them ; and, if they cannot afibrd to pay 
him, a parish pauper might be employed, whose little comforts might be in* 
creased by occasional gins either of money or of food. The number of hives 
might be increased to any amount in the course of a very few years ; and, 
besides bettering the situation of the family, the surplus honey and wax would 
leave a htde fund for domestic purposes. Bees, when once introduced, cost 
nothing ; what they yield is clear profit; and, when the swarming season comes, 
plenty oif people will be found to join, under a leader, in the sport of collect* 
ingtnem. 

There are many peasants in this country who have 200, and some even as 
many as 500, hives, whence they draw a handsome revenue. The hives are 
the rudest imaginable, being simply the trunk of a tree hollowed out. The 
peasants here do not often destroy the bees ; when they take the honey they 
fix an old sack to a hair sieve, and cover their face, neck, and shoulders with 
it, the sieve serving as a visor, through which they can see to do their work. 
They Ms a ligature round their coats, at the wrist, to prevent the bees getting 
up their sleeves, and defend their hands with gloves. They next create some 
smoke in- any vessel they have at hand, with which they dnve the bees afield, 
and, by holding it close to their persons, keep themselves from being incom- 
moded. They then open the hive, cut out what they want ; and, on leaving it, 
the bees return to their former occupations. The visor I used was similar to 
a fencing mask, made of thin brass wire, with the pendent part of leather, 
which forms an impenetrable defence to the head and lipper part of the body. 
Mead forms also a very pleasant drink, and would give zest to a Sunday's 
dinner, if the taste for ardent spirits is not too predominant in the country. 
Here some of the finest is sold as high as 2 id. the bottle. Mushrooms form 
a considerable part of the food of the people here during the fasts ; but I do 
not send a sample of them, as the population of England are too little ac- 
quainted with tneir qualities to collect the proper sorts : here an accident is, 
at least to me, unknown, though thousands and thousands of pounds of mush- 
rooms are brought to supply uie markets of all the towns in the country. I 
presume there must be a surplus of hazel nuts in England, and that oil might 
be manufactured there, and, perhaps, be of use. Mustard oil is exoelient, and 
may be used as a substitute K>r the better oils, where the price of the latter is 
too high for the labouring men. Poppy oil might, I doubt not, be fabricated, 
though the opium is extracted ; but the idea is theoretical, and experiment must 
decide. The dried firtut I would recommend your trying at your own table, 
stewing it till tender, and seasonmg the dish with sugar. The pears may 
require a little soaking, to take out the smoky smell, and to soften them. 
The fritters in this country are made by mixing the ingredients with warm 
water, or, much better, with warm milk, and adding a little yeast. When well 
risen, the material is put into a fi'ying-pan, and baked in a brisk oven (I doubt 
not, a Dutch Oven would serve), much on the principle of a Yorkshire pudding. 
These firitters must be eaten hot, as soon as made. They may also be pre- 



Fof-eipi Notices : ^'^ Russia. M 

pamd in a common frjmig-pan, onljr in that case the batter muit be thickeri 
and they are not so fine. Buckwheat is the most valuable of all grain for 
general use, and would answer for man as well as for pheasants. An oven, for 
man^ porposeSy may be made of an iron pot or saucepan, with a cover, by 
placmg it on a moderate fire, and putting nve coals over the cover. Should 
you want anything of me, you know my address; in the interim, as I hate ap* 
pearing in prist, know me, I beg, as -— 7%e Labouref^i Friend, 

Last of Samples received. 

Wheat, manufactured into manna ^pts ; price SO copecks per lb. : used for 

porridge, with water, or. boiled with milk, to the consistence of thick peaa- 

soup : also for making firitters and puddings. 
Wheat mmiufiietured into malt ; price 80 copecks per lb. : used for beer, or an 

adduious liquor called quas. 
Bye manufiictured into grits; price 20 copecks per lb.: used for porridge 

with milk. 
Rye manufiKiured into malt; price 15 and 13 copecks per lb. : used for beer 

and quas. 
Bartev i»«ui&ctured into grits; price 10 copecks per lb. : used for porridge. 

and with milk. 
Bariey manufactured into flour ; price 10 copecks per lb. : used for bread, 

pies, fiitters, and piuicakes. 
Barley manufactured into malt; price 15 copedLs per lb.: used for beer and 

quas. 
Oats mannfiustured into grits ; price 18 copecks per lb. : used for porridge and 

water-gruel. 
Oats manufiictured into flour; price 20 copecks per lb. : used for fritters and 

jelly. 
Oats manufactured into roasted flour; price 12 copecks per lb. : to eat raw, 

mixed with quas, or water ; mostly U8c» by labourers in the field. 
Buckwheat manufactured into grits ; price 12 copecks per lb. : two qualities^ 

used for porridge ; to be eaten with butter or milk ; and firitters. 
Buckwheat manufiictured into Smolenskaia; price 23 copecks per lb.: used 

boiled in milk, and for porridge, fiitters, and puddings. 
Buckwheat manufactured into flour ; price 16 copecks per lb. : used for frit- 
ters and pies. 
Millet manufactured into flour ; price 12 copecks per lb. : used for porridge, 

puddings, and fritters. 
Peas, ripe, unbroken ; price 2 copecks per lb. : used for broth or stews. 
Peas, young, green, dried; price 2 copecks per lb. : used at the best tables for 

soups or stews, or to boil. 
Peas manu&ctured into flour ; price 15 copecks per lb. : used for fritters, 

jelly, and puddings. 
Potatoes manufactured into flour ; price 40 copecks per lb. : used for pud- 

dmgs and jellies, seasoned with fiiut. 
Nut oil; price 120 copecks per lb.: to firy fish with, and eat with porridge 

during lasts. 
Mustard oil ; price 200 copecks per lb.: used to firy fish with, and for salads. 
Poppy oil; price 70 copecks per lb. : used to firy fish with, and for salads; 

also fi>r other purposes, as, in Russia, butter, during the fasts, is forbidden. 
Dried api^es ; pnce 80 copecks per lb. : used fi>r tarts, to stew, and compote. 
Dried pears ; price 80 copecks per lb. : used for tarts, to stew, &c 
Dried apricots ; piice 100 copecks per lb. : used for tarts, to stew, &c. 
Dried cnerries, wild ; price, 80 copecks per Ib^ : used for soup; most excellent 

with sugar and spices m tarts. . 
Dried strawberries, wild ; price. 80 copecks per lb. : used for tarts and pud- 

« dlBgSL ' 

Dried raspberries, wild; price 80 copecks per lb«: used for tarts and 
pudding. 



96 Foreign Notices : — Bmsicu 



O' 



Dried blackberries, wild ; price 50 copecks per lb. : used for tarts and pud« 

dings. 
Dried black currants, wild (racclnium uligindsum) ; price 80 copecks per lb. : 

used for tarts and puddings. 
Fish, a kind of minnow, dried in an oven, on straw ; price 25 copecks per lb. : 

used as a whet before dinner, and in soups and stews. 

The prices in the above list are for small quantities, except for the grits 
[groats] which are bought for house use by the chetwerick, a medbure which is 
a little less than a bushel, as follows ; viz. : — Buckwheat, 4 rubles, 50 copecks ; 
barley, 3 rubles, 50 copecks; oats, 4 rubies; millet, 7 rubles. You must 
call to mind that we have been sufierinff next to famine last year; but in 
former years the prices were nearly half less throughout ; and it is expected 
will return to their former level. A copeck is the Uth part of a penny ; or, 
for shortness' sake, 10 copecks are equal to 1-iW* 10 lb. Russian make 91b. 
English. 

[We subjoin the following extract from another letter of our correspondent 
respecting these samples. It is interesting in various points of view, and par* 
ticularly as showing hb benevolent turn of mind.] 

The promised supply of samples, which will show you the extensive use of 

r'n in this country, rendered unavoidable by our protracted winters, and by 
long fasts prescribed by the Greek religion ; these &sts being kept with 
strictness by all classes of people, except by many in the better walks of 
life^ and by some of the common people who have mixed with foreigners, and 
are resident in large towns. I sent you the two boxes with a heavy heart, as I 
fear the peasants in England will not be tempted to use any of the grain; and 
as for the populace of the towns, I am sure tney will not. The preparations of 
buckwheat (a grain, I believe, you only use for birds) are, in my opinion, the 
best of all ; and, as I wrote you, the Smolenskaia and manna grits form dishes 
which may be used in the first femilies of the land, if such a meal as supper 
exists any longer : at any rate, they are most excellent food for children. I 
know little of my native land ; but, surely, the British hills, or hilly parts which 
are uncultivated, must teem with wild berries : those of Scotland, I am pretty 
certain, do; and the drying of the fi*uit would prove a source of profit to the 
Highland women and children, besides mending the fare, not of the poor alone, 
but even of the middling classes of society. 

The apples I sent you I also believe to be wild, as about six and seven 
hundred miles to the southward and eastward q)ple trees abound, sown by 
the hand of nature, in the woods. 

I was much amused by the crusade carrying on against the sparrows. In 
my garden, if they get out of my way, when I am half a dozen paces from them, 
I am satisfied. A sieve cover, some sticks with floating feathers tied to them, 
and some old nets, defend my peas ; but, as they are sown by line, my best 
defence is a couple of laths, placed diagonally against one another, and as 
much open at top as to admit light, but to exclude the body of a sparrow. I 
calculate that, if these impudent fellows do me little harm, they must do me a 
great deal of ^ood, as they must eat to live. In my younger days, I recollect 
hearing that m a district of Prussia the sparrows were nearly annihilated, 
designedly, and that in consequence of it a race of worms or caterpillars in- 
creased to such a degree, that the inhabitants, as the less evil of the two, 
bought sparrows in distant parts to renew the breed. On looking over my 
vade mecum, your Encyclop<Bdiay I observe that, ampng the currants, you have 
not got the green one. I have all the sorts you enumerate, and the green 
•besides ; but in ray soil it does not bear well. 1 got the variety from FiiSand. 
As gardening is my only pastime, and, indeed, a passion, I shall be truly happy 
to be useful to you, and more especially in the cause of the labouring poor. 

To-day I had fish soup. The stock was small fish and perch, boned, 
boiled in it. The blackberries make excellent soup. I am trying the dried 
fruit in many ways, and can produce them at my own table. 



Domedic Notices : — EnglatuL 97 

[We recdyed all tiie articles safe in the last wedL of September, and have 
tasted the fish, the dried apricots, apples, and blackberries, and found them ex- 
tremely good, particularly the fish and the apricots. We shall taste all the 
rest, and report on them. In the meantime we return our much-esteemed 
correspondent our sincere thanks. — Cond,] 



Art. III. Domestic Notices. 

ENGLAND. 

AsBWELL m Hertfordshire, — On visiting Ashwell, in the county of Herts, 
some time since, I was struck with the peculiar rise of a spring, or springs, said 
to be one of the principal sources of the river Cam, and which is situated on 
the verge of the road as you enter the village from Royston. A kind of irre- 
gular cove is formed, which, in the centre alongside of the road, may be about 
14 ft. or 16 ft. deep, and nearly perpendicular, but shelving down on each side. 
The accompanying sketch (J^, 10.) is intended to give a representation of it. 
When the springs are all up, as many as thirtv-seven maybe counted, all issuing 
firom nooks, as represented in the sketch; and the waters, joining at a small dis- 
tance, form a kind of small island, in the centre of which stands an ash tree, 
and from which, it is said, the village of Ashwell (by the conjunction of ash and 
well) derives its name : nevertheless, the village, no doubt, bore the uame long 
before the existence of the tree which b now growing there. 

At Woolmer's, near Hertford, there is a spring worthy of notice, situated in a 
wilderness, to which a branch of the pleasure-ground leads. There is a sort of 
romantic wildness about this spot, which renders it a pleasing and cool retreat 
during the summer months ; and it is greatly admired by visiters. The spring is 
situated at the base of a hill, well clothed with trees and foliage: its diameter may 
be about 60 fl., and it is in appearance like a pool, or pond ; it throws up a large 
volume of water, which forms a cascade, and, at about 100 yards' distance, joins 
the river Lea, which skirts the wilderness on the south. It is said that this sprint 
is unfathomable ; but, whether so or not, it is certain that it is very deep ; and, 
although such a quantity of water continually issues from it, it is always per- 
fectly calm on the surface. There is a peculiarity in this spring with regard to 
the colour of its water, which is of a bluish green ; but, when taken up and 
poured into a glass, it is as clear as crystal. Whether this colour is produced by 
the chalky sides of the pool, its great depth, the refraction of light, or any of 
these combined, has not been determined. That it b not produced by the 
foliage around is certain, as, during winter, it has the same appearance. Perhaps 
some of your correspondents may be able to throw some light upon thb phe- 
nomenon. 

That water b a grand requisite in landscape scenery has been strongly ad- 
vocated by all writers upon the subject; atad, in short, it is generally considered 
that no pface of importance is perfect without it. That the prevailing taste b 
in accordance with thb opinion, b manifest from continual observation ; and 
hence it b that the margins of rivers abound with gentlemen's seats and lollas, 
and that, where nature does not afford facilities for attaining the object desired, 
artificial means are resorted to. The banks of the river Thames afford a strik- 
ing proof of the strong propensitv that prevails for having water for embellish- 
ment, by the numerous seats and villas with which they are adorned ; and the 
number of marine residences which are to be seen along our coasts go to cor- 
roborate the truth of these observations, at least so mr as that water has a 
pleasing effect. In fact, there is that something in this element, which seems 
to give the finishing stroke to all that b truly sublime in scenery ; and, while 
it has frequently inspired the poet's song, it has not been less admired by the 
lovers of nature. Hence, from the wide expanse of ocean, down to the rivulet. 



X)omestic Notiers:-'^ England. 




thu meanders along the rale, opportunities Ehould never be lost s^t or in nrn- 
kins use of it, so as to ^ve it all the efibct it is capable of producing. Iliere 
is, however, one exception to this rule as it reapectB Diarine residences ; where 
the house should never be artificially brought into view, so as that from any 
position it may be seen in a line with the sea ; as in such situationa it would 
dwindle into insignificance, and produce no effbct. 

The propensity above alludetTto is also apparent In most of those countries ' 
where taste and refinement have made considerable progress ; and, where na- 
ture has been sparing in affording means for gratification equal to the dcn.and, 
art has been resorted to, and in some instances at an enormous expense of 
caoital and labour, in the construction of a»meducta,jeli-d'eau, &t. At Ver> 
r»ard to fountains; which are there of 



tallies there is an instance of this with r^an 



DomeUic Notices. : -^ England* 99 

the most splendid description^ and upon the grandest scale of any, perhapsy in 
the world, aad^ wheaJa tiiU {di^, pics«Dt oee -of th^ most strikii^ efiects ima« 
ginable, surpassing the conceptions of most persons, except those who have 
witnessed them ; though, on account of the enormous expense of keeping 
them at work, they do not play, at the most, more than two or three days in the 
course of the year. 

It would seem that Britain is rather peculiarly favoured above most of her 
Continental neighbours, by the distribution of her streams and rivulets in such 
a wa;^ as to give greater fecilities lor employing them in accordance with the 
English taste of the present day ; and this taste has, perhaps, in some measure 
grown out of those racilities which areoflered for employing them in artificially 
rendering the scenery in thdr vicinities such as we see them. •— T, Euiger^ 
Shariffraoe, 1834. 

Public Crordefu mid lAterary IniHtutioni. — Mr. Buckingham has brctugfatinto 
parliament a bill for the better preservation of public health and morals, by 
empowering the majority of rate-payers to establish Literary Institutions and 
Gardens, or other places of public recreation in the open air. (See Mom, 
Cftroji^ July 10th and 16th, 1835.) The proposal met with the most favour- 
able r^rept^on from the House ; and, should the bill pass ii^to a law, it will be 
one of the noblest victories ever gained b^ the majonty against the few. We 
trust that gardeners will not be wanting m ui]|ing on this measure wherever 
they have any. influence^ and in giving their advice and assistance gratis, in lay- 
ing out the gardens, and planting them with trees, shrubs^ and p£mts, in such 
a manner that as there shall not be a single duplicate. 

This was written in July. In August the bul was withdrawn ; but we have 
no doubt it will be presented again next session. — Cond, 

The Bristol^ C&flan, and IVett of England Zoological Socidy. -^ We are happy 
to learn that the plan, recently adopted, of establishing a Zoological Garden in 
the neighbourhood of this city, has been so favourably received, that no doubt 
remains of its successful accoinplishment. The capital stock required has been 
raised without the necessity of^ any special solicitation, or even the common 
preliminary of a general appeal to the public. Had sudi an appeal been made, 
it is probable that the nobility and gentry of this and the adjoining counties, to 
the greater number of whom the plan at the present moment is absolutely un- 
known, would have been eager to give their patronage to an undertaking that 
promises, both in utility and ornament, to hold so distinguished a rank among 
the great features of improvement which are now in the rapid progress of de- 
velopement amcMig us. When the elements of our commerciiu prosperity are 
receiving daily the most powerful stimulants, we hail with pleasure the simul- 
taneous excitements in literature and science, which such institutions as the 
Zoological Society are now administering to die public mind and taste. We 
trust that the spirited institutors of this establishment will be encouraged, by 
the cordial support it has so instantaneously received, to extend their ^ans of 
improvement, open their books to a greater number of subscribers, and thus 
procure resources for completely perfecting it in all its details, and for ex- 
tending its plan^ so as to combine with it other and not less necessary im- 
provements. A Botanical Garden, for instance, might be most advantageously 
combined with the Zoole^cal, and each would be essentially auxiliary to the 
Others If these were uni^ in their locality, as well as in their noble objects, 
we n^g^t look forward to a scene in our immediate vicinity of more attraction 
than can be found in any other direction of the United Kingdom« — Bristol 
Mknatm 

We understand that this garden has been laid out by our friend IMhr. Forrest, 
late of $yoa House Gardens. We hope the progress of improvement will not 
stop till not only every town^ but every viUage, will have its garden, its arbo- 
retum, its library, and its museum, of some sort. But we should like to see the 
thing done, not by subscription, as '^ must necessarily be in the present in« 
font st^e of this lund of impt Qvespient^ buti on Mr. Buckingham's plan, at the 
expense of all, and for the benefit of «dL We should like to see every little 



1 00 Domestic Notices : — England. 

town and village considered as a community^ and that community providing for 
themselves, as a whole, all those rational enjovments and luxuries which are 
now only exclusively eqjo^ed by individuals of rank and fortune. The town* 
house should be the mansion in which the community should give their splen- 
did dinners, ditjedmh^ and other feasts, when thev choose to do so ; the public 
ffordens should be their pleasure-ground and park ; and so on. In short, there 
18 nothing worth having, now enjoyed by the wealthiest in the land, tktt might 
not be ei\joyed by the members of a corporation, where fdi were considered 
equal iu point of rights. We allude to no fimcifUl scheme of community of 
goods, or to Mr. Owen's college system ; our ideas mi^t be carried into ex- 
ecution by the mere passing of the bill brought into parliament, during the last 
session, by Mr. Buckingham. — Cond, 

Building at Nbrthjleet, — A correspondent informs us that 27 acres of ground 
at Northneet ** are being covered with houses in the London manner, in re- 
gular streets, with diminutive gardens ; so that the inhabitants will have all the 
disadvantages of a town, or, rather, of a crowded village, without any of its ad- - 
vantages ; viz. cheapness of provisions, privacy or publicity at pleasure, and 
choice of study or amusement." He has said a great deal more in favour of 
open, airy, detached dwellings, with gardens which cannot, like those of a town, 
be overlooked ; in all of which we entirely agree with him; lamenting*with him, 
at the same time, that there should be such a general ignorance, in the great 
mass of society, of what constitutes health and enjoyment in a dwelling, as to 
induce them to rent such houses so crowded together. We are persuaded that 
this will not long be the case, and that the rising generation will grow up with 
very different ideas on this subject from those of their parents. In Leish 
Hun^t London Journal^ a twopenny paper, which it would contribute to the 
happiness and comfort of every human being to read, there have lately been 
some admirable articles relating to this subject. It is by diffusing the kind of 
knowledge contmned in these articles among all classes, so as to create a de- 
mand for properly constructed houses, that such houses will be produced, and 
many that are at present occupied deserted. Whenever we see a builder's 
speculation going on, and sitting-rooms 8 ft. or 9 ft. in height, and bed-rooms 
not quite so high, being constructed, wesa^ to ourselves : This will be all very 
well for a year or two; but who will live in such houses twenty years hence, 
when railroads in all directions shall have rendered it as easy to go twenty 
miles from London as it is now to go two ; and when free trade in com, and 
all raw materials, shall have rendered labour so cheap, that as good a house 
may be built for 100/. as now <:osts 300/. ? — Cond. 

Booker's Hoe, (Vol. VIII. p. 558. fig. 115.) We have at length received 
one of these hoes (a very superior kind of Dutch, or thrust, hoe) Brom the in- 
ventor, and we have sent it to Messrs. Cottam and Hallen, who have promised 
to manufacture some for sale. — Cond. 

The Paio de Vaca, or Cow Tree. — After a variety of efforts, made through a 
considerable number of years, 1 have at last succeeded in obtaining, through 
the kindness of Sir Robert Ker Porter, the fruit of that interesting and valuable 
production of the coast of Venezuela, which has acquired such celebrity from 
the travels of Humboldt, and which furnishes such an abundant supply of 
vegetable milk to the thirsty peasants of those burning regions ; I mean the 
Palo de Vaca, or cow tree, or which, I am inclined to suspect, there are, if 
not many different gen^a, at least some diversity of species. I am led to this 
conclusion from the discrepancy between the account given of the tree, the 
fruit of which has been now sent to me, and that of the illustrious traveller 
just mentioned ; as, also, from the accounts formerly received from my valu- 
able correspondent, of the three milk trees, the Popa, the Lerio, and the 
Laul^, growing in the forests of the Chor6, along the banks of the river, near 
Citara, or Quibdo, the capital. • 

I shall first transcribe the passage relating to the sort now sent, and some 
other matters, from Sir R. Ker Porter's letter of the 22d of last March, from 
Caraccas : — • 



Domestic Notices : — England. 101 

** I #fll not foTffSt yea t/h the BdlijMt of the Ufio hermoto ( P eA ttM t a k 
Widuiatum Humb!), and wili write to a friend in the Tay to get some Lirio 
bulbs. I s^d you, with this, three seeds, or (rait, of the PeUo de Vaca^ or 
milk tree : one of them is in it« husk, and the others are without it. I hop6 
they Vf'M vegetate with you^ The average temperature where these splendid^ 
lo^, and umbrageous trees gi'ow, is from 70° to 76° of Fahrenheit, amidst ti 
thii^ foi^t of oSier large trees, at an elevation of 9000 ft. above the level of 
the sea, hi a soil black and rich, and containing a great degree of moisture the 
wh<^ year through." 

As the work in which Humboldt speaks of this remarkable production of 
m hoanteous Providence may not be accessible to all your numerous readers, 
I sbail^ for their information, extract from the fourth volume of the English 
translation of his Personal Narraiivey p. 212, 213, &c., the observations of this 
^distinguished traveller, which difita* in some slight degree from Sir Robert's 
aeeaunt, and, at the same time, furnish particulars which he did not feel it ne- 
eessttry to introduce i — 

** We returned frcto Puato Cabello to the valleys of Aragua, and again 
Mopped at the plantation of Barbula, by which the new road to Valencia is 
^ticed. We had heard, seteral weeks before, of a tree, the juice of which \A 
ft nouri&hlng milk. It is called the cow tree ; and we were assured that the 
negroes of &e ferm^ who drink plentifully of this v^table milk, consider it as 
a wholesoi&e aliment. All the milky juices of plants being acrid, bitter, and 
more er less poisonous, this assertion appeared to us ihore or less extraor* 
dfinafy ; but we found, by experience, durmg our stay at Barbula, that th6 
virtues of the PaIo de Vaca had not been exaggerated. This fine tree riseft 
like the broad-leaved star apple. Its oblong and points leaves, tough and 
altemste, are marked by lateral ribs, prominent at the lower surface, and paF- 
ralleL They are some of them 10 in. long. We did not see the flower : th^ 
frnk (from the specimen sent to me, about the size and shape of a nectarine) 
is somewhat fleshy, and contains one, and sometimes two, nuts. When mci- 
Btons Hre made in the trunk of the cow tree, it yields abundance of a glutinous 
milk, toletably thick, destitute of all acrimony, and of an agreesble and balmy 
KneU. It was offered to us in the shell of the tuttono, or calabash tree. We 
drank considerable quantities of it iti the evening before we went to bed, and 
very early in the morning, without fueling the least injurious eXSi€t, The vis- 
cosity of thi^ milk alone renders it a little disagreeable. The ne^oes, and the 
free pec^le, who work in the plantations, drink it, dipping into it their bread 
of maize or cassava. The major domo of the farm told us that the negroes 
grow iensihlj^ iktter dufing the season when the Paio de Vdca funiishes theku 
with most milk. This juice, when exposed to the air, presents at its suriace, 
perhaps in consequence of the absorption of atmospheric oxygen, membraned 
of a strongly animalised substance, yellowish, stringy, and resembling a cheesy 
substance. These membranes, separated from the rest of the more aqueous 
liquid, are elastic almost like caoutcliouc; but they undergo, in time, the same 
phenomena of putrefaction as gelatine. The people call the coagulum that 
separates by the contact of the air, cheese. This coagulum grows sour in the 
space of five or six days, as I observed in the small portions which I 
carried to Kueva Valencia. The milk, contained in a stopped phial, had 
d^^dted a little coagulum^ and, far from becoming fetid, it exhaled constantly 
a balsamic odour. The fresh juice, mixed with cold water, was scarcely coagu*« 
lated at all ; but, On the contact of nitric acid, the separation of the viseoU£i 
membranes took place. 

^ The extraordinary tree of which we have been speaking appears to be 
peculiar to the Cordillera of the coast, particularly from Barbula %o the Lake 
of Maracaybo. Some stocks of it exist near the vill^e of San Mateo (where 
the Victoria wheat is cultivated) ; and, according to M. Bredemeyer, whose 
travels have so much enriched the fine hot-houses of Scht mbrunn and Vienna, 
in the valley of Caucagua, three days* journey east of Caraccas. This natu^ 

Vol. XIL— No. 71. I 



JlO? Domestic Notices : — England* 

ralist founds like us, that the vegetable milk of the Pah de Vaca bad an agree- 
.able taste and an aromatic smell. At Caucagua, the natives call the tree 
that furnishes this nourishing juice, the milk tree (Arbol de Leche). They pro* 
fess to recognise, from the thickness and colour or the foliage, the trunks that 
yield the most juice ; as the herdsman distinguishes, from external signs, a good 
milch cow. No botanist has hitherto known the existence of this plant, of 
which it is easy to procure the parts of fructification. It appears, according 
to M. Kunth, to belong to the Sapota family. Long after my return to Eu- 
rope I found, in the description of the West Indies by Laet, a Dutchman, a 
passage that seems to have some relation to the cow tree* '* There exists 
trees," says Laet {Desc, Ind, Occ, lib. 18. c. 4. ed. 1633, {). 672.), " in the 
province of Cumana, the sap of which resembles curdled milk, and affords a 
Salubrious nourishment." 

It is not here the solemn shades of forests, the majestic course of rivers, the 
mountains wrapped in eternal frost, that excite our emotion. A few drops 
of vegetable juice recall to our minds all the power, fulness, and the fecundity 
of nature. On the barren flank of a rock grows a tree with coriaceous and 
dry leaves. Its large woody roots can scarcely penetrate into the stone. For 
jseveral months of the year not a single shower moistens its foliage. Its 
branches appear dead and dried ; but, when the trunk is pierced, there flows 
from it a sweet and nourishing milk. It is at the rising of the sun that this 
vegetable fountain is most abundant. The blacks and natives are then seei; 
hastening from all quarters, furnished with large bowls to receive the milk, 
which grows yellow, and thickens at its surface. Some empty their bowls 
under the tree itself; others carry the juice home to their children. We seem 
to see the family of a shepherd who distributes the milk of his flock." 

Humboldt speaks of the cow tree as growing on the barren flank of a rock^ 
where it has little soil, and less moisture. Sir Robert, on the contrary, says 
that it grows to a vast size in the depths of humid forests, where it enjoys a 
rich and fertile soil. The nature of the locality will account for the difference 
in the statements. In Kunth's description I have introduced those points 
in which he seems to differ from my specimen : the point of attachment of the 
footstalk (which is broken off J is deeply sunk in the body of the first, giving 
it almost the appearance of bemg hearted ; the equatorial diameter (if I may 
use the expression) exceeds the polar, or that measured in the direction of 
the insertion of the footstalk ; the U)rmer measuring 2 in., the latter 1|^ in. only : 
hence its shape is more that of an oblate spheroid, or, rather, approaches to 
reniform. The form of the specimen sent, on the contrary, approaches nearer 
to a sphere, being nearly ^ of an inch in its polar, and somewhat less than 
this in its equatorial, diameter ; it has, also, a cicatrix at its base, as though it 
had been attached to a dissepiment. 

• In order to give a connected view of all the information I possess on the 
subject of this interesting tree, I shall now extract the particulars furnished 
to me by Mr. Thomas Higson, in a letter, dated Carthagena, May 16. 1824, 
eleven years ago; ' , 

Mr. Higson states, that this tree abounds in the deep and humid forests of 
the provinces of Choco and Popayan, on both sides of the line; but states 
ithat he had not been fortunate enough to see the flowers. He then gives 
some extracts from his Journals of the date of May 7. 1822, from which it 
appears that, during the intermission of an attack of intermittent fever, he 
accompanied the Alcaide and two other gentlemen from the town of Quibdo; 
on an excursion about twelve miles up the river, to examine the cow tree^ 
which is there known by the name o£ Popa; the milky juice of which is pro- 
cured by the Indians from incisions made in the trunk, and by the jaguars,' or 
wild tigers, by lacerating the bark with their claws ; and he confirms Huiii-' 
boldt's accounts of its nutritive qualities, by remarking on the improved con- 
dition of both men and brutes during the season in which this milk is had 
In greatest abundance; although, he observes," the better conditioned inhabit-; 
ants, timid of its effects, and having other food, make no other use of it than 



Domestic Notices : — Scotland. iOd 

to besmear straws to catch parrots, by placing them across their nests ; and, 
by boiling it with the gum of the mangle tree (?), tempered with wood ashes, 
producing a glue impervious to moisture.'* 

He then proceeds to state, that they obtained abundance of the milk, which 
he describes as being aromatic, sweet, of the thickness of good cream, and so 
white as to stain substances on which it fell pretty durably. He says, that it 
mixed as readily with spirits as cow's milk, and, either with it or with water, 
formed an agreeable beverage, of which they drank freely without injury. 
They cut down one of the trees, which he describes as bemg the loftiest of 
the forest, in order to obtain specimens, and found that the timber was white; 
with a fine grain, proper for boards or shingles. The flowers, which he was 
ififormed were very showy, were gone ; but the branches were loaded with' 
fruit, of about a month old, growing in clusters from the alse of the leaves : 
the^ were scabrous, and about the size of small nutmegs. The leaves he de*' 
l^cnbes as standing on short footstalks, coriaceous, hearted at the base, and 
marginate, or sometimes pointed at their summit : they were, he says, covered 
over, to a considerable extent, with large semiglobular glands. He consider^ 
ihis tree as different from Humboldt's Palo de Vaca ; which latter he sup-' 
t>oses to be the same with that called lyria in the Checo. In a further part of 
nis letter, he speaks of some of the fruit of the popa gathered by himself in' 
the wood of the Esca, adjoining Citara, or Quibdo, which he sent to our com- 
mon friend Mr. Watts ; and which, although he was uncertain bow far they 
#ere sufficiently mature to germinate, were sufficient, he observed, to show' 
that it was not a drupe, but a berry. It appears to me not improbable, al- 
though the observation seems to have escaped even the penetration of 
Humboldt, that the Ckichvuhcdquehuitl of the Mexicans, spoken of by Hum- 
boldt in the 2d vol. of his Researches, p. 32., on the authority of the Coclex 
VoHcanus Anon., No. 3738., is a species of the Palo de Vaca, The MS. quoted 
contains, as he informs us, several curious figures ; and, among the rest, one' 
of the Chichitihalquehuiti, tree of milk, or celestial tree, that distills milk firom 
the extremity of its branches, and around which infants are seated who cfx- 
pired a few days afler their birth. 

, Besides the popa and the lyria, Mr. Higson speaks of another tree, the' 
milk of which is not so palatable, although yielded in far greater abundance. 
The milk of this tree, which is called sand^, is thinner than the former, of 
a bluish cast, like skimmed milk, not so pleasant to the taste, and not em- 
ployed for food ; but, in every other respect, closely resembling Humboldt's 
tree, rising, as Mr. Higson says, like a broad-leaved star apple (Chrysoph/llum 
Gaintto), with alternate leaves seated on short petioles, 10 in. or 12 m. long, 
(>blong, ovate, and sharp-pointed, with the veins alternate, and ferruginous un- 
derneath. The milk of this tree, inspissated in the lees, acquires the colour 
and consistence of a black gum prized as a medicine, especially for external 
Use in splenitis and pleuritis. Such is the estimation in which it is held, that 
it sells, even in the vale of the Cauca, for a dollar the pound weight. 

Thus, besides the Palo de Vaca of Humboldt, the locality of which appears 
to be limited to the Cordillera of the coast, we have here (if we can depend upon 
Mr. Higson's account) three other distinct milk trees, yielding a liquor more 
or less potable, and applicable to various other uses, belonging, possibly, to 
the same genus, or forming distinct genera of the same family, together with, 
perhaps, a fourth to be yet sought for amidst the unexplored parts of Mexico, 
and thus giving a far wider range to this valuable production than that assigned 
by Humboldt. — William Hamilton. Oxford Place, Plymouth, June 20. 1834. 

SCOTLAND. 

7%e Idea of an Experimental Farm has been thrown out, from time to time, 
by different individuals, both in France and Britain. A farmer in Scotland 
has lately sent to the Highland Society " Suggestions " on this subject ; and 
the following are the very judicious observations of the Directors, who, at the 
request of the Duke of Gordon, took the paper into consideration : — 

I 2 



1 04 Domestic Notices : — Scotland. 

'' Transmitted through such a channel, the Directors gave the su^estioas 
the fullest consideration ; but they are sorry they cannot recommend to th^ 
Society to adopt the proposal contained in the paper. In point of expense^ 
it would far exceed the amount of funds at the disposal of the Society ; and it 
is, besides, in a great degree, inconsistent with the principle upon which th^ 
Society uniformly acts. The Directors are not prepared to say that, although 
similar establishments, hitherto tried, have all proved failures, an experimental 
farm could under no circumstances be productive of benefit; but it musti 
under apy circumstances, be conducted at a great expense, its objects being 
in a great measure incompatible with attention to profitable return frop im 
pperations ; and they ar^ well convinced that such a farm, and for such pur* 
poses as are contemplated in the '* Suggestions," would, in a very short tune, 
exhaust the capital, mstead of the portion of the annual income proposed by 
the projector. Besides this fundamental objection, the plap is mcoQsistent 
>^ith the present system of tiie Society, which is, not to be itself the experir 
menter, but to encourage, stimulate, and in some cases to remunerate, uiose 
who are about to make, or have made, experiments in the improvement of 
agriculture. For conducting such experiments the most useful course will 
generally be followed by those who must necessarily keep ultimate profit in 
view ; and the Directors are of opinion that the Society have wisely lefl it in 
their hands, aiding them, as far as possible, by collecting and digesting inform-^ 
ation as to the objects to be kept in view, and the most probable means of 
attaining them, by ofiering premiums to those who, keeping these objects ii^ 
view, will conduct their experiments on the principles pointed out by the 
Society, and, finally, by promulgating the results regularly through their Quar- 
terly Transactions, for the use of the public generally. There is no doubt 
that the application of scientific principles, and extremely accurate observation 
of resu]t|3, which might be commanded under the Society's auspices, are in* 
portant object^ and have been attained in horticulture; but the Directors 
conceive the objects of investigation in agricultural practice to be of so ex- 
tended and diversified a character, that it cannot be so well carried on in one 
spot, one climate, and nearly one soil, as by the Society's present practice, 
which brings it at once to the doors of a great many acute examinators in every 
part of the country, and causes the tried to be made simultaneously, under 
every possible variety of situation and circumstance. Nor is the whole adr 
vantage of the Society's present system to be confined to these two points ; 
another and important result is the habit of mental exertion thus fostered 
among the agricultural classes, and the practical experience which each suc- 
cessive experiment supplies^ opening up new trains of interesting speculation^ 
and giving confidence to push forward in hopes of farther discovery. The 
Directors point with satisfaction to the Society's proceedings, as a proof that 
th^r^ is no difficulty in getting correct reports of numerous and complicated 
experiments from practical men, and no want of enterprise where there is a 
reasonable prospect of success in any new inquiry, which, if deemed too hazard* 
Qus for the tenant's exertions, is generally taken up by some public-spirited 
proprietor, who is willing to encounter the risk, in hopes of producing a result 
which may be useful to uie community at large." After some farther obsenr- 
ajtions, the report concludes by adding, that, '' if an experimental farm, on a 
well-digested plan and moderate scale, should be thought an advant^eous 
adjunct for the investigation of certain phenomena, of which cases may per- 
haps, be conceived, offering a too uncertain or too remote chance of advantage 
for individual speculation, the means of carrying it on being procured and placed 
at the disposal of the Society, they would do their utmost to make the scheme 
conducive to the public advantage. (Scotsman, Jaly 11. 1835.) 

As XJitfttl Reading for Gardenersy we would strongly recommend two works, 
one by Dr. Andrew Combe, of Edinburgh ; viz. the Principles of PhymoUi^ 
applied to the Preservation of Health, which will show the immense importance 
of breathing fresh air; and the other, by Mr. George Combe, also of Edinbinr^h, 
Is The ConsHttUion of Man considered in relation to External Objects, which 



Ikmestic Notices : — Ireland^ . 105 

will mk9 theiQ Batumi pbilosophero. No mwp who ha9 peni«ed the first* 
sieotipB^d WQflEy will voluntarily consent to live in the small low-ceilinged, and 
o^en dgmp, houses or sheds, which gardeners, both journeymen and masters, 
Bpw too fiiequently occupy ; neither will they consent to have them surrounded 
by trees aod bushes, in such a manner as to render ventilation impossible, 
llie second book is most delightful and instructive reading. In that excellent 
new«PQper the Scotsman, for October 28., there is a review of it, which thus 
e4»Bclude8 : — *' It contains the most clear and satisfactory exposition of the 
nature of man, and his relations tp the external world, which we have ever mel 
with ; smd we rejoice to see U brought within the reach of all classes. In its 
subjecl it has a considerable analogy to the Bndgewater Treaiiset ; and in 
c]uantity of matter it rather exceeds one of the volumes of that work; but it 
is amusing to observe, that, by a skilful employment of the powers of the press, 
a^ volume diitected to the same end« and, in our opinion, affording a much 
clearer and more instructive commentary on the moral and physical world, 
than all the published Bridgewater TreaHses put together, is here presented 
9t the price of U, 6d, ; while each volume of that work costs 8«., though some 
Uious^d pounds were bequeathed to promote the diffusion of its supposed 
wholesome doctrines among the people." The. price of the work on ven- 
tilation is 7«. Some &rtber details respecting it will be found in die Archi' 
Uctural Magtmmey II, ^Q, 

IRELAND. 

Effect of Light and Heat m affecting the Exhalation of Moisturefrom the Leaves 
of Plants, — At the meeting of the British Association at Dublin, in August, 
1835, Professor Daubeny reported that, since his communication to the Bntish 
Association at Cambridge (when he had ascertained that the quantity of car- 
bonic acid decomposed by a plant was in proportion, not to tne chemical or 
heating influence of the ray transmitted to it, but to its illuminating power), 
he has found that the functions of exhaling moisture bv the leaves, and ab- 
sorbing it by the roots, depend upon the same law ; with this difference, how- 
ever, that, provided some light be present, much heat will serve as a substitute 
for our transmitting a greater degree of light. He has made experiments which 
serve to show, that, so long as the plant continues healthy, in the mutual 
action of th^ plant and atmosphere, the balance is always in favour of the 
purifying influence of plants. Dr. Daubeny employed Drummond's light ; but 
ne could not discover that it had any influence on the functions of the plants. 
(^Ed» Phil, Joum,, vol. xix. p. 404.;) 

Structure of the Wood of the Conifeng. — At the meeting of the British Asso^ 
ciation at Dublin, in August, 1835, Mr. Nicol of Edinburgh '^read a paper on 
the horizontal branches of the natural family of the Conlferse. He stated that 
in these branches the pith is always nearer the upper than the under side ; 
that the upper side is of a paler colour than the under side ; that the upper 
side is softer, and less dense than the under side ; and that, whilst the upper 
side has a structure similar to that of the stems, the under side has a structure 
so different in all the three principal sections, that, without occular proof, no 
one could imagine it to belong to the very same branch. The transverse sec- 
tion has the partitions forming the network of the under side considerably 
thicker than those of the upper side. The vessels, or openings, of the former 
afe, consequently, smaller than those of the latter ; and hence the greater 
solidity of the wood on the under side. The longitudinal sections, paraUel to 
the radial partitions of the under side, have smaller, less numerous, and more 
obscure discs than those in the upper side. The vessels, or spaces, containing 
tb^ discs in the under side present numerous decussating fibres, which do not 
occur in the upper side ; and these fibres also occur in the longitudinal con- 
centric section of the under side. The branches of ten different species of 
pines were examined, and the same structure was observed in them all, although 
m some it was better defined than in others. The peculiarity of the structure 



i06 - London Horticultural Society and Garden. 

in the branches was stated as an additional proof of the absurdity of attempt- 
ing to constitute new fossil genera, on the supposition that a single slice of a 
Scotch pine, or spruce fir, is characteristic of the whole family of Coniferas. 
In conclusion, Mr. Nicol observed, that an accunite knowledge of the 
anatomical structure would sometimes enable the botanist to classify aright, 
when the external character might leave him in doubt ; and, in proof of this, 
^as observed, that, had the structure been known, the miro of New Zealand 
Would not have been represented as a podocarpus. The structure of that 
tree bears no resemblance to that of any of the Coniferae, its character being 
that of a true dicotyledon. It was also mentioned, that the Tasmannta dip^- 
tala (insipida of Brown), which has been classed with the Magndlia, vi 
decidedly not a dicotyledon, it having the structure of the Conlferas ; and, 
although the texture is more minute, and less defined, than that of any of the 
larger species of Araucdria, yet it is evidently allied to the Araucarian division. 
Since the meeting of the Association at Dublin, Mr. Nicol has received, front 
Mr. AllanCunningham, a bit of the wood (probably a branch) of the Tasm&nnta 
aromatica ; and he finds that, although there is a peculiarity in its structure, j^et 
there is not a doubt of its resemblance to the dipetala. The peculislrity 
alluded to consists of curvilinear rays proceeding from the pith to the surface. 
These are composed of one or two rows of quadrangular apertures, three or' 
four times larger than those constituting the intermediate spaces. (Edm* 
Phii. Joum,, vol. xix.) 

Glasnevm Botanic Garden. — An arrangement of plants, according to the 
natural svstem, is about to be formed in this garden by Mr. Niven, the intel- 
ligent and active curator. We have received a plan of it, together with a list 
6f the orders in the series in which they are to be placed, which will appear in 
our next Number. In the mean time, we may observe, that it is one of the 
most comprehensive and expressive arrangements which has hitherto been ex- 
ecuted in any garden, either foreign or domestic. Not only does it include 
ligneous and herbaceous plants, but the foreign and domestic species are kept 
apart in separate beds ; and those of the indigenous species which are peculiar 
to any one of the three kingdoms, are designated by characteristic marks on 
the tallies. — Cond, 



Art. IV. The London Horticultural Society and Garden. 

Jan, 19. 1836. — Works presented. Among these is the American Silk-grower's' 
Guide, presented by the author, Mr. William Kenrick ; also a Catalogue of 
the Nursery of Mr. William Kenrick, presented by him. 

Read. Observations on the Althorp Crassane pear; by Mr, Robert 
Thomson. Description of a hot-water apparatus used by John Rogers, jun., 
Esq. 

Exhibited, Apples of the kinds gilliflower, Bampton nonesuch, aromatic 
nonesuch, and Cambridge pippins, vrom William Rashleigh, Esq. Apples of 
the kinds Kirke's Lord Nelson, Norfolk beaufin, Woodstock pippin, scarlet 
nonpareil, French crab, Newtown pippin (Sir Joseph Banks), Powell's russet, 
golden noble, Hawthornden, Pile's russet, cockle pippin. Beauty of Kent, fa^ 
meuse, Braddick's nonpareil, from Mr. J. Kirke. Renanth^ cocclnea, 
Justfcifl cocclnea, from S. F. Phelps, Esq. Astrapae^a Wallich», Camellttr 
Jap6nica fllthaeifiora, C. j. the white single, and a kind of Cyclamen, from Mrs. 
Marryat. 

From the Garden of the Society, — Apples of the following kinds : Court- 
pendu plat : this escaped the frost in spring from its late blossoming; it was 
likewise free from the blight in summer : reinette du Canada ; new rock pippin, 
a seedling from Newtown pippin ; Hubbard's pearmain, one of the best of the 
pearmains ; Stagg's nonpareil, or Hicks's fancy, a good brisk early nonpareil ; 
golden russet, m^re dii m^nagci Martin nonpareil ; golden reinette, kept much 



Cooent Garden Market. 



107 



longer than usual, probably from being of a smaller size ; federal pearmaia % 
cockle pippin, a justly esteemed Sussex apple, a fertile bearer ; Pennington's 
iseedling, usually a very rich apple, but, this year, the flesh is too dry ; rai 
everlasting; reinette blanche d'Espaene, or Cobbett's fall pippin ; Braddick's 
nonpareil, a very fertile bearer; St. Julien, Wareham^s russet, tulip. Pears 
from standards ot the following kinds : glout morceau, the specimens not very 
good ; ne plus meuris, a very fertile bearer, keeps sometimes till March, its 
good qualities reconcile one to its irregular form ; beurre ranee ; Dowler's 
seedling, a fertile bearer, the fruit keeps well, and is, on the whole, a very 
good pear. Flowers : Chimon&nthus fragrans, f. var. grandifldrus ; Camellia 
jap6nicaanemonefl6ra41ba, C. j.imbricata; Epid^drum odoratissimum, Amar« 
ryllij calyptrata, and J?uph6rb«i elegans. 



Art- V. Covent Garden Markets 



The Cabbage TSribe. 

Cabbage per dozen : 

Large White 

Red ... 

Piants, or Coleworts 
Savoys ... 

Brussels Sprouts, per I sieve 
German Greens^ or S^le, per 

dozen ... 

Broccoli, per txinch : 

White - . - 

Purple ... 

Tubers and Boots, 

rper ton 
Potatoes . -^percwt 

Cper bushel - 

Kidney, per biuhel . 

Scotch, per bushel 
Jerusalem Artichokes, per 

half sieve « - 
Turnips, White, per bunch . 
Carrots, per bunch 
Parsneps, per dozen 
Red Beet, per dozen - 
Skirret, per bunch 
Scorzonera, per bundle 
Salsify, per bunch 
Horseradish, per bundle 

The Spinach Tribe, 

Sorrel, per half sieve 

The Onion Tribe. 

Onions, old, per bushel 
l«eks, per doz. bunches 
Garlic, per pound 
Shallots, per pound 

Asparaghtou* Plants^ 
Salads f^c. 

Asparagus, per 100 : 
large - - 

Middling . • . 
Small ... 

Sea.kale, per punnet 

Lettuce, per score : 
Cos . . . - 

-Cabbage ... 

Endive, per score 

Celery, per bundle (12 to 15) 

Small Salads, per punnet . 



From 

je s. d. 



2 

1 



2 

2 



4 10 
5 
2 
S 
3 















1 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 











1 


2 






6 
6 
6 




9 

3 6 
2 6 





6 



6 
5 
4 

3 
6 
6 
6 
6 



2 
1 6 
2 



3 

13 

6 

8 



10 
5 
2 6 
13 



6 
6 
6 
6 

2 



To 

je s. d. 











2 
3 

3 
3 























16 

5 ( 
4 



5 

5 6 

2 










1 
1 



3 




6 
6 
S 
6 



6 



3 
19 
2 6 



4 

1 f 

8 

10 



12 C 

6 

3 

2 



2 
9 



4 
1 




Pot and Sweet Herbs, 

Parsley, per half sieve 
Tarragon, drv, per doz. bun. 
Thyme, per dozen bunches . 
^gc> pel* dozen bunches 
Mint, dr^, per dozen bunches 
Peppermmt.dry per doz. bun. 
Afaijoram, ory, per doz. bun. 
Savory, dry, per dozen bun. 
Basil, dry, per doz. bunches 
Rosemary, per dozen bunches 
Lavender, per dozen bunches 

StaUci and FrtUts for Tarts, 
Picklingt ifc. 

Rhubarb Stalks, forced, per 
bundle ... 

Edible F^ngi and Fuei. 

Mushrooms, per pottle 
Morels, dry, per pound 
Truffles, dry, per pound : 

English ... 

Foreign ... 

Fruits. 

Apples, Dessert, per bushel : 
Nonpareils 
Golden Pippins 
Baking ... 
American 
Pears, Dessert, per dozen : 
Chaumontel 
Glout Morceau 
Beurre d'Hiver 
Baking, per half sieve 
Almonds, per peck 
Chestnuts, French, per peck 
Filbert8> English, per 100 lbs. 
Pine-apples, per pound 
Grapes^ per pound : 
Spanish ... 

Black - . 

rt»»»<» f P**" dozen 
Oranges J P hundred 
Bitter, per hundred 

Lemons [P|J hundred ' I 
Sweet Almonds, per pound . 
Brazil Nuts, per bushel 
Spanish Nuts, per peck 
Barcelona Nuts, per peck * 



From 


£ s. d. 


2 6 


2 


3 


3 


1 


1 


10 


1 


1 


2 


2 


13 


16 


10 


4 


12 


5 


12 


2 


10 


4 


3 


4 


2 


6 


3 


1 10 


4 


6 10 


1 


6 


3 


6 


9 


5 U 


3 


16 


4 


5 



To 
S s. d. 

















4 



















2 




6 
4 

6 
3 


4 

6 



1 
2 
8 
14 
16 
2 
12 





















16 



9 
12 

5 
OHO 



8 

1 
6 
16 












t 





Of 









Up to the present date the weather has continued changeable and unsettled ; 
the supply to the market has been irregular, and prices have fluctuated con- 
siderably ; nevertheless they have been generally good, but the quantities 
brought have been inconsiderable. During the prevalence of frost, in the 



108 Obituary. 

early put of t^is month, broccolid have suifered taoftterially, so that a shdri 
supply may be expected during the spring. Coleworts and savoyS are |etting 
scarce, and will necessarily command goixl prices. We have had consim^able 
qnant|ie»4bf|dfiihil|ead «abi>ag4)8 * brought flPom Bsstfk/fhicM ^e ,^roy^ 
acd&prabte to' th^* driers daring the prevailing' seak^ity of Ihl ni6r%ntl bett^ 
varieties. Turnips are still furnished in moderate quantities | so that the 
prices, as yet, have not offered a sufficient inducement to the far-off growers 
to send supplies, which might be obtained readily by water, did not the absurd 
objection still prevail against having this valuable vegetable sent in baskets of 
sacks, with the green part cnt off. C&rrots are still moderately plentiful, and in 
good demand. little dmibt can exist btrt-^at ttfl^the varieties of vegetable 
will become scarcer and dearer during the next two months* 

It has been from time to time reported, that, in conseouence of the long 
prevailing drought during the preceding summer, all kinds of vegetables are so 
scarce and dear in the London markets, as to induce a considerable importation 
of the more general articles, such as turnips, cabbages, &c., from Holland, by 
steam. I have made some enquiry on the subject, and can safely say, that 
nothing of the sort has taken place as regards this market, not an article of the 
soft having as yet been introduced. That, in cases of shortness of cfdp in fiituMe'^ 
we shall bt amply supplied from more distant parts of the country by steam 
communication, I have not the least doubt ; but, except carrots and onions 
from Bedfordshire, we have as yet but little furnished beyond. tbiQ distance; of 
twelve or fifteen miles ; and that for heavy articles, such aS turnips, &c., iS a 
material addition to the expenses of preparing and bringing to market. 

The supply of apples continues to be good, although partkHy internipled by 
fn>st> yiYam at all times prevents the grower's sending any quantitSBS. It is 
gencxally- under^tpod that the stock on hand is considerable^ and* will b6 sent 
steadily to market as soon as the weather is settled and steady. Of p^rs w^ 
have at present but ftfw varieticfts offered, and those in v&ty inconsiderable 
qaailtltfel. The j gardeners abotft London have, for some thbe past^ ttit^n^ 
Uieir4ttetitlp«L/ta>4he oulUuie of thj3 new and improved varieties ; so that yr^ 
may, |a a i^w years, expect a ,much better and more general supply, Oran^ 
are abundant, and at very moderate prices. Foreign nuts are not so plentiful 
as tisual. We have stif! a considerable quantity of last year's crop of filberts, 
and some "WnloutB, on* hand, which are now out of season, and compal^atively 
unsaleable* -— Q.iCJanmty 83. 1836. 



Art. VI. Obituary, 

DiKD on December 31. 1835, in St. Clement's, Oxford, in the 87th year 
of his age, Charles WUUamsotty for more than forty years one of the under-t 
gardeners in the Botanic Garden in that university. He was a native of 
Aberdeen, in Scotland ; in which country he served his apprenticeship to a gar* 
dener. Shortly after he was out of his time he came to England; and« on his 
first arriva] in this country, he worked in some of the nursery g:ardens near 
London. He was afterwards gardener to Admiral Bowyer, at his seat neaf 
Harley Green, Oxfordshire ; and, on his leaving there, he was employed in the 
Royal Gardens at Windsor. He afterwards went to Oxford, where, after work- 
ing for some time for Mr. John Madox, gardener, at Christ Church, h^ 
got into the Botanic Garden, sometime about 1790, where he continued till 
withhi about three years of his death. — W, B, BoU Gard,, Oxfird^ Januarv 
18. 1836. 



THE 

GARDENER^S MAGAZINE, 

MARCH, 1836. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 



Art. I. Descriptive Notice of Castle Coole, in the County of Ferma» 

naghi Ireland. By Y. 

Castle Coole, the demesne of the FoltI of Belraore, is situated 
within an English mile of Ennisktllen, in the county of Fer- 
managh. The house stands on a commanding eminence, about 
half a mile from the entrance lodge. It is a noble mansion, and 
was built by the late earl. We entered by the new approadi 
trom the Dublin road, which is two miles long, and sweeps boldly 
through the park, affording magnificent views of the surround- 
ing country ; and which has lately been completed under Lord 
B^more's own superintendence, since his return from Jamaica. 
From the house, there are varied and extensive views: on the 
left, about four miles distant, we have Florence Court, the beau- 
tiful demesne of the Earl of Enniskillen ; in the foreground is 
the broad windmg lake, studded with woody islands ; and farther 
beyond it are the mountain plantations of Florence Court; while, 
to terminate the scene, the bold Benaughlin and the lofty Cul- 
tagh Mountains rise. In front, there is a distant prospect of 
Belmore Mountain rising in lofty grandeur ; and, nearer, are the 
Castle of Portera, and the picturesque town of Enniskillen, with 
its numerous towers and steeples. On the left, two miles distant, 
are the sombre plantations of the Temple Hills, brokep into 
irregular dense masses, and forming such mountain scenery as we 
always consider the distinguishing feature of alpine regions. On 
the lawn, in front of the mansion, are some magnificent old trees ; 
and, among others, an ash which measures 65 ft. in height, and 
23 ft. in girt ; the tree has a fine straight bole, and its branches 
extend over a space 270 ft. in circumference. There are, also, 
a noble beech, which, at a distance, resembles a group, more 
than a single tree, and which is 123 ft. high, and 13 ft. 10 in. in 
girt, circumference of the top 685 ft.j forming a beautiful, close, 
regular cdumn, crowning a fine clear bole, 25 ft. high ; a sweet 
Vol. XII. — No, 72. k 



110 Descriptive Notice of Castle Coole^ Ireland. 

chestnut, 80 ft high, 10 ft. in girt, 20 ft;, of a clear bole; a horse- 
chestnut, 50 years old, 60 ft. high, girt of the trunk 7 ft. 7 in., 
and diameter of the head 60 ft. This is a very superb specimen; 
and Lord Belmore told us that it increases one inch every year 
in solid timber. We measured another very fine beech, which 
Was planted by Lord Belmore about thirty years since, and found 
it to be 80 ft. high, 10 ft. in girt, with a head 18 ft. in diameter, 
and a straight bole of 20 ft. We saw, also, some other fine speci- 
mens, which we noted down for the Arboretum Britatmicum. 
In a noble avenue of oaks, we measured several, one of which was 
90 ft. high, girt 10 ft. 5 in., bole to the branches 30 ft Here 
we were shown an old oak, taken out of the wood when it was 
70 years old, and planted in the lawn, in a very exposed situa- 
tion, by His Lordship, aft;er some peculiar method of his own, 
differing from Sir H. Steuart's plan. This oak has now been 
planted 25 years; and, it having thrown out some small spray, 
and proved strong enough to weather the Atlantic blast, we need 
not say that such planting will answer the purpose, particularly 
where there is little shelter. We were shown a design for a walk 
round the rear of the plantation in front of the mansion, but 
which we thought would be of little interest or use, except being 
on a level with the other parts of the grounds. We would beg 
to suggest the propriety of bringing it on the same level in front 
of the plantation, when it would form by far the best walk in the 
demesne, at once giving a beautiful prospect of the different 
surrounding scenery, and affording a full view of the front of the 
house. Situated at a short distance in the rear of the mansion, 
and seen from the approach road leading to Enniskillen, is a 
beautiful lake, nearly two miles round, inhabited by numbers of 
domesticated and wild fowl. The bank on the distant side is 
clothed with venerable oak trees projecting over the water, and 
thus affording shade for the swans and wild geese ; while their 
tops are clustered with myriads of rooks, and the trees in the 
island, and on the margin of the lake, are knotted with the nests 
of the heron. The varied chattering of the waterfowl, combined 
with the monotonous croaking of the raven colony, and the sin* 
gular .beauty of the wild scenerjr around us, raised in our minds 
poetic feelings fraught with beauty, that it would require the 
genius of a Scott or a Byron to describe. 

The approach to this front comes too near the lake, and is too 
low. It would be a decided improvement to carry it into the 
majestic oak avenue, bringing it with a gradual sweep towards 
the offices. The garden is an extensive parallelogram, sur- 
rounded with high walls, which are well clothed with fine old 
fruit trees. There are extensive ranges of hot-houses on the old 
plans ; peach-houses, vineries, and pine-stoves ; and frames for 
forcing melons, cucumbers, &c. ; a general assortment of herba- 
ceous plants, dahlias of every variety, rhododendrons of the 



Planis in FUmet^ in Winter ^ in New South Wales. Ill 

newest kinds, roses, kalmias, and every sort of American plant. 
We saw a fine collection, in fiill bloom, of new annuals, from Mr. 
Charlwood, the celebrated seedsman in Covent Garden, diat 
we admired very much ; also a fine collection of camellias and 
other new green-house plants, selected by His Lordship from the 
English nurseries. His Lordship's taste for plants gives him a 
botanical knowledge^ as well as an inclination for rural afiairs* 
We were disappointed in the appearance of a ffreen-house, which 
is the only modern improvement in die garden : it is not at all 
in character with the splendid mansion and other buildings, and 
it is only fit for a nurseryman to put his seedling heaths and cut- 
tings in. It is a pity to see such fine plants in it. We expected 
to see a splendid modern conservatory, in an appropriate situa- 
tion, in character with such a demesne. We were informed by 
Mr. Fennelly, who is an experienced gardener and practical 
botanist, that His Lordship intends to remodel the hot-houses, 
and to change the general appearance of the garden into a more 
modem style— -an improvement which is much wanted. 

The offices are in character with the noble mansion, and form 
extensive and separate squares. There is the stable square, the 
cattle square, and the poultry square, all situated at a little dis- 
tance from the house, and all screened- by a fine plantation and 
shrubbery. The woods are extensive ; and we were informed by 
Mr. Greenfield, the steward, that they consist of 750 acres. We 
went a little way into them; and, according to our judgment, they 
are very skilfully managed. There are some fine young oak 
plantations, managed in the same manner as those of Lord En- 
niskillen, at Florence Court, mentioned in the Irish Farmet^s and 
Gardener's Magazine, vol. i. p. 70. We saw some beautiful 
drawings of well-designed lodges and gates, which are to be put 
up : we should say me sooner the better ; for the present ap- 
peared to us more fit for a country chapel than a park, and only 
just wide enough for the family carriage to pass through. 

The approach leading to Enniskillen, we thought, should be 
extended to the public road, and brought with a gentle sweep 
into the avenue, ornamental trees and shrubs being planted oa 
the rising ground. 

Enniskillen, Nov. 16. 1835. 



Art. H. Extracts Jrom the Letters of an English Traveller^ noiv at 
Sydney y mentioning the' Trees and Shrubs that he found in Flovoer 
during May and June, the Winter Months^ in Neto South Wales. 
Communicated by Mr. Thomas Backhouse, Nurseryman, York. 

May2S. 1834. — Winter is now far advanced; but in this 
mikl climate we found^c^ia suaveolens, and some other species, 

K 2 



112 Plants in Flower during May and thine j 

Banksia integrifotiaand spinulosa, Hakea ffibb^sa, E'pacris gran- 
difldra, Ricinocarpus /^inifolius, a narrow-leaved LoranUius,. and 
several other plants, in blossom. 

. June 1. — In addition to the shrubs noticed on the 28th ult^ 
the following were in flower: Banks/a mcifolia and australis, 
Conospermum mcifblium, Cr6wea ^ligna, Eriostemon linearifo- 
lius; E'pacris pulchella, microphylla, and heteroneipa; Styphelia 
tubifl6ra^ and Zier/a laevigata. 

Jtme 2. — In our walk, the following plants were seen in blos- 
som, in addition to those already noticed at this season. Acacia 
plagiophylia, /inifMia, and myrtiiolia; Bknksia oblongifolia, .dBgi- 
ceras tragrans, Lamb^rtia formosa,, Grevillea &uxif6lia and line- 
aris, Lobeh'a gracilis, Bossies a heterophylla, Acacia pungens, 
Dillwyn/a ^icoides, and Mdlichrus urceolatus.. 

June 3. — We met >tfith Corrae^a speciosa, Stenarith^ra j?ini<^ 
folia, Bor^Mz tetratheciiides, GreviUea serlcea, Isop6gon ane- 
raonifolius, Leucopogon microphyllus and frricaefoliiis, Pimel^a 
2inif51ia, Hibbert/a linearis, and Eriostemon salicifoiius, in blo$^ 
som, in our walk. 

Jurie 9. — At an early hour, we set out for the residence of a 
friend, on Cook's River, at about seven miles distant from Sydney.. 
The road is well tracked ; and, in some places,^^ it is formed by 
the edges being cut, and the earth levelled : portions of it are 
also bounded by post and rail fencing. Some of the land through 
which it passes is of a stronger quality than most of that in the 
vicinity of Sydney. It is cultivated, and has cottages or farm- 
steads upon it; but the greatest part of the way is through bush^ 
or forest, of eucalyptus, casuarina, and acacia, with underwood 
of various shrubs, intermingled j in the more open places, witb 
the singular Zamia spiralis. From some parts of the road there 
is a .fine view of the waters of Botany Bay, of which Cook's. 
River forms an arm, which is crossed by boats, at about fi,ve miles- 
from Sydney, to the residences of a few settlers.- The river here 
hais a low sandstone cliff on the west side, and patches of low 
level land, backed by sandstone rocks, on the east side. The 
muddy margins, like those of Port Jackson and other similar 
places washed with salt water, are covered with iEgiceras fra- 
grans,, and another arborescent shrub, both of which go here 
promiscuously under the name of mangroves, and are burnt for 
the sake of their ashes. A man was waiting for us, who con- 
ducted us along a narrow path under the cliff to a large boaU 
used for bringing shells from Botany Bay to burn for Ihne, in 
which his fellow- prisoner servant and himself conveyed us about 
a mile further up the river to his master^s house, which is built 
in the style of many of those of persons of the middle class in 
the West Riding of Yorkshire, and which is commodious, but 
by no means elegant. Our friend has a wife and four children j 



the Winter Mofiths, in N&ao South Wales. 1 1 3 

sind the whole family are located between the rocks and the river, 
on a slope naturally grassy, but a part of which has been con- 
verted into a garden, chiefly planted with grape vines. Near the 
house we conversed with a party of blacks, who were assembled 
in the bush around a small fire, on which they had been cooking 
some fish. We had seen two of them spearing fish in the river, 
which they do with great dexterity, both from logs lying with 
one end in the river, and from their canoes. Their fish-spears 
are made of long pieces of wood, with a socket at one end, into 
which four long wooden prongs are fixed, by means of the yellow 
gum of a species of grass tree (Xanthorrhoe^a), and some, string. 
Their canoes are made of single slieets of bark drawn together 
in folds at the ends, by heiatihg them over a fire, and tied so as 
to keep them in that state: a few sticks are placed across and 
bent to the inside, so as to keep the canoe properly open. These 
canoes will accommodate two persons. 'Iliey are propelled by 
means of paddles put perpendicularly and alternately into the 
water by a man sitting on his knees ; and are made to move very 
steadily and rapidly, in the direction of the face of the person who 
propels them. Sometimes a fire placed on a stone is carried in 
the canoe. The natives look for fishes about dead logs in the 
river, and bring their spears almost close to them before they 
strike : they seldom miss their prey, which they generally trans- 
fix near the head. 

On some sandy table land we saw Hakea acicularis, Grevfllea 
sphacelata, and a variety of other shrubs, in blossom, lliere 
was a species of CSIlitris 20 ft. high, with spherical cones ; and, 
by the side of the river. Eucalyptus robiista was in flower. This 
tree is quite distinct from the oile that attains such great magni- 
tude in Van Diemen*s Land (see Gardener's Magazine^ vol. xi. 
p. 570.), which is called there stringy-bark, and which is probably 
Eucal^tus obliqua. The remai4cable elkshorn fern (Acros* 
tichum alcic6me) is very common in fissures of the sandy rocks, 
in this paTt of New South Wales: occasionally it is found on 
trees, and at a great height up. I saw one mass of it to-day, 
encircling the upright slender trunk of a tree, by the side of a 
creek of firesti water. 

June 15. — ^We took a walk in the afternoon, and enjoyed the 
fine clear weather of an Australian winter. The thermometer is 
often a few degrees above 60** in the shade at noon, and about 
45** in the evening, when the cold is sensibly felt, and we are glad 
of fires. * 

{To be continued,) 



K 3 



114 Vineyard atid Plantations of Jacob Tonsan^ 



Art. III. Some Account of the Vineyard and Plantations of the 
celebrated Jacob Tonson^ in 1727» at Haffield^ near Ledbury; voith 
a Notice of the Improvements lately made, and noto in Progress^ at 
that Place. By Mr. D. Beaton. 

The estate at Haffield consists of several small estates, which 

were in the hands of different proprietors till 1817, when they 

were united into one. One of these small estates, containing 

about 25 acres, and called the Vineyard, was bought, in 1726, 

by the celebrated London bookseller, Jacob Tonson, whose name 

is so intimately associated with those of the great men whose 

works he published. This small estate no doubt derived its 

name from a vineyard on it, which had been cultivated from time 

immemorial. The site of this vineyard was a steep bank, facing 

the south and south-east ; and that it was considered of some 

importance in 1726, may be inferred from the following extract 

of a letter, from Mr. Tonson to his agent, when he was about 

buying the place: — '^ Pray take care about the title, and that the 

house, wine^pressy tools, glasses, and every other thing belonging 

to it, be particularly included in the bill of sale." In a bill sent 

in to Mr. Tonson, by his tenant. May 1727, are the following 

charges: — 

t, d, 

*' For three chickens, and dressing them - - 1 6 

For six pounds of butter - - - 2 6 

For the use of my tubs, and a vessel for making the wine 3 *' 

In another bill, not dated, but supposed to be about the same 
time, strawberries were charged 6d. per quart or pound, and 
raspberries at ^d* ditto. Tradition, in this quarter, says that 
the vines were first trained against the steep banks (a practice 
of late years supposed to be new), but that Mr. Tonson intro- 
duced espaliers, which the common people called << diamond 
palisading.'' 

Mr. ']]u>nson evidently made great alterations and improve- 
ments, soon afler purchasing the place. He formed terraces on 
the bank on which the vineyard stood, and planted Scotch pines, 
common spruce firs, and yews, on the north-west and east sides 
of bis vineyard ; and, near the house, some yews and lime trees, 
and some variegated hollies, one of which now remains, and is 
47 fl- high, the girt, at one foot from the ground, being 4fl. 3 in.- 
A few of the Scotch pines have reached within a nraction of 
100 ft., and girt from 8 fl. to nearly 12 fl., at one foot from the 
ground. They were " shredded " about 70 years ago ; and some 
of the trees have now 40 fl. of clean straight stems. They are 
still in the greatest vigour, and produce abundance of seeds 
every year. The soil is 6 inches of gravelly marl on a hard red 
conglomerated rock, and on the termination of a range of low 



//* 17275 at Haffield^ near Ledbury. \ 15 

hills, much esposed. The trees are fac-similes of the Scotch pines 
in the forests of Braemar and Strathspey. The spruce firs are 
all gone, except two trees, which are now in a sickly state ; 
though one of them is 70 ft. high, and girts 7 ft. 2 in. at one 
foot from the ground. The lime trees have been pollarded for 
a length of time. The yews, which were planted about the same 
time, are comparatively young trees : a fine upright one is 40 ft. 
high, and 6 ft 2 in. in girt, at one foot from the ground. If 
yews were planted close together, or among close young planta- 
tions, so as to ^' draw " them up, and if attention were paid to 
keep down contending leaders, and to foreshorten the strongest 
branches, I have no doubt they might be grown as straight and 
as high as the larch. 

No traces of any vines are now to be seen on this bank ; but 
a few plants, as late as 40 years ago, were growing on the ori- 
ginal site, and there were some remains of the espaliers. The 
white muscadine is supposed to have been the chief ~sort used, 
as some very old plants of this variety are still to be found in 
the neighbourhood, trained against houses, and bearing immense 
crops every year. An old mulberry, in one corner of the vine- 
yard, was blown down some years since ; its larger boughs stuck 
in the ground, and, having taken root there, they now support 
the trunk, though all traces of the original roots are gone. This 
tree produces a regular and good crop every year. 

The present house at Hafiield (by Sir Robert Smirke) was 
built in 1818 and 1819, and the grounds were planted from 
1820 to 1823, chiefly with forest trees on dry shallow soil, which 
was formerly under corn. It was thought of no use to trench 
such soil, it being no where deeper than 9 inches, on a hard 
red sandstone rock. The trees have, notwithstanding, made 
rapid progress, and are very promising. They consist oflarches, 
Scotch pines, beech, and spruce and silver firs, with a few oaks 
and chestnuts in the best soil. In a low part of the grounds, 
there are a few acres of peat bog, similar to that of Chat Moss, in 
Lancashire. Thishas been partlydrained, and planted with alders, 
ash trees, willows, abele trees, and black Italian poplars. The 
latter surpass every thing I have ever seen in the growth of trees; 
the abeles are fair specimens, but are beginning to look old 
already ; and the ^shes do not promise much better. The alders 
are quite at home, although the black Italian poplars are double 
their size and strength. 1 mean this winter to plant a salicetum 
here; and hope to make it complete, as upon the margin of this 
bog I can find different soils, sandy loam, mixing with peat and 
bog earth. I shall give the ground a deep digging, and shall then 
plant potatoes for the first three years, which will effectually clean 
it from weeds, without hurting the progress of the trees, notwith- 
standing all that has been written to the contrary. Last spring, 

K 4 



116 Plan fm- a Natural Arravgemeni, 

we began a pinetum, and got thirty species ; and thus, by d^^es, 
with a little industry, I may have a complete arboretiiiu. 

Speaking of arboretums generally, I do not at all think it 
necessary for their success, or for the enjoymrat to be derived 
from them, that private gentlemen of limited fortunes should 
plant full collections of either trees or shrubsi even should there 
be plenty of ground to spare for them. Selections, and not col- 
lections, should always be the study of the private gentleman ; 
and, if a selection be judiciously made from all the tribes, or even 
from the principal tribes, so as to maintain the leading f«»ttures 
of each tribe, and its connexions with thoselmmediately foUow- 
ing and preceding it, all the purposes of a complete arboretom 
are answered. In the meantime, the greatest de$iden^m is to 
know how to make the best selection ; and to this point yod, 
and those capable of cooperating with you, ought to pay parti- 
cular attention. Owing to the manner in which most places 
have been planted within the last thirty years, all that ninety- 
nine gardeners out of a hundred can do is, to plant as many 
trees or shrubs as they can procure, in suitable places, which 
will be at least one step towards the formation of general arbo- 
retums. 

Very few shrubs were planted here when the grounds were 
first laid out ; but the soil about the house is suitable for most 
kinds, being deep strong loam on gravel, sand, or rock, and 
since If^SO a good many have been planted. The kitchen-gar- 
den is four acres in extent, and the enclosed pleasure-grounds 
about twelve acres. In the kitchen-garden are grown the finest 
out-door grapes I have ever seen, an account of which, and some 
pomological notes, I have been preparing for you for two or three 
years back. 

[We need hardly say how glad we shall be to receive these 
notices, or any other, from a correspondent of so much scientific 
knowledge, and practical experience, as Mr. Beaton. See vol. xi. 
p. 580 — 582.] — Hqffieldy near Ledbury^ Attgusij 1835. 



Art. IV. Pian for the Exhibition of a Natural Arrangement of 
Plants t in the Glasnevin Botanic Garden, By N. Nivbn, Esq. 

Agreeably to your wish, I send herewith my plan for the ex- 
hibition of a natural arrangement of plants, an account of which 
is published by Mr. Dixon Hardy of Dublin, in his Report of 
the Transactions of the British Association held in Dublin ; but 
not the plan. When you look at^. 1 1. you will at once see my 
object ; viz. the uniting together of a British and an exotic ar- 
rangement, on a serpentine walk : the whole suited for a piece of 
ground at present preparing for such purpose in this garden. On 



in thi Glasnevin Botanic Garden, 



117 



the right of this tvallc I propose as full an exhibition as possible 
of the exotic genera, as shown by the dark figures ; on the left, 
as th^ occur, the British natural orders, proposing to identify 
the plants peculiar to any of the three countries, by distinctive 
labels of metal, impressed with the rose, shamrock, or thistle ; 
entering the principal divisions of the system, through appropriate 
archways, over the continuous walk, on each of which, as they 
oeeur, 1 mean to have the leading characters painted, &c. 

I have been induced to think tnat such a plan would be well 
adapted for the purpose of facilitating the progress of the student. 
I also think that the effect to be produced by such a mode of 
arrangement must be, not only simple, but beautiful. 

Glasnevin Garden^ Dublin^ Octt^er^ 1835. 

[We have waited till February 15. "before sending this article 
to the printer, in the hope of first seeing the report above 
referred to ; but, though we have written to Dublin, and applied 
to different public institutions in London, we have not been able 
to obtain a copy.] 



First Grand Division, VASCULA^RES. 

Class I. DlCOTYLSDO^NEiE. 



Subdivision I. 

DiCHLAMYDEX. 

Subclass I. 

THALAMlFLO^RiE. 

1. iZanunculacese. 

2. Dilleniacee?. 

3. Magnol?flC£'<F. 
4f. Anofideece. 

5. Menispermaces. 

6. BerherhcecB, 

7. Podophyllkceae. 

8. H^dropeltldea^. 

10. Sarracenie<^. 

11. Papaveracese. 

12. i^mariaceae. 



27. Z/inacea?. 

28. il/alvacese. 

29. Bombaces. 

30. Byttnenacf^, 

31. 311iiU;e». 

32. Elaeocarpaceee. 

33. Chlenliceae. 

34. Temstrdmiactf^F. 

35. Camelliecip. 
.36. Olac^ceae. 

37. Aurandkceae. 

38. Hyperic^cese. 



56. Simarubdeect, 

57. OchQikceseu 

58. Cori^cess. ■ 

Subclass II. 

59. CeI^9tr«ceBDj' 

60. i^hajnnaceaEu 

61. lbruuiace<r, 

62. ^S'amyd^ceas. . 
6d* Homalifi^ceae. 
e4. €haiUet»dc6ir. 



39. Guttaceae (Gutti- 65. Aquilari^eae. 



ferae). 

40. Marcgravwce^F. 

41. HippocrateacftiP. 

42. ErythroxylesB. 



13. CruciacesB (Cruci- 43. Malpighioc^^. 

feraeV 44. -^ceraceae. 

14. J^esedaceae. 

15. Datiscaceae. 

16. Capparidaceae. 

17. Flacourti(2c»?. 

18. Budceof, 

19. Cistaceas. 

20. riolaceae. 

21. Droseraceae. 

22. Polygaliceae. 

23. Tremandr^ceae. 

24. PittosporacesB. 

25. Frankeniac<?(7. 

26. Caryophyllaceae. 



66. Tbrebintfa^ceae. 

67. Leguminkceae. 

68. i^oskceae. 

69. Calycanthaceae. 

70. Granateae. 

71. ilfemecylliceae. 

45. JE^sculaceae (Hip- 72. (7ombretaceae.. 
pocastaneae). 73. VochydcecB^ 

46. Rhizobolaceae. 74. Rhizophoraoeae. 

47. Sapindkceae. 75. Lophireae. 

48. Jfcfelikceae. 76. Onagraceae. 

49. ritkceae (i^mpeU- 77. Halor^es. 



de»j. 

50. (reranikceae. 

51. Tropaeoleae. 

52. j^alsamitiaceee. 
5d< Oxalidaeeae. 
54, Zygophyllac€«. 
b^, i^utaceae. 



./ ' 



78. Ceratoph^Hese. 

79. Z^thwweflp. . 

80. TWiaricaceae. , 

81. Mclastomacea^. 

82. Alangidcece, 

83. Pfaiiadelphacese. 

84. Mwikc^sd. 



Flan for a Natural Arrangement, 




Uj. 



_1_. 



_1_ 



I 



This airan^meDt may be coronienced at either end. If we eater the walk 
at a, we b^n with DivisioD I. Vasculikres, Class I. Dicotyledonete ; Sub- 
division I. Kchlam^dese, Subclass I. ThalamiflorEe, Order L AanunculaceK. 
Proceeding onwards, trom No. 1. to No. 58., accordiog to the list in p. 117., 
we arriTe at Subclass II. Calyciflflrie. The groups containing the Britinh 
species are always on the leli-hand side of the walk, and those containing 
foreign spedes on the right-hand side. On both sides of the walk, those 

rups supposed to require rock-work are indicated in the manner showD at 
At b, commences Subclass II. Calycifldrw ; at c. Subclass III. CoroUiflorEe; 
at d. Subdivision II. Monochlam^deie; at e. Class II. Monocotyledones; 
at/, the Second Grand Division, Cellulares, Class I. Foliaces, Order 211. Ff- 
lices ; and at g. Class II. AphJ'llcEe, which is continued to the termination of 
the walk, where it ends with Order 219. .F^ingacex, as indicated in p. 121. 

At A is a mount, which has no connexion whatever with ibe natural ar- 
rangement, but is merely a labyrinth for amusement. The bed i is devoted to 
ornamental shrubs. We refer for other particulars to p. 116, and p. 117. 
When we receiv« the BcpoH alluded to in p. 1 17., we shall give such other 
particulars as we may think necessary, in a succeeding Number. 



in the Glasnevin Botanic Garden. 




Glasnevin Botanic Garden. 



85. C^curbitices. 
«6. Fossiflo rices. 
67. Loatacea. 

88. Turnerocnr. 

89. Portulaces. 

Sa /llecebraceie( ftirn- 

91. Cnusulk«s. 

92. ^coidiices. 

93. Cact^ex. 

94. Orosaulacete. 

95. Esctlllontai:fic 

96. &xifi^ces. 

97. Qaaojiiacea. 

98. Umbellaces (Urn- 

beUffera). 

99. Araliacetc. 
100. (^rifoliaces. 
lot. Loranthitcese. 
lOS. Chlaranthacex. 

103. Aubiicee. 

104. Operciilari^. 

105. ValerianaceiF. 

106. TMps^ceie. 

107. Calyceracete. 

108. Comp6git». 

109. Lobelto'ceiv. 

110. St^lidiaces. 

111. QooAerdheeiE. 

112. CampanulaceK. 

1 13. Gesaaaceee. 

114. KacciniAcefe. 

115. £ric&cee. 

116. Patfedcco', 



Subclass III. 

117. EpacridaMB. 

118. SymploctDeee. 

119. StyToceee. 
ISO, Jlyrainficeee. 

las. Ebenacee, 
12S. fires iAcoe. 
134. OleacoE. 

125. i/as minxes. 

126. SCrychnfete, 

127. .Ipocynaces. 
1S8. Aac\ep\dcax. 

129. GeatianacetF. 

130. Bignoiifa«ic. 

131. CotMcacfie. 

132. Pedaliaces. 

133. Sesames. 

134. Polemoniaceic. 

135. Hydruleucef . 

136. C'onvolvulaoeffi. 

137. BoraanaQex. 

138. CotdiActw. 



17a ArcadtkceEe. 

179. Hfdrocharacetc. 

180. Alismaceee. 
161. Aitom^eee. 



J43. ferbenaceffi. 

144. Myoporaceffi. 

145. ilcantb^ea;. 

146. Orobanchaceie. 

147. LeDtibuloces. 

IsBB II. MONOCOTVLEDO^NI 

182. Jancaffoicex. 1 

183. OrchidaceEE. 

184. ^mgiberaces (Sci- 1 

tamlnece). 1 



148. Primulicue. 

149. GtobtilBri&cec. 

150. Pluinba^nacefe. 



151. PlaDta^nikCMe. 
153. ^ycuginacea:. 
153, ^marant^ece. 
I Si. Pbylolacacete. 
155. Chenopodiacete. 
15C. Begonidoea. 
157. PolygonaceGe. 
[56. LauraceiE. 
159. Myri«tic^ceK. 
)60. Proteaffizr. 

161. TbymeUceK. 

162. Oayrfdefe. 

163. SarUaldcea. 

164. £lsagtiaces. 

165. ^ristolocluaceK. 

166. CytinkceK. 

167. ^uphorlAiefts. 
lt>6. Stackhouseiiceir. 

169. Srilaginacefe. 

170. frticacese. 

171. tHmacese, 

172. /•iperacefc. 

173. Jng\autia.cex. 

174. AmeniBceffi. 

175. A'amaineliaceie. 

176. Conaces(Canffene). 

177. EmpeOiuxa. 

5, Marant^me (Oin- 



v^g ^^ ^=^ ^^gij^iyi ^^ ^g r"i'-j 




Designs for Suburban Gardens. 



18S. H!cmodork«m. 

189. HjpoxidHCes. 

190. Aaiarylldcea, 

191. Hemerocullidete. 

192. DioBcoreacfie. 

193. Tumem. 
191. Saaikcese. 
195. ^hodelefe. 



e04. Arieat (Oroide*). 
203. Pluviftcew. 
306. JuncHcece. 
£07. OillieBM)(Y<v. 

208. Re«idce«. 

209, Cypeninra. 
810. GnuninacecE. 



Class L FoLiACBS. 
«11. Filices. 

512. Eqimetacex. 

513. Lycopodiaces. 



Second GnmJ DivirioR, CELLULA'RBS. 
214. Mai«lf(ifnE. Claw It. 



Art. V. A Series of Designs Jbr laying out Suburban Gardens and 
Grounds, Jrotn One Perch to several Acres in Extent. By Mr, T. 
RuTOER. Design 7- For laying out the Frontage Grounds ^ 
Ttoenly-one Houses. Design 8. For laying out the Ground tn 
Front g/'o Crescent. 

Design 7- {fg. 12.) represents the frontage of a terrace, con- 
sisting of twenty-one houses, which are approached by a carriage 
drive, with a small entrance lodge at each end. I'he front is 
laid out in the parterre style, wiui shaded walks at tlie back; an 
alcove stands in tlie centre; and there is a seat at each angle, 
where the two walks join. The small circles at the two extreme 
corners are intended either for small rotundas to sit in, or for 
statues, or vases, for embellishments. The small walks are re- 
commended to be laid down with stone. 




Remarks on the Ringing of Fruit Trees. 




Desirni 8. {^. 13.) represents a crescent, where only the line 
for the nouses is given. The front is laid out hs a shrubbery, 
with groups of shrubs planted on the grass, but where clumps 
may be introduced if better approved of. In the centre is a 
circle intended for a fountain, or any other appropriate embel- 
lishment ; at the back of which is an alcove. The other small 
circles and squares are also intended for articles for embellish- 
ment ; and seats niay be introduced at pleasure in any of the 
shaded situations. The approach to the crescent is by a carriage 
drive, with a small entrance lodge at each end. 7^e small walks 
are meant to be laid down with stone. 

Portland Place, 1835. 



Art. VI. Remarks on Ike Rir^ng of Fruit Trees. Translated from 
an Article on that subject by M. van Mons, published in Belgium. 

The season for ringing fruit trees [the spring] is approach- 
ing ; and I cannot let it pass by without a word or two on the 
practice, and on the effects of the operation. 

Ringing a tree cuts off the-part operated upon from the cir- 
culation of the sap, and necessitates it to subsist principally on 
the nourishment which the leaves derive from the air. We 
will not say in what respects this nourishment differs from that 
which the tree derives from its roots ; but we will remark that 
nature provides abundance of leaves for those buds which she 
intends to produce flowers. 



Remarks on the Ringing of Fruit Tiers. 




Peach and apricot trees vill not bear ringing, because they 
always produce their fruit on the young wood,* and the vine 
still less, because it bears on the growing shoot. Ringing does 
not advance the fructification of either plum trees or young 
cherry trees ; and it is apt to produce the gum in old trees ol 
the latter species, as the wound is a long time before it heals. 
Apple trees shrivel above the ring ; and, if they live, they do not 
soon bear any fruit The pear tree thus remains the only spe- 
cies of fruit tree on which the operation of ringing can be 
practbed with advantage. 

Ringing may be performed at any season, but it only pro- 
duces its full effect when undertaken in the spring, at the first 
appearance of the movement of the sap, and as soon as the 
bark begins to crack. The wound ought not to be wider than 
the thickness of the blade of a knife, if it is desired that it 
should heal before the end of the season. The operation ought 
to be performed on a side branch which is rather stronger and 
more elevated thwi its neighbours ; or one which is badly placed, 
and which, in the end, may be removed without disfiguring the 
tree. A tree will not bear ringing either round the trunlt or 
round the leading shoot, unless there should by chance be a 
second leader, and one may be removed without injury. 

The tree which has had its trunk operated upon is in dan- 
ger of either perishing, or remaining a long time in a sickly 
state ; and, alter it has recovered its health, its sterility will be 
more durable than if it had never undergone the operation. 

If a branch is ringed too close to its base, or the point where 



124 Remap ks oti the Ringing of Fruit Trees. 

it is inserted into the trunk, it will be in danger of being beaten 
down by the wind, or broken by the weight of fruit. A good 
place is at a quarter of the length of the bough, and beyond 
other side shoots, the eyes of which will also generally produce 
iruit 

The upper lip of the wound swells considerably, and the 
more so according as the ring has been broad, or the sea- 
son far advanced. This tumefaction of the bark i$ partaken 
of by the wood ; and the formation of this tumour proves that it is 
principally by the descent of the sap, which has been elaborated 
in the leaves, that the tree increases in ^irt. It rarely happens 
that a pear tree, operated upon when it lias attained the age for 
bearing, does not go into flower the same year that the opera- 
tion is performed. There are, however, tases in which the re- 
pugnance of a tree to flower resists the efficacy of this method : 
these occur with all drooping trees, and whenever the wood is 
hard and rough; and, when at last trees of this description do 
show flowers, it is upon another branch rather than on that 
which has been operated upon. 

The eye which is constrained by ringing to form its flowers 
prematurely, is of the same description as a similar eye springing 
from the young wood : the flowers, in both cases, are very lia« 
ble to drop ofi^; and the fruit, when it becomes ripe, is deficient 
in colour. 

The fruit of a branch operated upon, if it comes to anything, 
owes its strength to the state of sufiering of the bough which 
bore it: it is unequal in bulk, very often small, worm-eaten, 
dry, cracked, gritty, and of an excessive sweetness, which it 
obtains at the expense of its juice. The fruit should be re- 
duced, by thinning, to a very small number, if it is wished that 
they should attain perfection. 

The new property which I have discovered to belong to ring- 
ing is, that it causes the eyes of branches which have not un- 
dergone the operation to flower also; and that these are almost 
always immediately opposite to the branches which have been 
operated upon, or a little above those branches. There is not a 
single case known where this effect has not been produced, 
though till now no one has remarked this excellent property, 
which is itself sufficient to prove the advantage, and perpetuate 
the practice, of ringing ; because it not only makes the wounded 
branches produce fruit, but, by throwing those branches into 
bearing that are not mutilated, it insures a fertility to the tree 
which is not likely to be soon interrupted. 

Another mode of bringing fruit trees into bearing is, to take a 
ring of bark from some of the principal roots, at a little dis- 
tance from the trunk. The ring ought to be more or less broad, 
according to the thickness of the root. The operation may be 



Bemarks on the Singing of Fruit Trees. 126 

perfbrjtned at any season, in April or May, as well as in August 
OF £lepiember, without there being any reason to fear the extrava- 
sation of the sap^ which is so prejudicial to the tree when the roots 
are pruned in the spring. A year, however, is gained when the 
operation is performed early in the season. There is no occa- 
sion to apply any dressing or covering to the wound : in fact, 
there is no occasion to do anything more than to draw the earth 
round die tree, and to tread it down firmly with the feet If 
the roots are not ringed all round the tree, the opposite side to 
that on which the incision has been made will bear fruit; which 
coincides with the effect produced by ringing on the branches, 
and denotes a physiological fact which nas not been hitherto 
noticed. The wound heals so rapidly, that in about a year no 
traces of it can be discovered, except a few wrinkles in the bark. 
No^ excrescence is formed, and no other roots are sent out, 
either from the lips of the wound, or above or below it ; at least, 
none that can be supposed to have been occasioned by the inci- 
sion. Tbenoot operated upon appears, indeed, less likely to 
send out suckers than any of its neighbours. The fruit does 
not. in^^he slightest degree participate in the state of disease or 
suffering in the tcee, which has thrown it into bearing. 

The, wood of. the shoot below the incision bursts almost 
siwmy^ from the bark, or the lips of the wound : this wood is of 
the kind called false ; and the buds of it ought to be rubbed off 
as soon as they appear ; as preserving this wood can only injure 
the bark, and retard the healing of the wound. 

The principal object of ringing ought to be, not to throw 
known varieties prematurely into fruit, or to make trees bear on 
which other resources may be resorted to in order to produce 
the same effect (such as shortening the largest roots, pruning 
the tree after the sap has risen, &c.) ; but to force young seed- 
ling plants to show early the bad or good quality of their fruit. 
It JDUSt, however, be used cautiously, as it sometimes does in- 
jury instead of good, and when applied to the side branch of an 
espalier, it produces no other effect than that of rendering wood 
sterile which was before only backward in bearing. 

Ringing never produces a- marked effect on the fertility of a 
branch more than once : if repeated the following year, it more 
frequently produces sterility, than a continuation of bearing. 

The mode in which ringing affects a tree is precisely similar 
to the effect produced by many other modes of suffering which 
are employed to throw trees into bearing : such as bending the 
tree, breaking or twisting the branches, transplanting, &c., and 
it should only be employed with one branch at a time ; it can- 
not be applied to several branches at once, without disfiguring, 
and probably ruiningt the tree. 

Vol. XII. — No. 72. l 



126 On the Arrangement and Management 



Art. VII. On the Arrangement and Management of Fruit Trees in 
Kitchen'Gardens. By Mr. Robert Errington. 

Having promised^ in a former paper on fruit trees, to resume 
the subject at a future opportunity, and to offer some suggestions 
as to a different arrangement of them, and as to a better system 
of management, I shall now attempt to make that promise good : 
but, I must say, with some apprehensions that it will hardly be 
admissible in your useful work, so much having already been 
written on this subject, and, I fear I may add, so little done. It 
seems to be generally admitted, both by writers on horticulture 
and by good practitioners, that, when the fruit department must 
be blended with the culinary one, it is by far the best arrange* 
ment to place the fruit trees round the margins of the quarters, 
and to leave the interior completely at the service of vegetables, 
as well for the sake of economy as of effect. These borders are 
generally formed from 4 ft. to 6 ft. in width, and are, for the most 
part, cropped with some kind of vegetable that requires digging. 
It seems surprising to me that a border of this width should be 
deemed too much for a row of trees of this description ; but it 
appears that such is the case; and, through thepractice just alluded 
to, the upper and most valuable roots of the fruit trees are con- 
tinually cut away, and the trees driven to seek their food in a 
subsoil of the most ungenial character. Whether trees of this 
class possess the power of selection in regard to their food, I am 
not physiologist enough to know ; but, if they do possess it, it 
would be of Tittle avail when they were situated in a barren sand, 
clay, or gravel ; besides the great difference in the average tem« 
perature of the soil, which temperature does, of course, decline 
progressively downwards to a certain depth. Now, what is the 
consequence to trees thus situated ? They are rendered doubly 
liable to the blight produced by various kinds of insects : as, for 
instance, the aphides, the scaly insect, the red spider, &c. ; fdl of 
which, it is well known, will make way much more rapidly on a 
diseased subject, than on a healthy one : and, very frequently, by 
these means all the early-made wood is either crippled or de* 
stroyed, and a later crop of watery wood is produced at or after 
midsummer ; which, I hardly need say, is quite immature^ In 
trees thus situated, the sap in the shoots is put in motion a long 
time before that in the roots; and the consequence is, that leaves 
are produced chiefly from the fund of sap of the former year 
deposited in the branches, and which, being of a sweeter character, 
if I may use the expression, than the ascending sap, is the very 
food for the above-named insects, as we find by experience ; ana 
the wood that is produced later is overtaken by the chills of 
autumn, before the leaves have performed half their functions. 



of Fruit Trees in Kitchen^Gardens. 187 

These observations apply most especially to apples ; but they will 
apply, in some degree, to almost every other kind of fruit tree, 
if treated in the way here described. Having thus glanced at a 
few of the evils resulting from the mismanagement of the roots 
of fruit trees, I may proceed with what I have to suggest in the 
room of such treatment. I will suppose, in the first place, a new 
garden, and that the borders are all fitted for the reception of 
iruit trees, either by nature (which is rarely the case) or by art. 
Such being the case, I should dispose of my trained trees against 
the walls much after the usual manner, as to distance, aspect, &c.; 
but, instead of cropping the whole of the border witli vegetables, 
I should plant a line of dwarf fruit trees of various kinds, accord- 
ing to the situation, along the margin of the wall border next the 
wflJk, to be trained on table trellises : as, for instance, along the 
margins of the south borders, I should plant the new Flemish 
pears; along the east and west, favourite dessert apples or plums, 
of a tender or late character ; and, along the north or other cold 
aspect, 4 line of bush fruit It is probable that green gage, Wash- 
ington, Coe's golden drop, imperatrice, and other dessert plums, 
together with some cherries, would succeed well in some of the 
aspects, with a particular kind of management ; but on this head 
I am not prepared to speak fully. For the southern miu'gins, I 
recommend, as I before said, the best Flemish pears; of these 
the country has a very extensive collection of the very first-rate 
quality. These pears are a most valuable acquisition to the dessert,' 
and rank next to the pine and the grape, both as to flavour and 
keeping properties ; and nothing is wanted to insure a most ex- 
tensive cultivation of them, but some method to guarantee their 
free and certain bearing, and perfect ripening, without the aid 
of walls : not but some of them will always find a place on a good 
aspect, such as a beurr^ d'Aremberg, beurr6 d'biver, the best 
chauroontelle, and many others I could name ; but there are so 
many kinds possessing very high merit, that it is impossible 
places could be found for even a select lo^ unless in a few of the 
most extensive kitchen-gardens in the country. On the kind of 
trellis I am about to describe, and with a proper system of both 
root and top management, I am convinced that five out of six 
of the kinds now in cultivation may be fruited in very great per- 
fection. We will suppose^ in the first place, that the walls are 
of the usual height, viz; from 9 ft. to 12 ft., and that the borders 
are about 10 ft. or 11 ft. wide : in such a case the trellises should 
be from 4 ft. to 5 ft. wide, to admit of a man reaching to dress 
and prune them. The trellises should be about 9 in. from the 
ground, or, in fact, as near as a bunch of pears would hang 
without touching the stones, which will be placed under them to 
increase heat The bars of the trellis must be 1 ft. apart, and, 
in whatever situation they are placed, must run north and south 

I. 2 



128 On the Arrangement and Management 

invariably, and, of course, in parallel lines. On their running 
north and south I lay much stress, as that direction will admit the 
full effect of the sun's rays at noon, for nearly two hours, on that 
poition of the stones which is unshaded between the bars of the 
trellis, and, of course, heat them in a very considerable degree ; 
which heat by radiation will increase that of the atmosphere im- 
mediately round the plant for some time after sunset. It is 
absolutely necessary, for this purpose, that the soil for these pears 
be a good, sound, and rather stiff loam, in a dry and, if possible, 
impenetrable bottom; and that it should not be deeper than 
18 in. or 20in. : the subsoil may be either strong clay, gravel, 
or stones. Let it be borne in mind that I lay the greatest stress 
on the conditions of soil and subsoil here stated. I should by 
all means choose the trees on free stocks, provided their subse- 
quent management was in every respect correct ; as I am satis- 
fied that apples on Paradise stocks will never endure long, 
except the circumstances of soil, &c., are particularly favourable. 
As the trees become established on the trellis, the ground be- 
neath should be covered with stones or clean gravel ; I should 
prefer the former, as the ground, after some few years, would, in 
all probability, require top-dressing, and the stones would be 
easily moved to accomplish this : slates would not do ; they would 
prevent the free ingress of the rains, as well as the air. A 
systematic mode of training would be necessary, both for effect 
and utility; and the following rough sketch (^. 14.) will give an 

14 

N 

f 



mmm 



s 



idea of the appearance that the trellis would present, when the 
tree was fully established on it. The trees should be planted 
about 16ft. apart, which would, of course, give eight parallel bars 
on each side of the centre one ; and the lateral branches for spurs 
should be placed four on each side, alternating with each other. 
One thing more remains to be recommended ; and that is, 
after the trees are established, and in a bearing state, to cover 
them all the time they are in bloom with canvass. If this plan 
be adopted (and which I should not hesitate to do a moment), 
it will be necessary, in making the trellis, to have the outer lines 
of it of iron, and made after the manner of a railway, only very 
slight; and, by having the canvass rolled round a strong hoop 
(which hoop must work in or on the groove of the railway), a 
considerable length of these trellises might be covered, and un- 
covered, in a few minutes. This canvass might also be put on in 



of Fruit Trees in Kitchen-Gardens. 129 

tfae end of September^ to accelerate the ripening of both wood 
and fruit ; which it would do, by preventing, in a considerable 
degree, radiation. 

Having now stated, as far as the limits of a paper of this kind 
will allow, every thing connected with the mode of arranging 
fruit trees in kitchen-gardens, I will add a few loose remarks on 
fruit trees in general ; especially pear trees on walls. Before I 
proceed farther in this way, methinks I hear some honest gar- 
dener of the old school lamenting the loss of his early border 
for peas, or his row of early lettuces : I, however, must contend, 
that there is not an early crop of vegetables which I could not 
obtain within one week of those on a wall border, on proper 
spots in the interior of the quarters, by making artificial slopes, 
and by careful protection otherwise ; and I beg to remind my 
nervous friends that, if they think a week of paramount import- 
ance in such matters, there is still a foot or two of wall border 
left for the peas, or the other early crops, if they will fain have 
them in that situation : for the border being 10 ft. or 12 ft. wide, 
and the trellis not*occuping more, at any rate, than 5 ft., the vege- 
tables may yet come in, though in a more limited quantity. As 
to pears on walls, although they bear chiefly on spurs from the 
old wood, after the manner of apricots, plums, &c., yet there is 
dissimilarity enough to require a somewhat different treatment. 
In the first place, they cannot endure what I must call a capricious 
soil ; I mean one that works by fits and starts : such are all 
light sandy soils, which derive all, or most of, their virtues from 
manures. Such soils, in the months of June and July, with 
showery weather, will make pear trees grow moreJike willow 
bushes than fruit trees ; whereas in dry hot summers the very 
extreme effects are, of course, produced; and, although such trees 
may have a good crop of fruit on, little of it will come to proper 
perfection, in either size or flower, or both will be lamentably 
deficient. But in a strong loamy soil their growth is steady and 
uniform, in spite of seasons, and can be depended on ; the sap, 
also, is more easily controlled, or directed, in trees on such soils. 
It is of the utmost importance, of course, in all modes of training 
whatever, to get as perfect a command over the ascending sap 
as possible, through the mismanagement of which most of the 
barrenness so much complained of in pear trees, in my humble 
opinion, arises. It needs not any pains on my part, I presume, 
to prove that the free admission of light to all parts of a trained 
tree is the cause of more pruning and stopping of shoots than 
is at all times wholesome to the constitution of the tree. The 
question here assumes a physiological character ; and, although 
** fools rush in where angels fear to tread," yet, having got my 
foot fairly in, I feel I must proceed in spite of angry critics. As 
to the effects of shade on the buds of fruit trees, I am quite awar^ 

L 8 



ISO On the Arrangement and Management 

that it tends to barrenness, as being adverse to the elaboration of 
the sap, or true blood, of the plant Let its evils, however, be 
as great as they may, I am satisfied that they are not greater 
than injudicious disbudding. As, however, it will happen, through 
most seasons, especially moist ones, that they will make more 
breast wood than is compatible with the due admission of light, 
what must be done ? If it be pruned away, or disbudded nearly 
as fast as it is made, the embryo flower buds will be forced 
from their snug retreat into wood. If it be left on the tree all 
the summer, from the almost total exclusion of light, the buds 
will be meagre and imperfectly ripened, and a bad developement 
in the ensuing spring, and a shy setting, will be the consequences. 
How, then, are these evils to be avoided ? Simply by laying in 
the leading branches at greater distances than they are com- 
monly done (I should say a foot apart) ; and then we shall be 
enabled to procure a moderate crop of foreright shoots, without 
excluding the light. My maxim is this as to disbudding, as it 
is termed. Having abundance of free-growing wood in the centre 
of the tree, and this all hailed as nearly perpendicular as possible, 
I proceed (I speak now of pear trees), in the early part of July, 
or, at the earliest, the end of June^ to crop with a knife some of 
the foreright shoots back to four or five joints, commencing at 
the bottom of the tree, and doing a few tiers of branches at a 
time; in the course of another week, I go over them again, and 
crop another tier or two, and so on, advancing from the bottom 
of the wall towards the luxuriant centre of the tree ; and always, 
if possible, taking advantage of a dry time for the purpose, or 
when, in fact, there is the least excitement to wood. Some few 
shoots here and there I entirely disbud : for instance, where there 
are several situated close together, making the tree dark in that 
part; and those I leave are pruned to within about four or five 
leaves. As for neatness of appearance, I esteem it as highly as 
any one ; but when, in kitchen-gardening, neatness is found in 
opposition to utility, the former, of course, must give way : how- 
ever, a clever hand at frpit trees will render the two sufficiently 
compatible for all purposes. It is a fact, and known well to 
most practical gardeners, that those embryo buds of pear trees 
which are to produce blossoms the next spring must develope 
a good tuft of large and healthy leaves early the spring preced- 
ing ; for, if they do so, and do not push into wood, they are sure 
to be blossoms the ensuing spring. How frequently we see pear 
and other trees against walls, in which the upper branches 
cannot bear through luxuriance, and the under ones through 
weakness ; and thb in the selfsame tree ! Now, this is very com- 
monly the case on the capricious light soils above alluded to, and 
it requires no small skill and attention, on such soils, to divert 
the ascending sap into the lower branches ; and, unless diverted 



of Fruit TVees in Kitchen^Gardens. 1 S 1 

into these inferior parts of the tree, to the production of young 
wood, ay, and breast wood too, from where is the true sap con- 
ducive to fructificadon to.be secreted ? Let any one, for instance, 
select an apple or pear tree, growing in his garden as a rough 
espalier or standard, with a succession of sioe shoots from the 
lower part of the bole npwards ; in fiict, as nearly resembling a 
wall tree, in the position of its branches, as possible. Let him, 
then, I say, continually divest one portion of the tree of all its 
foreright shoots, as fast as they are produced, and leave the other 
with all its breast wood on, and observe the difference. He will 
soon find that the stripped part will almost cease to thicken, and, 
in a short time, will not possess power sufficient to form a good 
toft of leaves on the embryo buds, as noticed in the early part 
of this paper ; and will eventually become what practical men 
term ** hide bound." The only way to decoy the ascending si^ 
into the inferior branches, in the growing season, is, by stopping 
the superior ones at a certain period of their growth, and leaving 
the inferior ones with all their breast wood growing. In the rest 
season, another way of efiecting this is, by close pruning and 
shortening all the heart of the tree, which, by my mode of ma- 
nagement, is always full of young luxuriant wood, and which I 
denominate ** waste pipes.'' These waste pipes I not only en- 
courage, but I stimulate the tree to make them by pruning. The 
purpose to which I hold these shoots subservient is, by their 
strong action, to cause the roots to make plenty of new fibres 
every year (the action of the root and top being well known to 
be reciprocal) ; which fibres, when in motion, are made, in the 
ensuing spring, to serve the purpose of the inferior branches. I 
speak now of such trees as I alluded to above. By pruning 
these ^^ waste pipes '' tolerably close (as to the degree of which, 
nothing but an intimate knowledge of the habits of the tree, and 
'the efiect desired, can guide us), the new root, now beginning 
to work, and which would have filled those shoots removed wim 
the ascending sap, is made, instead, to fill all the inferior branches 
of the tree first ; and, by the time that the trees have developed 
a good strong tuft of healthy leaves on the embryo buds, the 
waste pipes in the centre of the tree are getting to work, and 
decoy that heavy fimd of sap away, which, had it not vent in 
this way, would have driven most of these buds into wood. 
Another point of much importance is, carefully, and at all times, 
to preserve a leading shoot at the extremities of all the branches. 
Some soils are so happily constituted by nature, that fruit 
trees on them will bear almost any kind of abuse ; and on such 
soils very good crops of fruit are obtained, with a system of 
digging and cropping underneath. This is the case, however, 
wuh, perhaps, only one garden in twenty ; and I am quite con- 
▼incedi having paid the very closest attention to the subject for 

L 4 



132 CuUure of the Potato. 

some years, that three fourths of the evils complained of in frnit 
trees arise from mismanagement of the root* It will be readily 
seen that this is one of the reasons why I recommend table 
trellises on wall borders ; and, with the other reasons, viz. the 
reciprocal injury done to bush, tree, and vegetables, in mixed 
cropping, in regard of light, together with the great advantage 
these borders possess for a system of trellising the tender pears, 
&c., it is sufficient, in my opinion, to warrant a departure from 
the old practice. 

I believe that I have now said all that the limits of this paper, 
and the character of your work, will allow ; though I have only 
exhibited what I call a skeleton of the afiair; and it is very pro- 
bable that this article will be much too long for one party, and 
much too speculative for another. However, I have not forgotten 
the old fable of ** the Man and his Ass.'' I am well aware how 
difficult it is for the human mind to shake off entirely its early 
prepossessions in favour of certain habits and systems. I can 
only hope that these observations and suggestions may be judged 
with candour and caution before they are condemned, especially 
by those of your readers who love to see the profession in the 
ascending scale* As for those who read with the preintention of 
snarling, not to say biting, I can only say I am sorry for them, 
and that such folks too frequently *^ die in their sins." 

Oulton Parki June. 1885. 



Art. VIII. On the CuUure of the Potato. By R. L. 

Turning over the last volume of your Magazine, in order to 
see what it contained respecting potatoes, I was disappointed at 
the very little notice taken of that root, which may now almost 
be considered as the staff of life. One of your correspondents, 
from East Ham, speaks most decidedly against planting whole 
potatoes; whereas I am satisfied, by repeated experiments, that 
one third more potatoes (especially of the kidney kind) are pro- 
duced by whole potatoes than by cuttings or sets. I have, for 
twenty years, been a grower of this valuable article ; and, though 
only in a small way, yet I do not think myself the less qualified 
to form a judgment ; because I have often and carefully made 
experiments, both as to the mode of culture and sorts of 
potatoes. Persons who plant 300 or 400 acres annually, have 
neither time nor inclination for observation and experiment; 
and, perhaps, like other farmers, are wedded to their own 
system. 

A Yorkshire gentleman, who plants yearly 150 acres for the 
London market, informs me that he plants sets, and not whole 
potatoes, and thinks 350 bushels an acre a very great crop. Now, 



CtiUure of the Potato. ISS 

I have repeatedly grown from 500 to 600 bushels . per acre. 
He says he is a great sufferer by what he calls the dry rot. 
Two years ago, he lost 80 acres from that cause. The term 
dry rot, as applied to potatoes, is new to me ; but I presume 
it means that the cutting dries up, and is not productive. Sup- 
posing this to be correct, would that have happened had whole 
potatoes been planted ? I think not ; for, though I have fre- 
quently seen cuttings dried up and withered, I never had to 
complain when whole potatoes were planted. The operation 
of cutting potatoes for sets is very often left to ignorant and 
unpractised persons, and any old woman is thought capable 
of performing it : but this is not the case. If the knife goes 
either through the eye, or very close to it, I believe it will not 
produce. 

Last year (by no means a favourable one) I made the following 
experiment : — 

One row was planted with eight whole potatoes (of the agri- 
cultural kidney), each containing eight eyes, sixty-ibur in the 
whole. Produce, 33 potatoes; weight, 12 lb. 

Two rows of the same size were planted with eight sets each, 
each set containing four eyes, sixty-four in the whole. Produce, 
52 potatoes; weight, 18 lb. 

The result was, that twice the quantity of land produced only 
an excess of one third in weight : but, if two rows had been 
planted with whole potatoes, the produce would have been 24 lb. 
I have repeatedly tried the experiment, with nearly the same 
result ; and, therefore, I come to the conclusion, that it is more 
advantageous to plant whole (kidney) potatoes than sets. Ilie 
rent, the taxes, the ploughing, and the dung must be the same 
in both cases. I calculate that my Yorkshire friend loses 7/. an 
acre, or 1000 guineas a season, by the use of sets. 

I have not tried the experiment with the round potato, which, 
generally, is so full of eyes, that it must be cut. But the 
pigs ask no questions : j I speak only of potatoes fit to be eaten 
by man. 

I take it for granted that you know the agricultural potato 
is decidedly thebest for the gentleman's table, though not so pro- 
ductive as many others. The bread-fruit potato is also, I pre- 
sume, well known to you ; and you may, perhaps, have seen or 
heard of a new potato, called the poor man's profit, which was 
sent to me as a very great bearer. ,4 

Last year they produced, after the rate of, per acre : agricul- 
tural, 572 bushels ; bread-fruit, 689 bushels ; poor man's profit, 
636 bushels. This last is a round purple and white potato, very 
good for the table. Any one of these proceeds far exceeds the 
quantity which contents my friend in Yorkshire. 

I am now preparing some ground for experiments in sinall 



1S1> Experiment made ^th Three Potatoes. 

quantities. I shall carefully mark the result; which, with a 
specimen of the three kinds of potato^ I would send you, if you 
like it. [We shall be very happy to receive it.] 
April 6. 183^ 



Art. IX. An Account ^ an Experiment made with Three Potatoes* 

By Mr. John Denson, Sen. 

In 18S2, I received three potatoes from you, with a request 
that I would plant them, and get what produce I could' from 
them. When I received them they bore shoots in a forward state ; 
those I took from the plants, and struck in a slight heat, at the 
same time covering the potatoes over with the warm earth. By 
this method the potatoes, by the time the cuttings were struck, 
had formed fresh shoots : those shoots I carefully took off; I then 
cut the poti^oes, leaving one or two eyes to a cutting : by these 
means I had nearly plants sufficient to plant half a pole of land: 
the produce was upwards of two bushels. 

This year (1833) I planted the produce in an open field, in 
the latter end of May, in rows a yard distant from each other: 
by this means my crop had the full benefit of the sun and air ; 
and, notwithstanding the season being unkind for potatoes, the 
produce averaged at the rate of full 400 bushels per acre. The 
greater portion was earthed up in due time: some few rows, 
lor a time, were not : both were kept free from weeds. There 
was very little difierence in the produce : what difference there 
was was in favour of those that were earthed up ; and as, be- 
sides, the earthing up causes the culture to look more workman- 
like, I shall continue to practise it. 

The potatoes are of the red kind, with a purple eye, and are 
of good size and excellent flavour. 

1 believe I have previously informed you that, owing to the 
kindness of the vicar, the greater portion of the labourers in the 
village occupy from half an acre to an acre of land. It was on 
a portion of tliis land that I grew the potatoes I have been speak- 
ing of. My neighbours have been in the habit of planting their 
potatoes in rows from 18 in. to 22 in. asunder. As my crop has 
been the most productive of any in the field, they will alter their 
system : by so doins, their potatoes will be better with less la^ 
bour and less seed. I have often considered a crop might 
almost as well be smothered with weeds, as to suffer it to smother 
itself by being planted too thickly. 

Waterbeachj Cambridgeshire^ December^ 1833. 

[.This communication has been delayed at the request of the 
gentleman from whom we received the three potatoes, who was 



FloricuUural and Botanical Notices. 1 85 

also trying the experiment with them, with the intention of let- 
ting us know the result. He died, however, before the experi- 
ment was completed ; or, at all events, before sending a final 
account of it — Cond,"} 



Art. X. FloricuUural and Bolanical Notices on Kinds of Plants 
netoly introduced into our Gardens^ and that have originated in thetn^ 
and on Kinds of Interest previously extant in them ; supplementary 
to the latest Editions of the " Encyclopcedia of Plants" and tf 
the " Hortus Briiannicus.* 

Curtis* s Botanical Magazine ; in monthly numbers, each containing 
eight plates ; 3^. 6d, coloured, 3^ . plain. Edited by Dr. Hookeri 
King's Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow. 

Edwards's Botanical Register; in monthly numbers, each containing 
eight plates; 4^. coloured, 3«. plain. Edited by Dr. Lindley, 
Professor of Botany in the London University. 

Sweet's British Flower-Garden ; in monthly numbers, each containing 
four plates ; 3^. coloured, 2;. Sd. plain. Edited by David Don, 
Esq., Professor of Botany in King's College, and Librarian to the 
Linnsean Society. 

A LITHOGRAPHED portrait of the lamented Douglas is pub- 
lished in the Companion to Curtiis Botanical Magazine^ the 
Number for February. 

Embryo dicotyledonous: Corolla polypetalous, 

OR not any. 

XLVIL Onagrdcea. 

118S. fi^OTHE'RA 

tlOOlS humimsa NttU, ground-spread O -* or } a Pa Ro Florida 1824 S co Bot rcy. t. 18S9 
Sjfnot^/me: (E. concinna D. Don, in Sw.fl.gar. £. a. 1 183 

See in Gard. Mag,^ vol. ix. p. 235, 236. Mr. D. Don (since 
Professor) had reputed this to be a native of Chili. Dr. Lind- 
ley has not been able to find any trace of it as Chilian, and 
has judged it to be identical with CE, humifilisa Ntitt.f which was 
originally discovered on the sea coast near Cumberland Island, 
in Florida. It is a ppetty little hardy annual, which creeps close 
to the ground, forming a plant 1 ft. across, and shedding its seeds 
freely. The tube of the calyx is of a red colour. Its expanded 
corolla is scarcely so far about as a shilling : when exposed to 
much light, it is of a very pale delicate flesh-colour, but when the 
plant grows in a cool shaded place, of a beautiful pink colour. 
Mrs. Marryat has the species in cultivation. {Bot, Reg., Feb.) 

*118Sa OODE'TIA Spach. 8, 1. Sp. 2. 

Dr. Lindley has communicated in the Bot. Reg.^ the number 
for February, 1829, that M. Spach, a German botanist, resident* 



1S6 BtoricuUural and Botanical Notices, 

at Paris, has produced a revision of the genus ffinotfadra, and 
distributed the species into several groups, which he has deemed 
and denominated as genera, on, Dr. Lindley has represented, 
very insufficient grounds. However, Dr. Lindley has expressed 
the following notice of a part of the results of M. Spach's re- 
searches that he deems of value. <* He [M. Spach] states that 
certain supposed Oenotheras have their chalaza [*^ a sort of vas- 
cular disk at the base of the nucleus,'' within the ovule, or embryo 
«eed] bordered by a fringed margin. This is an additional organ, 
and a special type of structure : it is the beginning of the feathery 
appendage of the seed of Epilobium; but it is incapable of per- 
forming the office of buoying up the seed in the air, so as to en- 
able it to be dispersed from place to place. I find the structure 
to be as M. Spach states, and that the species collected by the 
character are CE. Romanzovii, purpurea, and the like, which 
will not intermix with the true evening primroses, and which 
have quite a peculiar habit. Among other things, their flowers 
have no tendency to become yellow." 
LI. Loasslceae. 

1477. BARTO'N/il 

*«tijrMlimK giMen-Jlouiered O or 3 P Ck> CttUfimiU 18SS S ni.t.r.m Bot leg. 18S1 

*^ A very beautiful half-hardy annual, discovered by Mr. 
Douglas in California, and raised in the garden of the ** London 
** Horticultural Society, where it flowered in July last" Stem 
2-3 ft. high, upright, branched, hispid; the branches brittle. 
Leaves dark green, sessile, acuminate, pinnatifid; the lower one 
S in. long. Flowers axillary, produced towards the tips of the 
branches. Corolla as wide as, or wider than, a crown-piece. It 
is only beneath bright sunshine that its splendid flowers unfold. 
As the sun exercises its influence, the petals gradually unroll, till 
every branch is radiant with gold; and so metallic is the lustre of 
the inside of the petals, that they seem as if composed of something 
more solid and enduring than the delicate and perishable tissue of 
a flower. Dr. Lindley has recommended for it a sheltered, warm, 
and sunny situation, and a rich moist soil. {Bot, Beg.^ Feb.) 

LX. Protekcesd. 

ao2. PETRaPHILA [New HoUand 18S0 S •.p Bot sug. 3469 

«9iS6a acicuUrli it. ^. ne»dle.th»pedJeqfed SlJ cu ... ap WR King George'i Sound in 

Shrub erect. Leaves 3 in. to 6 in. long, thread-shaped. Head 
of flowers terminal. Perianth silky, concave, and red internally 
in the tips of the segments. Raised in the Botanic Garden, Edin- 
burgh, from seed communicated by Colonel Lindesay, in 1830, 
under the name of Petrophila filifolia. Plants flowered in April, 
1834, and in April, 1835. {Bot. Mag.^ Feb.) 

LXXIII. 'Rosdcea $ Quilliyifie. 

KAGEKE/CK/il R. & P. (Af. de Kageneek, ambassador flrom the Emperor of Otrmany to the 
• KingofSMln.) 82. 11. SkS. 

148598 cnt«glfbU«£/iufiL CnUegaUeqfed a^orlO jn W^ ChfU? 1890? L? Cl Botrcg.1898 
». i^iKN^iMf ; K. 0ntHK<>M« A l>0fh in £dinb. N..Fha Jouin. 10. 8S9L 



supplementary to Encyc. of Plants and Hort. Brit. 1S7 

An evergreen shrub, with slender branches, oblong, serrated, 
acute, green leaves, and corymbs of white flowers produced on 
short axillary shoots towards the tips of the branches. The spe- 
cies is dioecious, and it is the male sex which is figured. The 
corolla in this is of five distinct petals, and its outline of greater 
extent than that of a sixpenny-piece. The stamens are fifteen. 
(Bot. Beg.f Feb.) 

The figure is from this sex of the species, in a living state, in 
the garden of the London Horticultural Society, where it is 
trained to the southern face of a tall wall, and is sheltered above, 
more or less, through the winter. It is pleasing in its foliage and 
its flowers. 

LiXXVII. Legumindcea. 

tats. LXTFTTSfVS rbetween Bnwria and San FcUpe (Mr. Drammond) 1835 S •.! BetBMt.*S487 
•fubcarndttts Hook. ttaaott-HtthyJatftdf O of 1 Jl Dp B W Texaa (H Berendici!)* and 

The leaf has a long petiole, and a disk of five leaflets that are 
in substance singularly thick and almost fleshy ; they are glabrous 
on the surface, and silky with scattered hairs on the subiace, and 
severally oliovate-lanceolate and retuse* Flowers disposed in 
terminal pyramidal racemes, many in a raceme. Corolla ex- 
tremely richly coloured : standard bent back, especially at the 
sides, orbicular, deep rich blue, with a nearly quadrangular 
white or yellowish-white spot in the centre ; wings deep blue, 
oval, combined by their lower margin and concealing the keel, 
which is much acuminated, white, purple-black at its tip. " An 
extemely beautiful, and, apparently, very distinct species*'' 
Raised, and one may conclude in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
from seeds received from the late Mr. Drummond. {Bot* Mag,^ 
Feb.) 

9066. TRIFO'^LIUM 

tl85l5 reflizumX. reflexed (ike effloretced Jlowert) Jt A or ?1 jn.Jl Ro W "long cultirated In 
the southern state* of x^orth America, and as fkr north as Kentacky.*' '* Texas.** 179* S 1 
Bot mag. S«71 

Long cultivated in the southern states of North America, and 
even as far north as Kentucky, by the name of bufialo clover. 
The figure, as compared with the kind of clover cultivated in 
British fields ( T. prat ^nse), shows a more globular head of flowers, 
and these individually party-coloured : the standard, by the de- 
scription, is of a beautiful rose-red ; the wings and keel are white. 
*^ After flowering, the wings spread considerably, and, by slightly 
cohering with tne sides of the keel, they cause it to dilate and to 
have the appearance of a white bird with its wings expanded.'' 
Stems decumbent. Foliage resembling that of T. prat6nse. 
Flowers, after flowering, deflexed : those of T. ripens, the white- 
flowered clover, are obviously so. 71 reflexum is stated to be 
handsome, and one would desire it in a garden. Is not the field 
clover a very ornamental plant ? 71 reflexum has been raised 
from seeds, which the late Mr. Drummond had sent from Texas ; 
it is most probable, in the Glasgow Botanic Garden. {Bot. Mag,, 
Feb.) 



1S8 FhricuUural and Botanical Noticeij 

19Ba ADB^MIA Jfl-S*^- 8> a. 929 

f 176M pfiDduIa Dec penduloiu.yH(iletf ^ A or 1 fu O and Y Buenoc Ayrei 18£5 S i.l Sw. 

** A creeping perennial herb, furnished which long white run- 
ners,** apparently under-ground ones. Scapes 7 in. or 1 ft. high. 
Leaves radical, impari-pinnate, 9 in. long. Leaflets, about twelve 
pairs with the odd one, obovate or elliptical-oblong. Racemes 
terminal, solitary, many-flowered, erect. Flowers more than 
half as broad as a sixpenny-piece. Standard orange yellow, 
streaked with purple lines ; wings orange yellow, keel pale yel- 
low. A native of dry sandy pastures m Buenos Ayres, raised 
in 1834, by Dr. Neill, Canonmills, near Edinburgh, from seeds 
sent by Mr. Tweedie. The figure is from a plant in the Chelsea 
Botanic Garden, where, in an open border, it has produced an 
abundance of flowers and ripe fruit. It ^* appears to be quite 
hardy." {Brit. Fl(m.-Gard.y Feb.) 

CXXXI. Passiflordcece* 

19S3. PASSIFLO^RA 
•? 16888a Maydiia May's 1 |or?SO English hybrid ?1833 C r.m 

On the wrapper of the Floricidtural Cabinet^ the number for 
February, 1836, is an advertisement from Mr. William May, 
nurseryman, &c., Hope Nursery, Leeming Lane, near Kipon, 
of a kind of passion-flower, named as above; and, besides, 
his ** new hybrid fruit-bearing passion-flower," and particulars 
to the following amount are stated of it. It flowers early, and 
bears numerous flowers and fruits, insomuch that the plant, 
covering a space of wall 15 ft. square, was on December 24s 1835, 
bearing 94? fruits in a state of perfection. The fruit resembles 
the yellow magnum bonum plum ; but it is of a deep orange co- 
lour, ripens in October and November, and hangs upon the plant 
until the end of January ; and the fruits, in contrast with the 
fine deep green foliage, render the plant, in mid-winter, exceed- 
ingly interesting. 

CLL Amarantdcece, 

[the word in Hort. Brit. 
' 785. CELO'^SIA r(£?/A}«, something burnt, Ztmtfcy; appearance of the inflorescence. Kelosi§ 

f€OM coccinea L, aicax\9t4nfiore9cenced O or 5 jn.s S China 1597 S r.m Bot reg. 18S4 

" It differs from C. cristkta [the common cockscomb] chiefly 
in the crowded pyramidal arrangement of the inflorescence, the 
narrower leaves, and the short stamens. It is also a far more 
hardy plant, and goes on producing, glowing crimson tassels, in 
the open border, till winter destroys it." The inflorescence seems 
by the figure, composed of numerous ovate-acuminate spikes, 
disposed into an ovate-acuminate one of more than 3 in. long, 
and of nearly 3 in. broad in its broadest part. The figure is 
from specimens from the Hon. W. F. Strangways, from his 
garden in Dorsetshire. {Bat. Beg.y Feb.) 

Embryo dicotyledonous: Cokolla monopetalous. 
CLXXXVI. CompdsitcB. 

2415. COREO'PSIS Fmag. 3460 

*coronkta Hooifc. "crowned'* 9torS su aut > Y Br spot'' Texas in Mexico 1835 flf co Bot. 



supplementary to Eneye. qf Plants and Bort. Brit. 139 

Annufd* Beautifal in the many heads of flowers produced in 
the summer and autumn : the heads are remarkable for the ray 
bearing a circle of brown spots placed at a distance from the disk. 
Peduncles much elongated^ sometimes almost 1 ft. long. Stem 
erect. Leaves opposite, undivided or cut in a pinnatea manner. 
Seeds received in the spring of ISSS, from Mr. Drummond, who 
had gathered them in Texas. (Bot. Mag^ Jan.) 

CLXXIX. jBnmoniacefle. 



•BRUNO^N/il Smith. (So named by Smith in compliment to Rohert Brotim, Xtq., D.CLu, ftc 
Ac:, the mreMnt keeper of the Bankaian herhariom in the British Muieum, whom I may derignatOi 
wiu perfect truth, as the most learned qrstematie. botanist of tills or any prerious age. — LMIq^) 



5L1. Sptl. 
•anstriOls it iir. sonthem |g A or«ndfhil ... B KewRolL 18M D? 1? Botreg.l83S 

Leaves all radical, spathulate, hispid, and radiating from the 
crown of the rootstock. Three scapes are shown in the figure, 
the longest near I ft. long, terminated by a head of numerous, 
rather small, flowers, that is subtended by an involucre of a few 
leaves small and shorter than the flowers. The plant '* in ap« 
pearance is very like our wild scabionses," but the flowers are 
delightfiiUy fragrant. According to the generic character by 
Brown, each flower is subtended by four bracteas ; has a 5-cleft 
calyx ; a corolla of one petal, with a slender tube and a limb of 
five spreading segments ; five stamens arising from beneath the 
pistil and with connate anthers; a one-seeded ovary; and a 
stigma with a two-valved indusinm. The fruit is a utriculus 
[one-celled, one-seeded, capsule] enclosed in the enlarged hard* 
ened tube of the calyx, which spreads upwards, and has its seg- 
ments plumose. The seeds are without albumen. ** A most 
interesting perennial, introduced by Mr. James Backhouse in 
1834. The drawing was made from specimens supplied by Mr. 
Low of Clapton ; and " Dr. Lindley has ** also received it from 
the Messrs. Backhouse of York." He has recommend the pro- 
tection of a frame or cool green-house for it. (Bot* Beg^ Feb.) 
CC. Volemoniacea. 

47SL COLLO^MTA C^flS 

fCavanUlftttl Hook, and Am. Cavanilles's O or 1| 1"—° ^ V Chile 1838 S co Bot. mac. 

Synonyn^: Ph\6x. linekris Orv., Ic, not CoUOmia linearis ^tf/t:CoIIdmia CaraniO^^ Hook 

and Am. Bot of Beech. V07. t. L p. ^. 1831 ; C coceinea XdfaM., Delect Sem. Hovt Hambuiy., 

189B; Bot. reg. 1 168SL ; C. laterltia D. Dont in Sw.fl.gar. S. s. t SOa 

Previously noted on by other names in Vol. IX. p. 620. 704. 
706. " A very desirable annual." {Bot. Mctg,^ Feb.) 
CCXI. Scrophularidcea. 

2717. PENTSTE'MOK TSt Austin 18S5 S s.1 Bot nag. 34d5 

•CoboeViNutt CtlbiBA^flower^ae^Jlowered ]g A orS| aut WPTR Interior of Texas, about 

Stem 2 ft. and more high. Leaves, the upper ones, oblong, or 
even oblong-cordate and half stem-clasping; the middle ones ob- 
long, narrower at the base, but sessile; the radical leaves oval- 
spathulatepetiolate : all of them somewhatglossy, denticulate at the 
margin. Flowers in aterminal leafy panicle. Mr. Nuttall has called 
the species Coboe^'a on account of the magnitude, and a sort of ge- 
neral resemblance in its flowers to those of CoboeV sc^ndens. 
Dr. Hooker has stated that the specimen that he has figured had 



140 Floriadtural and Botanical Notices^ 

not flowers so large as some of those on wild specimens, nor of 
the colour described by Nuttall ; and he has attributed this to the 
plants, from seeds sent by Mr. Drummond in the spring of 1835, 
not producing their blossoms till the period of the autumnal 
colds. It may be found in future seasons to flower earlier. The 
flowers are described to have a corolla that has the tube con- 
siderably inflated, pale, almost white, tinged with purple ; the 
limb of five spreading segments, within white, slightly sufiused 
with yellow, and streaked with red. According to the figure, the 
corolla is I in. long, and the limb nearly 1 in. across ; the lower 
part of the filaments whitish, the anthers deep purple. The 
figure is from the species, in a living state, in the Glasgow Bo- 
tanic Garden. {Bot, Mag.^ Feb.) 
CCXIII. Solandcea. 

587. SA'RACHif R. and P. (After Isidore Saracka, a Benedictine monk, much attadied to botany, 

and who enriched the royal gardens at Madrid with many rare plants.) . 5. 1. Sp. 3. 

Cfl.gar. S. 3. 383 
•viadtunLkf claxamyJierbaged tt lJ cu 1 8 W spot, with 01. Peru? 1834 SO p.l Sw. 

Stem sufiruticose. All parts of the plant thickly clothed with 
glandular clammy hairs. Leaves heart-shaped, about 5 in. long, 
and about as much broad, sinuosely lobed, with several large 
triangular pointed teeth, or sometimes wholly entire. Flowers 
in nearly sessile umbels in the forks of the branches : the umbels 
of from three to five flowers. Corolla with its limb nearly 1 J in. 
across, with five ovate-triangular acute lobes, white, marked 
towards the centre with olive-coloured spots : tube very short 
and wide. Berry globose, the size of a cherry, scarlet. The 
account is relative to " a plant which flowered, and subsequently 
ripened its fruit, in an open border of the Chelsea Botanic 
Garden." It " is shrubby, and requires to be protected in the 
green-house during winter. It is easily multiplied both by seeds 
and cuttings." {Brit. Flffm.'Gard,^ Feb.) 

588. XY'CIUM rco Sw. 11. gar. 2. s. 324 
f 4678 dfirum X. African tt or 10 su Liv P. Northern Africa, or else C. G. H. (see below) 1711i! C 

" Although too tender to grow in the open border unpro- 
tected, it will be found to succeed admirably well, if planted 
against a wall in a favourable aspect. The plant whence our 
drawing was taken is placed against the wall of the Chelsea 
Botanic Garden, where it has stood for many years, without 
any kind of protection, except what its situation affords, and is 
annually adorned throughout the summer months with a pro- 
fusion of its rich purple blossoms." As to its native country, 
<< some will have it to be indigenous to northern Africa ; whUe 
others, with Thunberg, give the Cape of Good Hope as its na- 
tive country. The former opinion I am rather inclined to adopt, 
as Thunberg's description would seem to apply to a species 
different from the present." {Professor Z>. Don, m Brit. Fbrn^'- 
Gard.y Feb.) . " 



supplementary to Eneyc. of Plants and Hort. Brit. HI 

Embryo monocotyledonous. 

CCXXXVIII. AmarymceBe. 

The Hon. and Rev. W. Herbert is preparing for publication 
a revision of the order Amaryllare^, preceded by a review of 
tlie defects of the present arrangement of monocotyledonous 
plants, and an attempt to remove them. It is to contain between 
thirty and forty copper-plate engravings, in which representations 
of upwards of eighty "new plants" will be given; and it is to 
*' contain ample aetails ; and is intended equally for the use of 
the scientific botanist and the unlearned cultivator. A treatise 
on hybrid vegetables will be subjoined to it." 

§ 2. Scapdcea^ suborder Schist&ndrce Herbert. 

74a. COOPE^R/i4 Hcrtx {Mr. Joseph Cooper, who hat now had, for upwards of twentyyean, tha 
management of the botanic garden at Wentwurlh [House, the property of the Earl Fitswilliam 
ikmily, and the place of residence of one or other inemb«>r of itj, and is one of the most sealoua 
and sticcessflil cultivators of rare plaints in this kingdom, and has, with unremitting exertion, 
brought together the fine collection of plants now at Wentworth, by a liberal system of excbaug. 
iog his 6U|ierfluitief for those of other persons. — Herbert.) 6. I. Sp. 8. 

rp ?p.I Fotreg. 1S35L 
*I>rumm6ndi Herb. Orummond*s tf^oriAl cu | ?8u WR Texas in Mexico PIbdS 

C? p.1 Hot. reg. 1. 1835, in the text 
*chIorosdlen Herb, green-tubed tf ^ or t6J cu ? | WO... Texas in Mexico ? iiOS O 

A bulbous genus, nearly allied to the genus Zephyranthes. 

Drumm6nd2. The bulb, by the figure, of about the size of 
a large acorn, and of similar form. Leaves 12 in. to 13 in. long, 
and the 12th of an inch broad, channeled, twisted, glabrous, 
green, reddish near the bulb ; protruded in autumn. Scape 
4^ in. long, bearing a spathe out of which emanates a flower that 
has a tube 4^ in. long, slender, terminated by a limb flatly ex- 
panded, and l^in. across, and formed of six segments that are 
white within, lineated with red at the back ; and the tube is ex- 
ternally red. *' This plant is at once di.^tinguished from all the 
known genera of the order to which it belongs, by anthers sessile 
on the .mouth of the tube, so that the filaments are consolidated 
with it, and decurrent in its texture." The tube is striated from 
the decurrence of the filaments. ** Discovered in the province 
of Texas in North America, by poor Drummond." It has flow- 
ered in the Botanic Garden at Wentworth House, that of Edin- 
burgh, and at Mr. Dickson's nursery. 

At Wentworth, two 1 -flowered scapes were successively pro- 
duced, and, on the first, ripe seeds, that have readily vegetated. 
It is possible that it may endure our climate, as the frosts are 
severe in Texas. 

Chlorosolen. Leaves nearly 18 in. long, an eighth of an inch 
broad, twisted, green. Tube of the flower, 4 J in. long, green; 
limb 1^ in. across, white, with the segments tipped with green 
and lineated externally with green. {Bat. Beg.^ Feb.) 

CCXL. Orchiddcea. 

A prospectus of an intended work by Dr. Lindley on tropical 
Orchidaceas, to be published by Messrs. Ridgway, has been 
issued. It is named Sertwn Orchideum (the orchideous garland). 

Vol. XXL— No. 7«. m 



112 BjoyUz Illustrations of the Natural History 

and is to include figures of a selection of the most remarkable of 
the tribe, and to be published in 20 two-monthly parts, of folio 
size, each containing 5 plates, highly finished, from drawings 
made for the purpose by Miss Drake. The subjects of the fi- 
gures will be any very beautiful kinds of which fine specimens 
may be produced from time to time in the hot^-houses of Britain, 
and some of those magnificent species which are at present un- 
known in Europe in a living state. 

flS4a ONCFDIUM [Bfri. Moke, at Tejuca, near Rio Janiero 1835 D p.r.w Botreff.1890 

•RunelUainim LindL Uiuadi, Duke <if Betl/brO't ^(2Sorl|... liPBrO From the garden of 

Pseudo-bulb ovate, ribbed, bearing strap-shaped spreading 
leaves. Four flowers and a flower-bud are shown upon the stem. 
The divisions of the flower spread beyond the outline of a half- 
crown piece. The sepals and petals are described to be in co- 
lour brown purple, edged with green ; the labellum lilac, and 
bearing lamellae in its disk, which are purple, edged with white ; 
the wings of the column and the gynizus yellow, the latter edged 
with purple. Named in compliment to the Duke of Bedford. 
The Hon. Capt J. Roos, R. N., sent it, derived from the source 
named above, to Wobum, with many other valuable plants, in 
1835. {Bot. Beg.^ Feb.) 

fSSSS. SARCOCHI'LUS [D pir.w Bot reg. 1832 

ifflSiS fidcitui iLJUr. Mcatc4eawed j£[SI<v| ap WPk Kew Hott., near Hunter's Riyer 18S1 

Stem very short Leaves linear-lanceolate, rather leathery, 
about i in. wide, the longest depicted about 3 in. long, disposed 
in 2 rows. Flowers in axillary upright racemes, 3 — 6 in a ra- 
ceme, and turned to one side, nearly entirely white. Perianth 
spreading, of about the width of a shilling. It " is so neat and 
simple in its appearance, as to be sure to captivate the feelings of 
every lover of nature. It must be treated just like other orchi- 
deous epiph3rtes.'' Messrs. Loddiges and Mr. Bateman possess 
the species in a living state. {Bot. Beg.^ Feb.) 



3«P 



REVIEWS. 

Art. I. Royle^s Illustrations of the Botany and other Branches of 
the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains^ and of the 
Flora of Cashmere^ cfc. Part VI., containing from p, 177. to 216. 
of letterpress ; a view of the Himalayan Mountains, a plate of 
birds, and eight plates of plants, all beautifully coloured. 

The letterpress commences with Terebinthaceae, which con- 
tains chiefly Indian trees, though the group of Anacardi^ con- 
tains the i^stsU;ia v^ra, P. Tbrebinthus, and P. Z^entiscus, the 
two former of which stand the open air in this country. The tribe 
Sumachinece is also chiefly hardy. 

They '' exude resin. The bark, as well as the leaves and fruit, of sererai 
species is astringent, on which account they are employed in the preparation 



€>fihe Himalayan Mountains and qfCashviere, 143 

of leather. The genus i?hu8 includes some true poisons, as R, venenikta [i?. 
remix], R* pernicidsa, R, radlcans, and R, Toxicodendron; and, though 
most are inodorous, others, as R, suaveolens and R. arom4tica, exhale a plea- 
sant odour ; while some of the species have acid berries, as R, Ooriiria, R. 
Bueku-Amila, and jSnchlnus Motie, Thus, R, CVStinus, or the red sumach, haa 
wood, called young fustick, which is astringent, as well as the berries; and R» 
Coriaria, known in India by the same name as in Europe, is a powerful astrin- 
gent, chiefly employed in tanning leather, but also in Indian mecBcine. Tlie 
seed of R, parvifldra, hadereek, is frequently substituted in India for that of 
the sumach. R, glabra is considered a febnfu^e. R, vdmix, a Japanese tree, 
exudes a whitish resinous juice, which soon oecomes black in the air. R, 
succed^nea, and R, vemiclfera, both common to the Himalayas and Japan, 
are said, in the latter, to yield a similar product. Species of other genera, as 
of 5chinu8, contain a resinous matter." (p. 179.) 

The TerebinthaceaB, Mr. Royle concludes, are one of the 
most important families in India^ for the number and value of 
their products. There appears to be a number of species of 
Stids in the Himalayan Mountains which have not yet been 
introduced into Europe; and these, it is observed by Mr. Royle, 
'^ being found at any elevation, might, no doubt, be introduced 
into English shrubberies." By grafting and transplanting the 
mango, its *^ ordinary growth is much impeded ; and shrubs of 
less than 4 ft. in height have borne, in the Saharunpore Garden, 
above a dozen mangoes. It would be necessary only to imitate 
the climate, by giving a green-house cold in winter; rapidly 
raising the heat in February and March, and continuing it till 
May or June, or about the time of the accession of the rains, 
when the addition of moisture to the heat is indicated ; as the 
mangoes only perfectly ripen after the atmosphere has become 
moist in the rains." (p. 180.) 

Moringea form an order consisting of a single genus, separated 
from Leguminosse by Mr. Brown. Moringa pterj'gosp^rma is 
common in most parts of India. From the seeds ^^ an oil is 
procured, which is described as not becoming rancid. Being 
inodorous, it is now chiefly employed for retaining the aroma of 
delicate flowers, and,, though aperient, is seldom used as medi- 
cine. The flowers, leaves, and tender seed-vessels are eaten by 
the natives of India in their curries ; and the roots are uni- 
versally known to European residents in India, as a substitute 
for the horseradish. They are remarkable for their pungent and 
stimulating nature, and are employed for the latter property, by 
the natives, in medicine." (p. 180.) 

Leg^minbsiB. — This order forms one of the most important of 
the vegetable kingdom in point of number of species, diversity 
of form, and important uses, as food, medicine, and in the arts. 
Many of the species are also highly beautiful; and the Am- 
h^rst/a nobilis Mr. Royle characterises as '^ the most splendid of 
the many magnificent objects of the vegetable kingdom." In 
consequence of the irritability of the leaves of many of this 

M 2 



144 Royle^s Illustrations of the Natural History 

species, and their collapsion during sleep, they have been con- 
sidered by some authors as the most highly organised of plants, 
and therefore placed at the head of the vegetable kingdom. 
They may be almost universally recognised {Detdrium is the 
only exception) by the form of fruit, from which they are 
named. They form, in almost every country, a considerable 
portion of the flora. In the present collection, they amount to 
SOO species, which is about one twelfth of the whole. The hill 
specimens being, to those found in the plains, in the proportion 
nearly of 92 to 208." (p. 180.) 

The Leguminosae have been divided into the three orders of 
Mim^eas, Caesalpin^^, and Papilionaceae, by Mr. Brown ; and 
into two grand divisions, and a number of sub-orders and tribes, 
by Professor De Candolle, whose arrangement we have adopted 
in our Hortus, Britannicus, Mr. Royle devotes a considerable 
space to this important order ; and, in conclusion, there is given 
an account, by Mr. Bentham, of the Himalayan Leguminosae of 
European and Siberian forms. Mr. Royle adopts Mr. Brown's 
division, and speaks first of the Mimoseae. The plants of this 
order belong almost entirely to warm climates. There are only 
two species ; viz. the Acacia Julibrissin and aifinis, or deaU)ata, and, 
perhaps, a few others, which stand the open air about London. 
Some species, however, are found as high as 6000 fl. on the * 
Himalayas,' in north latitude 30^; and there can be little doubt 
that thes^ will resist our British winters. 

The Caesalpin^^, also, chiefly inhabit the warm parts both of 
the New and Old Worlds ; and to this order belong Amhersti^r, 
just mentioned, and the well-known carob tree. 

The Papilionaceae include by far the greater number of the 
species belonging to the order Leguminosae, as the reader may 
see by turning to our Hoiius Britannicus^ p. 511. Some genera 
of this order are found at the elevation of 8000 ft. and 10,000 ft. 
Pipt^nthus nepal^nsis, from this region, is already in our 
gardens, and is found about London to be nearly as hardy as 
the laburnum ; and Thermopsis barbata, which is described 
by travellers as a " superb sort of lupine," and many others, may 
be expected. TVifolieae and ricieae, which form the principal 
plants for fodder, and for producing leguminous seeds of Eu- 
ropean agriculture, are also, with the Cerealia, the principal 
plants of the •* cold weather cultivation " of Northern India. 
At this cold weather season, " the obliquity of the sun*s rays 
allows the plains to be cooled down to a temperature which 
approximates to that of the summer of the mountains, and of 
European latitudes." Mr. Royle thinks it probable " that both 
the red and white varieties of Phasfeolus vulgaris were intro- 
duced into Europe from Caubul, Cashmere, or the neighbouring 
countries ; as the seeds of both were brought to him <^ from 



of the Himalayan Mountains and of Cashmere* 145 

the latter, and they can only be successfully cultivated in a 
lower temperature than other species of the genus/* (p. 192.) 
Passing over numerous important observations respecting this 
order, we stop to notice Dalb^rg/a Sissoo^ one of the most 
valuable of the Indian timber trees, and, except Shorea robdsta 
(called the saul tree), more extensively used than any other in 
Northern India ; *^ but, like every other, subject to be speedily 
destroyed by the unceasing ravages of the white ant. 

** It would be important to ascertain whether timber and vegetable 
matter might not be defended from these destroying hordes by the same 
process as employed by Mr. Kyan in so effectually preserving from the dry 
rot, and of wnich so luminous aa account was given by Dr. Faraday, in 
his lecture, and subsequently in the Quarterly Review, When in India,'* 
Mr. Royle continues, " it was my intention to have prosecuted a series of 
experiments on the subject. I commenced by dissolving corrosive sublimate 
and assafoetida in strong spirits (articles, all of which are procurable in every 
bazaar), and poured the solution into any place where the white ants were 
beginning to make their appearance. The process was so effectual, that they 
were always driven away from the point attacked; and my servants were 
afterwards in the habit of resorting to the same measure whenever occasion 
required. I regret that my avocations did not allow me leisure to pursue the 
subject ; but I commend it to my ingenious friend Mr. James Prinsep. 

** While this is passing through the press, I have seen (March 14. 1835) 
specimens, at the Royal Institution, of oak and deal, which had been sent to 
and have returned from India, with a certificate from Mr. Kyd, stating that 
both had been freely exposed in such situations as where timber is never known 
to escape the depredations of white ants ; but neither piece had been touched 
and both were returned sound and uninjured. It is hardly possible to calculate 
the benefit of which this may be productive. It remains to be ascertained 
whether the preparation (ruskupoer) procurable in India is equally efficacious ; 
as well as to ascertain the Indian woods, in which the chemical combination is 
most complete and effectual in resisting the destructive powers of the white 
jant ; powers second only, if second, indeed, they be, to the dry rot." 

Rosacea. — This order is " chiefly confined to the cool parts 
of the northern hemisphere, being found in the plains of high 
latitudes, and in the mountains of more southern regions. Though 
roses, peaches, and some of the apple tribe, are found in the 
gardens, we do not meet with any of the i^osaceae in the plains 
of India, with the exception of i^iibus, found, however, only in 
hilly places in the southern parts of India, and a single Foten- 
tilla." (p. 202.) 

** Two other species of Potentilla are found on the Neel^herries, with a 
Cotonedster Fragaria, and species of i^tibus and Photfnia. Of this last genus, 
species are also found in tt^e mountains above Silhet and Pundua, and extend- 
ing further north, with a species of £riob6trya in Nepal ; making these genera 
common to the Himalayas and to China. A Raphi61epis is also mentioned 
in India, but it does not appear to extend beyond China or Cochin-China. A 
species of £riob6trya is said to be found in Persia. 

" In addition to these, in the northern as in the southern parts of the 
Himalayas, there are numerous species of i?osace8e belonging to such genera 
as are found in Europe, Siberia, the Altai Mountains, China, Japan, and North 
America ; and from Caucasus to the Hindoo Khoosh, on the ramifications of 
which, and in the valleys they include, some, as the Pom^ceae and iJmygdalese, 

M 3 



146 Boyle $ Illustrations of the Natural History 

appear to have their &vourite resort. The genera of which species are found 
in the Himalayas are, Jro^gdalus, Persica, ilrmeniaca, Prunus, C^rasus, jSjp^ 
rae^a, Neillta, o^eum, Sieversuiy i^ubus, Dalib&rda, Fragaria, Potentllla, Sib« 
b&ldui, Agrimdnia, Sanguisdrba, i26sa, Oatae^gus, Cotonedster, Cyddoia; and 
of P^ruSy species of the sections Pyrdphorum, Jl/alus, and ^S^drbus. Of these, 
Ndllia is alone peculiar to these mountains. Siev^rsia is interesting, as found 
on the Alps, in Kamtschatka, in Melville Island, and in the Himalayas, on 
such lofty mountains as Choor, Kedarkanta, and Gossainthan ; and Dalibdrdo, 
in these mountains, in North America, and the Straits of Magalhaens. 
Though the i^osaces are chiefly confined to the northern hemisphere, yet the 
southern is not without them, as a Geum is found in the last-mentioned 
straits ; a Fragaria and iZubus in the Andes and Peru ; a CVatse^sus and Po- 
tentllla in ChOi ; and, though not to the south of the line» a Geum, i^ubrs. 
and ilmyedalus, in Mexico ; and a C^rasus in the West Indies ; appearing to 
indicate that, where any similaritjr of climate exists, representatives of genera 
and families may be found, of wluch the greater numbers exist in y^y cUstant 
regions. 

^ With respect to species which, indq)endent of those yielding the wdl- 
known fi*uits, are common to these mountains and other parts of the world, 
Pyrus bacclita may be mentioned, which, common in Siberia, was procured b> 
Dr. Wallich from Kemaon, and found by myself on Kedarkanta. Of tbj 
spiraeas, one is near, if not identical with, S, callosa of Thunb.; jS^. chama^dri^ 
folia Linn.^ and jS^. kamtsch&tica PeUl,^ allied to jS^. Ulmaria, found in Siberia, 
are also so in these mountains. jS^. tritemata approaches jS^. Ar(incus ; and S. 
Lindleyana is like jS^. «orbif61ia. Agrimonia nepal^nsis resembles A. £upa- 
toriwm. The potentillas are thirty-one in number : of these, twentv-one are 
in Dr. Wallich's, and twenty-three in the author's collection : of the latter, 
six are new, and three are Siberian species. Many are highly ornamental, as 
may be seen by those already introduced, as well as by those figured in the 
present work, which would succeed equally well in England. P. cathaclines, 
multifida, and bifQrca are the three Siberian species found in Kunawur. Sib* 
b&ldia procumbens is common to Europe;, Siberia, America, and the Hima*- 
layas. 

** Nothing can be more ornamental than the double white rose of Northern 
India and the Deyra Doon, R, Lyelln, Jcooza of the natives; nor than R. Bru- 
ndni^, allied to R, moschata JAnn,, common in the valleys, or the banks of 
streams within the mountains, ascending to the tops of lofty trees, especially 
alders, and hanging down in elegant racemes. On more lofty and drier situ- 
ations, as the passes of ICunawur, R. Webhidna, allied to the Scotch rose, is 
common. R, macrophylla is the most common species on the southern face 
of the mountains ; but on Choor, Urrukta, and such situations, R, serfcea 
lAndl, is remarkable in always having four (as- P. Tormentflla among the po- 
tentillas) instead of five, the usual number of petals. In the plains, though 
so extensively cultivated, no species of rose appears to be indigenous. R. 
damascena (goolab and sudrhurs of the natives, wurd of the Arabs) is that most 
highly esteemed, and cultivated in Northern India for making rose-water and 
the alter of roses. The latter is, however, only extensively distilled at Ghazi- 
pore, probably from this species, as it is in Persia ; though it is difficult to 
ascertain whether the same species be cultivated for these purposes in Cash- 
mere. Some of the species of iSubus, as in Europe, ripen their fruit early in 
the season, and others towards autumn. R, fruticdsus is found in Cashmere. 
R, rotundifdlius {zurd-anchoo of the Hill people) affords a grateful fruit in 
April and May ; but R, lasiocarpus (Jctd-anchoo) not until the rains. R, c6n- 
color comes the nearest to the raspberry, and is not found except on lofty 
mountains, as Dhunoultee, Choor, and Kedarkanta. In addition to these, a 
species of strawberry, Fragkria nubicola WalLy very closely allied to F. col- 
llna, affords a grateful fruit in May, on such places as Fhagoo, Mhasoo, 
Bhoke, &c. 

** With exception of the i^mygdaleae, which secrete hydrocyanic acid, none 



<^ihe Himalayan Mountains and of Cashmere. 147 

of the iZoslceas are possessed of deleterious properties ; but many are remark- 
able for producing the most delicious fruits, both in Europe and Asia, Of 
most of these, the native country is not well ascertained ; but in Europe we 
Doint to the s.e., and in India to the n.w., as their native country. Thus, in 
India, Caubul and Cashmere ; and, in Europe, Pontus and Armenia, are con- 
sidered as the native countries of the same fruits, which the ancients generally 
named from the places whence they were procured. Thus, we have O^rasus 
and Persica, ^rmeniaca, and Cyd6nia m^Ia. In India, however, the languages 
being more analogous, they adopt the names of the countries more to uie 
northward. But, as none of these fruits have been found wild in the plains of 
these Asiatic countries, we must look to the mountains which run along their 
whole extent, as their probable native sites, especially as we shall there find 
most of the fruits alluded to, if not wild, yet in a high state of perfection, with 
new species of the genera to which they belong. 

" Thus, the almond, peach, nectarine, apricot, plum, and cherry, with the 
apple, pear, and quince, are all found, either in a wild or cultivated state, on 
the ramifications of Taurus and Caucasus, Hindookhoosh and the Himalayas, 
or on the valleys included within them. Most of them are enumerated by 
Forster and Moorcrofl, as being abundant in Cashmere, whence I introduced 
them into the Mussooree Nursery. Mr. Elphinstone and Lieut. Burnes 
inform us they abound in Peshawur and Caubul ; and by the latter, the peach, 
|u>ricot, cherry, plum, pear, apple, and quince are represented as abundant at 
Bokhara, and otner places on the north of the Hindookhoosh. In Kunawur, 
on the north of the Himalaya, we have the apricot, peach, plum, and apple. 

'* The almond, which, tnough flowering, does not ripen its fruit in K. 
India, and of which both the sweet and bitter kinds are known and imported 
into the northern parts from Ghooj^und, and into the southern parts of India 
by the Persian Gmf, is so extensively cultivated in the south of Europe, in 
Syria, and Barbary, that it is probable its native country may be further north 
than others of the tribe, and therefore the north of Africa, as generally sup- 
posed ; though it may also be found in the mountains of Asia. 

" The peach, introduced into Europe from Persia, a country in which the 
fruit is very fine, and where both the free and clingstone varieties are known, 
and called kvUoo and kardee ; the general name for peach being, Persian, 
€BroOy and, Arabic, hhookk. They npen well, and are of a fine flavour in 
Peshawur ; also, in the north of Lidia, with the well-flavoured flat peach from 
China. With care, it succeeds also in the elevated land of Mysore; it is 
found wild in different parts of the Himalayas, as about Mussooree, at 
devations of 5000 h, and 6000 fl. In the district of Bissehur there is a dis- 
tinct kind, called hhemee by the natives (P^rsica maligna nob,\ which, though 
small, is juicy and very sweet. The nectarine is found in garaens in Northern 
India, where it is called shuft-ahoy and moondla (smooth) aroo, though it does 
not perfectly ripen its fruit, nor is it known from whence it was introduced, 
though probably from Caubul. 

'* The apricot is very abundant round almost every village in the Himalayas, 
rendering it difficult to ascertain whether it be ever found wild, as the trees 
remain the only vestiges of deserted villages. It has been supposed to be a 
native of the Oases of Egypt, in consequence of its name (^burkook) being pro- 
bably the original of the old term apncoke and Praecdcia ; but as that is its 
name in the Arabic language, which prevails, like the apricot, over a great 
extent of the Oriental region, the same name is likely to be everywhere ap- 
plied to it. At Caubul it is said to be preserved in fourteen diflerent ways, 
with and without the stones, or the kernel lefl, or an almond substituted. 
(Burnes.) It is generally brought in this state into Northern India, under 
the name khoobanee ; the Arabic name is mishmish ; in Bokhara, where they 
are particularly fine, they are called bakur-khanee. In the Himalayas, the 
fruit is called zurd-aloo, chooloo, and ckinaroo. In Kunawur, the fruit is dried 
on the tops of their houses, and, when pounded, mixed with their meal. It is 
chiefly cultivated op account of the beautiful oU which is expressed from the 

M 4 



143 Mojfl^s Illustrations ^the Natural Histofy 

• 

keroeb. These inav also be found in the bazaars, under the name of badant' 
hohecy or hill almonds. The oil has a slight smell of hydrocyanic acid, and 
must resemble that from almonds, especially the bitter kind, or that obtained 
from Pri^nus brigantiaca. 

" Specimens of the cherry, or alo<hbaioo, which I obtained from Cashmere, 
appear to Dr. Lindley not to differ from the common species, which therefore 
is probably that met with at Caubul, perhaps also at Bokhara. The fruit of 
Cinsiin Puddum, common in the Himalayas, is not edible, but is employed for 
making a well-flavoured cherry-brandy, though not distilled like the kirscken^ 
waiter: the bark (pudmak) is used in medicine, as is that of species of cherry 
in the United States and Mexico. Cerasus undulkta and capriclda (the last 
•o called from the leaves being poisonous to goats), and C, cornuta, remarkable 
for its pod-like monstrositjr, are handsome and showy trees, growing on lofty 
mountains, and worthy of introduction into England. 

'* The plum is known in India in a dried state, under the name of akxh' 
bokhara, though chieflv cultivated about Ghuzni. It was seen by Lieut. 
Burnes, both at KoonJooz and Bokhara, whence it may originally have been 
introduced into the kingdom of Caubul. Specimens of the plants from Cash- 
mere appear to Dr. Lindley to be a new species, Prunus bokhari^nsis nob. 
To this kind, kokamaiu is applied as the Greek name in Persian works on 
Materia Medica. From Irki, near Sabathoo, a small, yellow, thin-skinned, 
and very juicy sweet plum was introduced into the Saharunpore Garden, and 
which, though I considered to be a new species (P. Aloochia), is very like a 
variety of the common plum. It is this, probably, which is called green gage 
by travellers. Mr. Moorcroft also mentions a plum in Ludak, Ci^rasus tomen- 
tdsa Wall., Cat, N,, 715. Prunus triflora Roxb. is a plum now common in 
gardens in India, which Dr. Roxburgh states was origmally introduced from 
China. The peach, apricot, cherry, and plum all exude gum in Northern 
India. 

** Of the Pomaceae, the quince plants, introduced from Cashmere, do not 
differ from those already in India, Cyddnia vulgaris Pert. The seeds (bihee 
dana) being mucilaginous, and used in medicine, are imported from Caubul 
and Cashmere into Northern, and by the Persian Gulf into Southern, India. 

'* Of pears, that of Samurcund is most noted : they are plentiful at Caubul, 
and excellent at Peshawur ; and are brought into India by the northern mer- 
chants from Cashmere and Boodurwar. in the gardens of India, the only 
kind known is one introduced from China, Pyrus sinica, or sand-pear, whiefa 
more nearly resembles the baking pear than any other I know. P. PatMa 
Ham., P. varioldsa Wall,, or wild pear tree of the hills, attains a great size; 
but the fruit is not edible until it becomes somewhat decayed. P. lanata and 
crenata are other species of this genus, which are found at higher elevations. 
The first afK}rd8 an edible fruit called paltoo, 

*' Apples alone of the tribe succeed well in the southern parts of India, as 
they are stated to be excellent at Bangalore and in Tirhoot; and, though 
small, of a good quality in most parts of Northern India. As an instance of 
the difficulty attendant on the introduction of European plants into Northern 
India, it may be mentioned, that an apple tree from Liverpool, in consequence 
of being the only one which survived, cost upwards of 70/. before it was 
planted in the nursery at Mussooree, where, however, it was thriving along 
with the fruit trees introduced from Cashmere. The apple is grown in some 
of the villages of the Himidaya, as well as in Kunawur. They are remarkably 
fine at Peshawur and Caubul, and are brought down to India from Boodurwar 
and Cashmere. On the northern face of the mountains they are grown both 
at Balkh and Bokhara, and are remarkably fine at the former." 

Grandtea. — There is only one genus, Pinica (which, Mr. 
Boyle says, might be retained in ikfyrtacese), originally of Western 
Asia, but which has extended into the south of Europe, and 
been taken from thence to India and the north of Africa. 



of the Himalayan Mountains and of Cashmere. 1^9 

^ Lieut. Burnes describes the pomegranates as forming quite a wood in 
Mazenderan, whence the dried seeds are exported for medicinal use; and 
mentions that the famous pom^ranates without seeds are grown in the rich 

fardensy called Balabagh, lying under the snowy hills near the Caubul riyer. 
fir. Forster describes them as delicious about Hadsiabad, as they are^ indeed, 
in most parts of Persia. (Joum,, p. 169.^ Though grown in most parts of 
India, large quantities of a superior quality are yearly brought down by the 
northern merchants from Caubul, Cashmere, and Boodurwar. In the Huna« 
lavas, the pom^ranate may foe seen growing wild, and also near villages. 
The fruit, though small, is brought down for saJe to Saharunpore ; it is caBed 
damiee: and the rind lnaipal\ being very astrin^nt, is used in medicine, as 
well as in dyeing. The employment, by the natives of India, of the bark of 
the root for the expulsion of tape-worm being now well known, since the sub- 
ject was communicated by Drs. Hamilton and Fleming, is a remarkable in- 
stance of the oblivion into which even a valuable medicine may fall, as this 
property was well known to Dioscorides, 1. c. 154. The natives give buloo^ 
jtton and roonum as the Greek names of the pomegranate." 

'NLemec^lete and Combretdcea are equinoctial orders, respecting 
which Mr. Royle has given information most valuable for the 
settler in India, but which we pass over, confident that his work 
will soon find its way into the libraries of the wealthier classes of 
British residents in India, or of British Indian merchants, or of 
other men of wealth resident in Britain. 

Onagrdrice. — This order contains Epiiobium, of which thir- 
teen species have been found in the Himalayas. It also contains 
Circae a, of which some species are found in Nepal ; and Triipa, 
which, like many other aquatic genera, spreads over a great 
extent of latitude, ** being common everywhere in the waters of 
India and China, as well as of Cashmere, of Europe, and of 
Siberia." (p. 211.) 

Halor^igeae, ^ being an aquatic family, does not, by its distribution, indicate 
diflferenccs of climate, as its plants are found in streams and wet situations in 
various parts of the world. Thus, J?ippiiris is common to Europe and America, 
and has been found at Unalaschka, but not in India. CalUtricbe is common to 
India and Europe; ilfyrioph/llum to both these and to America. Serplcula 
is common to India and Africa, bdns found in the Mauritius, the Cape of 
Good Hope, and the Indian Peninsula ; Haloragis in the last, as well as in 
New Holland." 

CeratophylleiB is also an aquatic order, distributed over a wide 
extent, both in Europe and India. 

laythrariecdj or Sclicariece. — The true Salicarieae form a tribe 
which contains a number of aqViatic species, ahd, as is generally 
the case, these are distributed over a wide extent, and in very 
difierent climates. Z^thrum is found in Europe, America, and 
New Holland, and in the Himalayas. 

Tainariscinea. — The genus Tamarix is distributed over a 
wide extent in the Old World, from Britain to China, on the 
shores of the ocean, on the banks of large rivers, in arid and 
sandy plains, and in saline soil in the cold climates and elevated 
plains of Thibet in Siberia. 



150 Dennises Landscape-Gardefier. 

Melasiomdcea. — One of the most natural families : the spe- 
cies are for the most part tropical, and are chiefly found in the 
southern parts of India. 

VhiladSlphece, — The genus Philadelphus has several species 
which grow on the Himalayas, all of which, Mr. Royle observes, 
** appear to be suited to the open air in English shrubberies.'' 

Myr/ac^^. — This order is well known, from its European 
representative, the common myrtle. It abounds in Australia 
and New 2iealand ; but is not common in the hilly regions of 
India. 

^ The Myr^exR are chiefly remarkable for secreting volatile oil, which 
gives an aromatic fr^rance to the leaves and other parts of many species, 
rendering these useful as condiments; they also secrete tannin; hence the 
employment of some as astringents : others yield edible fruit, as the guava and 
the different kinds of rose-apple, which are, however, seldom unaccompanied 
by a degree of aromatic principle, which renders them agreeable to some, but 
disagre^ible to others." 

We cannot too highly commend this work, or respect the 
talent and industry of its enlightened and scientific author. 



Art. II. The Landscape- Gardener ; comprising the History and 
Principles of Tasteful Horticulture, By J. Dennis, B.C.L., Pre- 
bendary of the Collegiate Church of Exeter Castle, and Author of 
*< The Key to the Regalia," " Architectura Sacra," &c. &c. 8vo. 
London, 1835. 

This work, which has no pretensions to being scientific, may 
be characterised as a series of unconnected, and sometimes irre- 
levant, remarks, in a rambling and very peculiar style. Its chief 
merits are, that it displays a great love of the subject on the part 
of its author, and that it contains some descriptive notices of 
country seats. The following extract will, we think, justify 
what we have said, or it will, at all events, enable the reader to 
judge for himself. It commences about the middle of the 
volume (at p. 48.); and contains a recapitulation of what the 
author considers the contents of the preceding pages, a speci- 
men of the kind of remarks that are made on planting, and a 
descriptive notice. 

'* In the historical portion of this essay, [the] commencement of plantations 
was ascribed to the expediency of preserves for game, consequent on [the] 
destruction of forests ; and the succession of style in [the] formation of parks 
was detailed. Horticulture was stated to have originated with the monastic 
orders, yet not to have extended beyond esculent, bibulent, and sanative 
objects of culture. Ornamental gardening was traced from the Roman quin- 
cunx, through Dutch distortion of nature, and its subversion by Kent's inves- 
tigation and defective transcript of Continental forests, on taste for pictoresque 
scenery having been elicited through importation of paintings by Italian 
masters, concurrently with the influence of poetic lucubrations. The peculiar 



Denni^s Landscape^Gardefier. 151 

Btjrk of several subeec^uent landscf^e-purdenersy as Brown, Dbtis, Repton, 
Eyton [? Alton], was distinctively described. Numerous orors were detected, 
and various improvements suggested. Adi^i^tation of different classes of trees 
and shrubs to the respective parts of pleasure^ound was then in part de- 
tailed. The concluding topic was the design of the yew tree, as an invariable 
appendage in ancient churcnyards ; a topic freqoentl v discussed, but never pre- 
viously developed. It being an enqui^ of somewnat interesting character, 
probably its repetition for information of absentees from the last lecture [?] 
may be permitted, although a twice-told tale can only be tolerated by speaju 
indulgence. 

** S yews be planted in proximity to a mansbn, for the sake of valuable 
shelter from bleak winds, they should not assume a prominent position, but 
should be interspersed with groups of Weymouth pine or bay, and be faced 
with laurels of luxuriant ^owth. By such contrast, the eloom of their dingy 
leaf [foliage] is relieved with vivid and glossy green ; or, if the contrast appear 
too strong it may be mellowed by blending Portugal laurel in [an] intermediate 
position. In short, the recommendation cannot be too frequently reiterated, 
to substitute [a] studied assortment of tints for tasteless indiscriminate admix- 
ture. Let but the pictorial artist be permitted, or the amateur condescend, 
to transfer his principles of taste, the one from his easel, the other from his 
gallenr, to occasional superintendence of English landscape-gardening, and 
they [? he] would contribute to [the] production of a living vegetative picture, 
constituting incalculable improvement in style, and commanding inevitable 
commendation from the spectator of cultivated taste. Nay, pleasure-grounds 
thus constructed would excite universal admiration, and impart universal gra- 
tification. Pictoresque effect, copying and harmonising with natural scenery, 
ehdts pleasurable emotions, even in such as ' know not why, and care not 
wherefore.' But, for accomplishment of such [an] important detideratum, 
science must be suffered to acquire unlimited confidence, in exercise of 
control ; while prgudice must cease to plead for senseless ' custom, more 
honoured in the breach than in the observance.' An individual proprietor, 
or a public association, might rest assured of the anticipation of a result 
decidedly warranting the experiment. 

** In resumption of the topic of evergreen trees, for formation of a fore- 
ground, it may strongly be recommended, while collecting perennial foliage of 
every species, to permit the beautifiil Hex of each variety [? each variety of 
ilex] to predominate. Single or combined, firom elegance of shape, delicacy of 
leaf, and duration of mantling, the ilex constitutes an embellishment almost 
unparalleled, yet too frequently neglected. Of faster growth than the deci- 
duous oak, it [here it would appear that our reverend author alludes to the 
Qu6rcus Cerris, and not to the Q. Plea, as that is of slow growth as com- 
pared with the common deciduous oak] attains expansion competent to [the] 
gratification of the planter's eye, with not less certainty, in the ordinary cal- 
culation of life's duration, than to please and profit posterity. It should, 
then, on various accounts, abound in proximity to [? the proximity of] a de- 
corated mansion, blended with masses of bay, backed by cypress, yew, and 
Einaster, and faced with laurel, laurestinus, Fortugal laurel, privet, phylirea 
)hillvrea], arbutus, with other flowering or variegated shrubs. 
*' Li similar relative situation, but in prominent advance fix)m trees and 
unblossomed shrubs, flowering evergreens should invariably rank. Defying 
* the icy fang and churlish chiding of the winter's wind,' the gay, cheering, 
precocious laur^tinus anticipates the lingering arrival of an English spring. 
Tenacious of florage and permanently retentive of foliated decoration, it is 
entitled to numerical predominance over every blossoming shrub. By season- 
able intervention and flowering profusion, it compensates for temporary dimi- 
nution of ornament, in other component ingredients of a shrubbery, thus 
transferring to nipping winter's gloom the exhilarating semblance of summer's 
embellishment. Productive of such interesting impression in pleasing the eye, 
it certidnly merits conspicuousness by prominent position. 



152 Curtis* s Botanical Magazine. 

** The arbutas is a shrub peculiarly elegant and eligible, from perennial 
decoration, rapid growth, and superior beauty in shape and tint of leaf, from 
delicate blossom, and glowing berry. If suffered to remain unpruned, by 
gaining height, it becomes hollow and leafless beneath, retaining, like other 
evergreens, only two years' shoots [leaves], except about midsummer, when 
the third year's are annexed, some weeks previously to [the] decay of the 
first. If not surrounded by evergreens more btunted in growth, for conceal- 
ment of its lower leafless branches, it should biennially be deprived of a few 
long shoots, by application of the pruning-knife, the shears being calculated to 
render a shrub hideously cabbage-poled [?]. Any shrub judiciousl v. pruned will 
retain resemblance of its natural form. Artificial treatment should be stu- 
diously discuised, and interposition of control be invariably concealed. 

The ph\Tirea [phillyrea] presents striking contrast to the gay or gaudy dis- 
play or flowering shrubs, being characterised by singular chasteness aud 
unobtrusive simplicity. It is of intermediate tint, diminutive leaf, and 
moderate growth ; consequently is precisely adapted to an advanced position. 
It will there present [a] striking 'contrast to the imposing glare of variegated 
shrubs, whether holly, aucuba, or others of similar class. Here, too, that 
lowly, yet cheering, harbinger of spring, the meserium [? mezereon], should rank, 
interspersed with contemporaneous masses of hepatica, snowdrop, crocus, red 
daisy, and other vernal flowers, protected by [a] wicker fence. The cypress is 
adapted, by [its] taper form and elevation to relieve a structure. The pyra- 
canthus [pyracantha], pomegranate, trumpet-pomegrauate, white jessamine, 
but, paramount to all, the elegant tamarisk, supply ornamental covering to a 
wall. In a sheltered nook, even this [these] may be surpassed by the beau- 
tiful single-blossomed myrtle. From mildness of climate, it abounds in Devon- 
shire, perhaps in no instance so luxuriantly as in a garden of Mr. Neck's, 
[?] curate of King's Kerswell, where it acquires considerable size detached 
from a wall, as well as height when attached. The front of a house at 
Bishop's-Teingcon has long been-covered to the top by myrtles of forty years' 
growth, protected from the easterly wind by a wing, and from the westerly by 
an equal defence, with the advantage of a southern aspect. Inspection of 
these flourishing shrubs, of such delicate character, attracts frequent visitors 
from the adjacent watering-place, Teignmouth. The broad-leafed species, 
when annually deprived of its lateral shoots, has been found to acquire asto- 
nishing size and strength of stalk, and, on recovery of lower leaves, has 
eventually become a bold shrub, contributing handsome decoration to the 
interior of a drawingroom." 

This last sentence we do not pretend to understand. 

As an appendix to the work, a map of the gardens at Buck- 
ingham Palace is given, accompanied by two views, which are 
very neatly executed and coloured. There is also a map of St. 
James's Park, with the piece of water as altered; an island 
concealing the boundary at one end, and a peninsula at the 
other. 



Art. III. \ Curtis s Botanical Magazine; or, Flotoer-Garden Dis- 
played; a New Edition f with amended Characters of the Species; 
the whole arranged according to the Natural Orders* By W. J. 
Hooker, LL.D. F.H.A.. and L.S., &c. &c. &c., and Regius Professor 
of Botany in the University of Glasgow. To which is added, the 
most approved Method of Culture. By Samuel Curtis, F.L.S., of 



Chert is* s Botanical Magazine. 15S 

the Glazenwood Horticultural Grounds, Essex, and Proprietor of 
the Botanical Magazine. Vol. I. 8vo. London, 1833. 

In our Volume for 1838, we announced the intention of Mr, 
Curtis, the proprietor of the Botanical Magazine^ to publish a 
new series of that work, with the engravings arranged according 
to the natural system, and at a comparatively low price. It 
was intended to appear in monthly numbers ; but it has been 
found more convenient to bring it out in volumes; and the first 
of these, price 21^., is now before us. 

The work is prefaced by an outline of the natural system, by 
Dr. Hooker, and his reasons for preferring that arrangement to. 
any other. The plates are beautifully coloured; the descriptions 
have been amended, or re- written, by Dr. Hooker, and the modes 
of culture given in a concise and masterly manner by Mr. Curtis. 
We can, therefore, strongly recommend the work, and only deeply 
regret that some arrangement could not be formed by which the 
possessors of this work could purchase from the proprietors of 
the Botanical Register such plates as have appeared in that 
work, and not in the Botanical Magazine ; and this accommo- 
dation, we think, ought to be reciprocal. For example, there 
are some species of magnolia figured in the Bot. Beg,^ that have 
not been figured in the Bot. Mag, ; and some in the Bot. Mag. 
that have not been figured in the Bot, Reg. Now, it would be 
a great advantage to the possessor of either work (and we do 
not suppose that there is any one who takes in both), if he 
could purchase such plates from the other as he might want, 
either to render as complete as possible his collection of figures 
of one genus or of one natural order, or to complete his 
collection of plates of the whole vegetable kingdom. Why 
should not the proprietors of these and similar works sell single 
plates, or plates by the dozen, by the score, or by the hundred, 
charging a handsome price for a single plate, and diminishing 
the rate per plate according to the quantity taken ? If we could 
be the means of inducing the proprietors of botanical works to 
do this, we think we should be rendering an essential service to 
gardeners and botanists, more especially in remote parts of the 
country, or in other countries ; and even to the publishers them- 
selves. It would then be practicable for a gardener or amateur, 
in any part of Britain, or for an amateur on the Continent, or 
in North America, when in doubt about any particular species, 
or the species of a genus, to obtain the plate or plates he might 
desire to solve his doubts, by post. 

We frequently hear of disputes between gardeners in the 
country respecting the name of a plant. Now, by such an ar- 
rangement as that which we suggest, all such differences could 
be settled in a post or two. 



154 Watsan*s New Botanises Guide. 

Art. IV. Remarks on the Geographical Distribution of British 
Plants ; chiefly in Connection with Latitude^ Elevation^ and Cli- 
mate. By Hewett Cottrell WatsoD. 12mo. London, 1835. 

The aothor has taken very great pains to render this work as 
perfect as the present state of our knowledge on the subject of 
which it treats permits ; and he has succeeded in producing a 
book which will be read with instruction and delight by every 
one fond of the study of plants, and more especially by the Bri- 
tish gardener. Its use to the practical gardener may not ap- 
pear obvious at first sight; but it will enable him to judge of the 
comparative di£Perence of climate in di£Perent parts of the island, 
and to generalise on the important subjects of climate, weather, 
and soil. To the gardener, and to every botanical reader, it 
will add greatly to the local interest of particular places ; for it 
is hardly possible to live in any part of Britain that is not cited 
in this volume, or in the New Botanists Guide (to be next no- 
ticed), as the station of some plant. 



Art. V. The Neto Botanist's Guide to the Localities of the Rarer 
Plants of Britain ; on the Plan of Turner and DiUwyn's Botanists 
Guide. By Hewett Cottrell Watson, Vol. I. England and Wales. 
12mo. London, 1835. 

We cannot better recommend this work than by the following 
short extracts from the Introduction, and from the Prefatory 
Notice. : — 

<* In publishing the following work, two subjects are imme- 
diately in view : first, to exhibit the ascertained distribution of 
our less common indigenous Plants throughout Britain; and, 
secondly, to form a Guide-Book for botanical tourists. The 
well-known Botanisfs Guide o( Turner and Dillwyn may be said 
to form the model of the present one, omitting the cryptogamic 
plants. But the lapse of 30 years since the publication of that 
work has greatly increased our knowledge on the subject ; while 
the manuscript communications of several friends, and personal 
researches, enable me to add considerably to it, independently of 
the information contained in various local floras and catalogues of 
more recent date.'' (Introd., p. I.) 

<< This volume includes all the counties of England and Wales, 
and will form a complete work in itself, if the publication of the 
second volume should be prevented bv any unforeseen circum* 
stance. The counties of Scotland, with the adjoining isles from 
Man to Shetland, are intended to be comprised in the second 
volume, which will be ready in 1836. (Not., p. v.) 



Willats^s Florist Cultivator. 155 

Art. VL The Florist Cultivator, or Plain Directions Jbr the Affl- 
nagement of the principal Florist Flotvers, Shrubs, Sfc, Sfc.^ adapted 
to the Flotoer-Uarden, Shrubbery, and Green^house ; toith select 
Lists of the finest Roses, Geraniums, Carnations^ Pinks, Auriculas^ 
Polyanthuses, Tulips, Dahlias, Heartsease, Sfc. S^c. The xohole 
arranged on a Plan different from any Work hitherto puMished. By 
Thomas WlllatSy Esq., Amateur Cultivator. Small 8vo. London, 
1835. 

This is a well intended book ; but it is behind the age in the 
manner in which the author has treated the subject. For ex- 
ample, in his enumeration of plants he has occupied, generally, 
more than the fourth of a page for each species, without giving 
the authority for the name, the accentuation, the derivation, the 
natural order, or, in short, more than half the information which 
we have given in the Hortus Britannicus in a single line. As a 
proof of this, we may take his first three species. 

** 1. Achillea Tomemtosa, or Woolly MUfiU. 

** This is a hardy Perrenial for the borders ; it is increased by parting the 
roots in the spring. It afiects a dry and open situation. It blows from June 
to October. 

" It is a native of the South of Europe, and was first brought to Eng^d 
in 1658. 

" This plant is of the 19th Class, under the head ' Syngenesia Superflua.' 

*' 2. Gaura Biennis, or Biennial Gaura, 

** This herbaceous plant requires rather more trouble than many of this 
kind, from its being a Biennial ; it is increased by seed, and blows in the 
autumn. 

"It is a native of North America, and was first brought to England in 
1762. 

" It belongs to the 8th Class, under the head ' Octandria Monogynia.* 

** 3. Ononis Rotundifolia, or Round4eaved Rest Harrow. 

** This is a hardy plant, and raised by seed. 

" It afiects a sunny aspect, and will thrive well in the border ; it blows in 
May and July. 

'* It is a native of Switzerland, and was first brought Into England in 
1570. 

^ It belongs to the 17th Class, under the head ' Diadelphia Decandria.' '* 



•2S87. ^CHILLE*^ L. Milfoil. {AchiUes, pupil of Chiron, first used the plant in ntd.) Com. Anthem, 7i. 
S1858 toment&sa X. tomentose £ A or .2 my.o Y BriUin heo. D co Eng. hot 2538 

•1184. GAU'RA i. Gaura. (Gfl«ro*, superb; flowers.) Onagrdrw. 6.-7. ^ 

10041 biennis L, biennial ^ Q) or 5 au.o R.w N. Axner. 17G2. S pil Hot mag. SBg 

•19fi& ONO'NIS L, Reotharrow. {Onos, an ass ; onemi, to delight j gratefUl to.) Leg. Pap. lAtGen. 5a— 111. 
17576 rotundifdUa X. round^ieafed ft or 2 my.jl Pk SwitzerL 1570. C s^l Botmag-SSS 

If the author had endeavoured, by giving authorities, syno- 
nymes, references to figures, and descriptive traits, to convev an 
idea to the reader's mind of what the plants were, he would have 
succeeded better in attaining the very laudable end which he 
professes to have in view. 



156 Buffiris Essay on Calcareous Manures. 



Art. VIL An Essay on Calcareous Manures. By Edmukd Ruffik. 
Small SvOy pp. 242. Petersburg, Lower Virginia, 1832. 

The object of this essay, Mr. Ruffin inrorms us, is to in- 
vestigate the peculiar features and qualities of the soils of the 
tide-water districts of Lower Virginia; *^ to show the causes of 
their general unproductiveness; and to point out means, as yet 
but little used, for their eiFectual and profitable improvement.'' 
The sterility of these soils Mr. RufBn has ascertained to arise 
from their being destitute of calcareous earth, and from their being 
injured by the presence of vegetable acid. 

Af^er two chapters on earths and soils generally, and on the 
soils and state of agriculture in the tide-water districts of 
Virginia, the author treats of the different capacities of soils for 
improvements, and discusses the following propositions : — 

1. " Soils naturally poor, and rich soils reduced to poverty by cultivation, 
are essentially difierent in their powers of retaining putrescent manures : and, 
under like circumstances, the fitness of any soil to be enriched by these 
manures, is in proportion to what was its natural fertility. 

2. " The natural, sterility of the soils of Lower Vir^nia is caused by such 
soils being destitute of calcareous earth, and their bemg injured by the pre- 
sence and ^ects of vegetable acid. 

3. " The fertilising effects of calcareous earth are chiefly produced by its 
power of neutralising adds, and of combining putrescent manures with soils, 
between which there woidd otherwise be but little, if any, chemical at- 
traction. 

4. "Poor and acid soils cannot be improved durably or profitably, by 
putrescent manures, without previously making them calcareous, and thereby 
correcting the defect in their constitution. 

5. " Calcareous manures will give to our worst soils a power of retaining 
putrescent manures equal to that of the best ; and will cause more productive- 
ness, and yield more profit, than any other improvement practicable in Lower 
Virginia." (p. 30.) 

These propositions contain the marrow of the essay, which 
is closely reasoned, and, in several particulars, original. Mr. 
Ruffin has the merit of first pointing out that there can be no 
such thing as a naturally fertile soil, without the presence of 
calcareous earth; but, where this earth is present, the soil, 
however exhausted it may have been by culture, will, when left 
to itself, afler a time regain its original fertility : that soils which 
contain no calcareous earth are never found naturally fertile, 
except masses or beds of vegetable matter, which are not pro- 
perly soils : and that all that art can do to them, exclusive of 
adding calcareous earth, is, to force crops by putrescent manures ; 
but that, when these manures are withheld, the soil will speedily 
revert to its original sterility. Mr. RufHn observes that no 
agricultural or chemical writer ever denied these facts ; but he 
ass'erts, and we think with truth, that by not one of them have 
they ever been distinctly stated. We are not quite certain as to 
Grisenthwaite, but we are so as to Kirwan, Dundonald, Davy, 



Domestic Notices : — England. 1 57 

Chaptal, and other agricultural chemists of the Continent Mn 
Ruffin allows that it might be inferred from the ingredients 
exhibited by the analysis of fertile soils, as given by these 
chemists, that calcareous earth was an ingredient essential to 
permanent fertility; but still none of them have ever distinctly 
said so. We shall probably examine the work more in detail 
hereafter : in the mean time> it is due to Mr. Ruffin to state it 
as our opinion that he has performed a very important service 
to the scientific agriculturist in this country, as well as in 
America.' 



B^ 



MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE. 
Art. I. Domestic Notices, 

ENGLAND. 

Ljnnjbjn Society, — Nov. 3. Mr. Lambert exhibited a branch and leaves of 
an arborescent species of dahlia, from Oaxaca, Mexico, which is said to erowto 
the height of 50 ft. There are living plants of it in the Liverpool Botanic 
Garden. Mr. Lambert also exhibited the root of a remarkable fern (An- 
ei6pteris er^cta) from the Society Islands, which is used by the natives for 
food, and the root of which weighed 14 lb. This may probably be a useful 
plant for Australia. ' * 

Society of Arts, — Nov. 4. At this meetine were exhibited, a sample of 
cloth from Assam, made from the down of the silk-cotton (B6mbax nepta- 
ph^Ilum^; a fine sample of safflower, firom the same country; a sample of fibre 
preparea from the leia of the pine-apple, with netting made of the same, also 
from Assam ; and extraordinarily beautifiil specimens of natural lace firom the 
inner bark of the lace-bark tree {Lagetta lintearia), fit>m Jamaica. 

The Stamford Hill Horticultural Reading Society, — A sneer thrown out against 
this Society, in a contemporary publication, has induced the Secretary to send 
us a communication, full of practical instruction, relating to societies of 
this kind, which we regret that we cannot find room to insert at length ; 
but from which we make the following extract : — " This Society has been 
established about two years and a halt, for the study of Horticulture, Bo« 
tany, and Natural History ; and it consists of more than fifty members : it 
has a monthly meeting for the production of specimens of plants, and |br 
conversations on their mode of culture, &c. ; also, meetings for botanical dis- 
cussions. If the benefits the gardener and his employer derive from such 
institutions as this were better made known than at present, I am quite sure 
that every nobleman and gentleman having an interest in the weUare of his 
gardener and garden would feel the propriety of contributing to their format 
tion and support ; and such societies would then be found in all parts of the 
Idi^dom." — Stamford Htll,Jan, 21. 1836. 

The Stratford Nursery y formerly in the occupation of Mr. Corbet, has lately 
been taken by our correspondent Mr. W. Garvie, many years foreman to 
Messrs. Low and Co. of Clapton ; and we sincerely hope that he will do 
well. 

StercuUa platanifhlia has stood in the open ground at Flitwick House, near 
Ampthill, Bedfordshire, for several years, producing its fine large leaves during 
summer, though frequently killed down to the ground during winter. 

In the Miybrd Nursery, Genista monosp^rma is now covered with fngnnt 
white flowers; and C^isus fllipes, j^elMborus purpur&scens, and Cnmhe 
fiuticdsa, are in flower. This nursery has just received some new species or 

Vol. XIL — No.7«. n 



^ *S Domestic Notices : — England. 

Twrieties of P^s, Tttia, if cer, and Pkvia from France, through Mr. Webb; 
among the pavias are, P. mutdbiiis fbliis varieg., and P. p&llida foliis varieg. 

List of Kinds of Wheat, received from Mr. Gorrie. — Nov. 1835- 

1. Victoria wheat, sown Oct 24. 1834, at Annat Park; ripe 30th of Juljr. The 
grain seems larger than when first introduced; and, being sown in the 
middle of a field of common wheat the preceding year, it appears to havo 
worted. ' 

2. Early white-bearded Tuscany wheat. 

3. Early beardless white-glumed Tuscany wheat. 

4. Blanc d'Hongrie, supposed to be the best sample amongst 60 sorts; re- 
ouires an early situation ; and is rather a late wheat in Scotland. 

5. Hunter's white, raised successively for 65 years on one farm in the Lo* 
thians. 

6. BM de Mars d'Odessa ; too late for Scotland. The seeds were received from 
Mr. Lawson of Edinburgh. 

7. Early striped chaff, gathered in a field, in 1834, on Shanny farm. 

8. Shanny yellow Surrey, gathered by Mr. Gorrie in a field on the farm of 
Shanny. 

0. Richelieu blanc. 

Wheats received from Mr, Lawson of Edinburgh, through Mr, Oorrie, Jun, 

10. TMticum se^stivum, var. Victoria wheat. 

1 1. TViticum bengal^nse, received by Mr. Lawson from Germany. 

Wheats received frwn Mr, Tat/lor, of WhOtington, Stokeferry, Norfolk, 

12. Hickling wheat ; prolific winter varietv. 

13. Golden drop wheat ; also a winter prolific wheat. 

The above wheats were chiefly sent to M. Vilmorin, Paris, but partly to 
Vienna, Poland, and to difl^ent correspondents, farmers, and seedsmen in 
Britain. 

The accompanying sample of TViticum bengalense is ^art of the produce of 
a spelt-like wheat, which Mr. Lawson procured when in Germany, in 1833, 
under that name. It is a free grower, very early, hardy, and prolific ; and (as 
you will see by the ear sent) quite distinct from either T, SpeUa or T, Z^.— 
W. Gorrie, Edinburgh, Nov. 13. 1835. 

Hickling Wheat. — I see you wish for a quantity of any new and valuable va* 
riety of wheat ; and I therefore present for your acceptance a small parcel of the 
'* fiUckling wheat,'* of which you have doubtless heard, as a lately-discovered 
and most productive kind in ISforfolk. Now, observe, in sending you the above, 
I do not vouch for the truth of the marvels of which so much has been said 
' and written concerning it ; still less am I disposed to draw the inference that, 
because a fine sample and an immense crop has been produced on some soils, 
the same may be expected from aU soils. You and I know such reason- 
ing is very likely to lead to disappointment : at the same time, I would by no 
means be understood as wishing to discourage experimental husbandry ; and I 
know none more important than that brancn of it which involves attention to 
a judicious change of seed, both in grai^ and roots. With regard to the wheat 
in question, I have heard from so many quarters, that I cannot doubt the fact, 
that firom 12 to 20 bushels per acre have been grown of it more than of any 
of the common wheats. The parcel I sent you was grown by my neighbour^ 
Mr. Pearson of Sporte, near Swaffham; and is, I think you will say, excellent 
in quality. 

' Golden Drop Wheai. -— There is another variety of wheat, which has lately 
occasioned a good deal of talk amongst our farmers, called "the golden drop." 
It appears to me of the yellow lammas, or something very like it ; a fine, bold, 
yellow sample ; though the quality of this, as well as all other varieties, will 
depend much on the nature of the soil. I have seen it very good, and I have 
abio seen it .mi^^rably b^d. It originated with Mr. Fullard, a tenant of the 
Duke of Bedford, I think, at Thorney. 



J 



Rehvspective Cntieism. 189 

WkHtingion Stokefirry, — Nov. 19. My neighbour Mr. John Bush, of 8tow, 
has given tne the quantity sent herewith of this wheat. The sample is not so 
fine as it often has appeared ; but Bush assures me you may rely on its being 
the genuine stock. The same observations I made anent the Hickling wheat 
apply with equal force to this variety. It is impossible to know from the 
stock how the produce may turn out. Of one thing only can we be certain, — 
tbat^ be the quality what it mav, the stock will be pure; and I am one of those 
who, if I can but be sure of the stock, care very little what the auality of the 
seed may be. My agricultural training, from my youth up, has Ted me to en- 
tertain these notions. My father sowed about 100 acres of wheat annually ; 
and invariably made it a practice to use his most shrivelled and mildewed grain : 
no matter how thin it might be in the sample, it would do for teed. The only dif- 
ference he made was (especially in the beginning of the wheat sowing) a trifling 
reduction in the quantity sown per acre, in conseouence of the smallness of the 
seed. I b^ your pardon for this digression, and the rather so, as these doc- 
trines may to you be '' damnable and heretical ; '* but they appeared to me 
necessary to explain the fact of the wheat sent being so unlike the golden 
drop as it is often found in our markets. One thing I ought to state, in recom- 
mendation of the wheat ; Mr. Bush so highly approved of what he grew that 
year, that he hat totvn nothing elte thit year ! And here endeth my lecture on 
seed. — Samuel Taylor, 

Yicia ffilldta. — This is an excellent and prolific tare, which was found by 
Mr. €k)rrie among a sample of Russian wheat. It should be sown in October, 
or early in the spring. The seeds which we received of it fi-om Mr. Gorrie have 
been distributed to the same parties as the wheat. — Cond, 

lAtt of Melon and Gowrd Seeds^ receioedfircm Sr, ManetU cf Monza. 

Mdone grosso (long, and of excellent quality) ; M. grosso (long, and of a 
pyramidal shape) ; M. moscatello (middling); M. moscatello (green and round); 
M. ovale (green); Bariri; M. zucohinno (excellent); M. arancini; M. Pa^ 
lermitano ; M. Parmigianino (early) ; M. olandese ; M. di Spagna (excel- 
lent) ; M. ungarese (large and netted) ; Zucche marine. 

Some of the melon seeds in the above list we have given to one gentleman, 
an amateur cultivator of melons ; and we will give some of the remaining 
seeds to any person who will engage to devote alight to each kind, and to send 
us one of the fruit when ripe. 

We have occupied so large a space with the above lists of seeds, as well to 
evince our gratitude to the friends who have sent them, as for the sake of re- 
cordbg the varieties of so valuable a grun as wheat, and of indicating that 
seeds of all the kinds we have enumerated may be procured from Mr. Lawson 
of Edinburgh^ and M. Vilraorin of Paris. 



Art. II. Retrospective Criticism. 

Erratum. Page 98., line 9. from the bottom, for " the house,** read '* water.'* 
Mr. Meamit Method of coiling Vinet. (Vol. XI. p. 603.) — An anxiety to avoid 
unprofitable discussion alone prevents mefrom criticisingMr. Mamock*s remarics 
in detail. In answer to the only question which he asks, I scarcely thii^ it ne- 
cessary to inform him of that with which he must be perfectly conversant ; namely, 
that there is, in my opinion, a great difference in the principles of action of two 
distinct parties, when one party, possessing grounds for distrust, calls for 
proofs of tide truth of a published statement of success, while the other party, 
without giving so much as a reason for what has been asserted, finds fault be- 
cause proofs clid not accompany the istatement that impugns it ; and there is a 
still greater difference when one party offers to give proofs to repletion as 
soon as they may be demanded, while the other party, after proofs of a speci- 
fied nature have been required, returns only reiterated asseveration for proof, 
and empty declamation for argumentr Mr, Mamockplaiflly' aasertt that Mr. 

N 2 ' 



160 Retrospective Criticism. 

Mearas did not exaggerate his statements, so far as his own sncoess was con- 
cerned. Now, my opinion is that he has done so, so £eu* as success the first 
season is concerned; and, with all due respect to Mr. Mamock, I beg leave to 
say, that, sick and tired as I am of this subject, both, he and the public shall 
have my reasons for forming such an opinion when he chooses to ask for them. 
Surelv, Mr. Mamock must see that assertion will go for nothing in an inquiry 
like this. If he is confident in Mr. Meams's success, why hesitate for a mo- 
ment to give a clear and definite answer to the questions which I put in my 
first paper upon this subject ? If by such means the claims of the system to 
utihty, during the first season, be fiilly established, I shall then feel a satisfac- 
tion that I have been instrumental in removing a stain from the character of 
one who, after all, is a worthy man, and shall not hesitate for a moment to 
give every necessary satisfaction to him for the part I have taken. If these 
claims are not supported, I shall then congratulate myself as having been the 
means of exposing a case of exaggeration, which, I doubt not, will operate as a 
check upon a system (which has been but too long in operation, without 
means beine taken to detect its fallacy, or arrest its career) of broaching, as 
new «nd vuuable discoveries, schemes which will not bear the test of examina- 
tion. — Robert Fith, Hyde Park Comer, Nov, 5. 1836. 

White Scale on Pmet. (Vol. XI. p. 433. 548. and 604.) — Observing a 
discussion between L. O. Z. and J. B. W., respecting the best means of de- 
stroying this insect, without at all interfering with any of their observations, I 
wish merely to state a fact. In the spring of the present year, I had about 
twenty lai^ge plants very much infested with the white scale. Fearful of their 
spreading, after rubbing off a number where they were thickest, I put a 
temporary partition between the infested plants and others in the same pit, 
which I supposed were p^ectly clean. The pit was principally heated with 
dung linings ; and, when I had placed my board of separation, I applied fresh 
dung to the part which contained the infested plants, admitting the steam into 
the pit. My idea was, that, by admitting the steam of fresli dung into the pit, 
the evolution of ammoniacal gas which would take place would destroy the 
insects, and yet at the same time be a benefit to the plants. The result is, that 
the experiment.was quite successful, and that I have not seen an insect for six 
months past. I am acquainted with a gardener who cleaned a verv extensive 
collection by the same process. Nothing can be simpler than this mode of 
destroying the insect : but the simplest method is often the best. Some gar- 
deners, however, are very successful in cleaning a stock, without the aid of 
dung heat, by washing, &c. A striking proof of this I have witnessed in a stock 
of plants under the superintendence of Mr. Pullar, gardener to Golds- 
mid, Esq., Champion Hill, Camberwell. I have often seen plants bad enough, 
but those which Mr. Pullar received charge of were decidedly the worst I ever 
saw : and yet, from that dirty stock, in the space of two years he has obtained 
as beautiful a collection as one could ever wish to see. Perhaps you could 
induce Mr. Pullar to give a detailed account of his system of treatment. lam 
fullv convinced, along with Agronomes's Nephew, that the bashfulness and 
timidity of gardeners operate as a means of causing much useful information 
to be lost to the profession at large. — Id, 

Destroying the White Scale on the Pine-^pplCyS^c, (Vol. XI. p. 604.) — As 
in J. B. W.'s reply to m^ strictures on his paper on destroying the white 
scale it appears tnat he still continues sceptical, the subject at issue resolves 
itself into the following question: — Can the white scale which infests the pine 
plant be destroyed wiuiout previous removal of the plant, or can it not ? I 
unhesitatingly affirm it can : J. B. W. asserts it cannot. In this conflict of 
opinion, it remains for evidence to be adduced on both sides, and for that evi- 
dence to be published, in order that the public may draw their own conclusion. 
As J. B. W. questions my veracity, I shall not add any more to what I before 
advanced (Vol. XL p. 433^, but merelycontent myself with transcribing a few 
lines from a letter which I received from an esteemed friend and a first-rate 
practical gardenerj now residing in the county of Bedford, to whom, by the 



^ieries and Amnoers. 16 ( 

way, I am indebted for a knowledge of the recipe before reeonmiended. It is 
this: — " In answer to your question respecting my pines, I am happy to inform 
you, that all my succession plants are now quite clean, and are erowins as well 
as I could wish them. In destroying the insects, I was obliged (from the 
want of pit room) to deviate a little from what was my practice when you 
were with me» inasmuch as I was obliged to attempt their destruction in the 
pine-stove ; and in that I have succeeded as well as I could wish. The follow** 
mg was the plan taken. I syringed the plants three times a week with soap- 
water heated as usual. I kept the axils of the leaves filled, and the front path 
of the stove flooded with soap-water ; and I kept the house as warm as I could 
consistently with the proper management of the vine. This treatment was 
continued for upwards of a month ; and I now believe there is not a living 
insect on any of the plants." I shall not add any thing to this corroborative 
statement, further than to say, that the plants, when I saw them in August 
last, bore as extensive marks of the insect as I ever saw: in fact, the leaves re- 
sembled those of ijucu^a jap6nica, so far as regards spots, more than pine leaves. 
I am sorry I have not the leave of my friend to make his name public ; I, how- 
ever, for the satisfaction of yourself, give his address, and you can inquire 
whether my statements are correct. With reference to J. B. W. knowing an 
instance of more than one published remedy failing, I do not doubt it; neither do 
I question the correctness of his statement, of four different gardeners in succes- 
sion, for.forty years, vsdnly endeavouring to extirpate this insect: but these fail- 
ures, probably, were not the fault of the recipes, but arose from some error in the 
application of them ; or, if they were bad, J. B. W. must not thence infer that all 
recipes are the same. I know an instance myself of a gardener, in one of the 
midland counties, who has failed for upwards of twenty years in his attempts 
to extirpate this insect ; and to a question that was put to hun by an acquaint- 
ance of mine, he answered, that he had ^rown as good pines as his neighbours 
with dirty plants, and he did not think it worth his while to trouble himself 
any more about cleaning them ; and, perhaps, added he, '* some other person 
will get them by and by, and then he can clean them." 

As respects the rather invidious thrust which J. B. W. makes at m^ having 
sojourned in a country '* prolific in the white scale," however sarcastic it may 
appear in the eyes of its author, it is, perhaps, beneath notice. I may, how- 
ever, just observe, that the fortunes of all men are not alike. Some young 
men, in acquiring a knowledge of their profession, have to plod as journeymen 
for many years, and in that time may pass through six, eight, or even more 
gardens, in all of which they may possibly see more or less of the white scale; 
while others, more fortunate, after having served their apprenticeship (or even 
before that is expired), may, through the patronage of some influential friend, 
be recommended to a nursery, or to horticultural or botanical gardens, and^ 
after remaining there for a short time, then, as if by magic, be wafted across 
the country into a master's situation. 

In taking leave of J. B. W., I wish it to be understood, that I am actuated 
by no personal motives in continuing the discussion. I aqa as open to con- 
viction, and as anxious for the truth, and nothing but the tnith, to be stated, 
as he possibly can be. I do not, however, fancy fighting with a shadow. 
I shall, therefore, expect J. B. W., in his next letter, to come from behind the 
pale of an anonymous signature, and, fully and fairly before the public, to give 
his name and address, and then I will do the same, and, at the same time, in- 
form him of other recipes thai will destroy tJte scale ; but, should he not think 
proper to do this, here my labour on this subject will cease, and I shall remain 
L, 0,L. C/iistuick Gardens, Nov, 2. 1835. 



Art. hi. Queries and Anstvers. 

The inherent Power of Soils to convert Foreign Substances into their own 
Nature, — * I do not recollect readmg in youi^ Magazine any thing upon the 



I6i2 Queries and Answers, 

inhorent power there la in foils in converting foreign subfrtaBces into their 
own nature. It la a sufcject of some importance ; and a paper upon it by one 
of your philosophical corresfiondents would, I think, prove nseral to many of 
the readers of your Magazine. Has the subject been treated upon by M. 
de Candolle, or any other person of deep research ? If so, an extract might 
suffice. I have long been convinced, from experience, that this is not merely 
an imaginary theory, and, accordingly, gave my advice some time since as to 
the mode a friend of mine mi^ht take, in making a peach border, to prevent it ; 
and it is singular that, almost unmediatdy afterwards, there was a paragraph in 
one of the daily prints in confirmation of my opinion on the subject. In 
treating upon it, I should propose the question as to which of the natural soils 
has the greatest inherent power of conversion ; viz. whether that of the cal- 
careous, argillaceous, siUceous, &c., and to what extent either of them has this 
property ; to be stated, as far as experience has gone, by way of proof. A few 
hints, also, would be useful upon the kinds of manure, as well as of other 
ingredients, which might prove the most useful to counteract, as far as may be, 
the effect of this inherent power in the different kinds of soil that the horti- 
culturist has to compete with. — T, Rutger. Portland Place^ 1835. 

Dettruction of the Tkrips. — Could any of your numerous readers supply me 
with anything approachmg to a safe and effbctual remedy for that destructive 
jumping insect the thrips ? 1 have been terribly annoyed with whole shoals 
of them this last summer ; and, as yet, I have found out no remedy. Tobacco 
smoke will destrov the green fly, and plenty of syringing, or a moist atmosphere, 
will chase away the red spider ; but neither of these methods have much influ- 
ence upon the hardier constitution of the thrips. I once gave some plants such 
a fumigation with tobacco, mixed with a little sulphur, that in the morning 
there was not one of them possessed of a green leaf; and yet, luxuriating in 
the general wreck, the thrips with which they were infested appeared gay and 
sprightly as ever. What I have found best for their ravages, was syringing the 
plants with soap-water, and keeping them growing in an atmosphere saturated 
with moisture, and of a high temperature. I hope this will meet the eye of some 
experimentalist. — R. JFhh, Hi/de Park Corner^ November 7. 1835. 

Dettruction of Insects, — Weston, writing about the middle of the last cen- 
tury, says, *' If any insects attack the trees, immediately apply quicksilver, 
by the method directed in the Mtiseum Rusticum, of boring a hole with a 
smooth awl, in two or three of the branches, but sloping so as not to touch 
the pith, and about an inch deep ; fill it almost full with quicksilver, and then 
stop it with a bit of wax. I have tried it on thirty cherry trees ; and the 
insects disappeared in three days. It were proper, also, to apply the fumi- 
gating bellows with tobacco." (Weston's TYacts on Agriculture and Gardening, 
p. 28.) Have any of your readers proved the effect of mercury in this way ? 
This ought to be done, as the statement has lately been running tlie round of 
the newspapers as a new thing. -— Jb^n Brovm, Kent, Fehnuiry, 1835. 

A Machine for discharging Bullets has been invented by Mr. Toplis, of the 
Museum of National Manufactures, Leicester Square, London. It can be re- 
moved into any situation where horses or men can go, and can be made at 
will to pour out, for any desired time, a continued stream of bullets, which can 
be directed with the same facility as a stream of water from a fire-engine. If 
so, might not such a machine be so modified as to distribute soil over the sur- 
face of a bog, powdered manure over a field, or water or liquid manure over 
sown crops or grass lands ? — <7. JD. S, Birmingham, November, 1834. 

. Serpentine Garden Walls, (Vol. XI. p. 554'.) — ^" The wall that surrounds the 
garden is of stone, lined inside with bnck : it is wavy, or serpentine ; but Mr. 
Bane says it is not so pood as a straight wall, as it causes currents of air." 
Perhaps the relater of this singular fact, or he who observed it, will favour us 
with some explanation of this remark. Having hitherto held that irregular or 
uneven surfaces impeded, diverted, or considerably lessened the force of air 
when impelled by natural causes, I was surprised to hear, not only that this 
law did not apply to serpentine walls, but that they acted in a contrary manner. 



London HorticuUtiral Socieiy and Garden. 163 

This appears a singular phenomenon, and, to me at least, a yery interesting one ; 
I should, therefore, much like to hear more on the subject. — B, Glen&mmg. 
Bictoh, November 12. 1835. 

Smoke Siains on Flues, — D. R., of Alton Towers, complains of smoke stains 
on his sandstone flues. May I ask him if his flues are heated by Witty's pa^ 
tent furnace ? If so, I would recommend him to substitute another mode of 
heating as soon as possible, as I find that, when these furnaces are used with me, 
my brick flues are not only horribly discoloured, but the houses smell so un«* 
pleasantly, as to be disagreeble to be in. I fear that, to get rid of this evil, 
D. R. will have to build new flues, as well as a new furnace. Most flues, when 
the soot is allowed to remtun long in them, and to become very damp, are liable 
to the same unpleasant efiect. I fear that no chemical preparation consistent 
with a due regard to economy, or the safety of the flue, will k e out the 
stains. — Ye ken who, London^ December^ 1835. 

Bemoving SArubsy ^c, from a Crorden, — At the last York assizes, an action 
was brought against a party for removing shrubs, &c. from a garden he had 
recently occupied ; and a verdict, under the judge's direction, was given 
against him. The judge laid it down as law, in the nineteenth century, that 
shrubs, when once planted, *' became part of the freehold ; and, therefore, 
could not be removed." Would you admit the discussion of this point, not 
legally, but morally, into your Magaadne ? It is, in the present state of 
the country, where there exist so many tooandes, during which immense 
improvements are made in gardens, a very important one. I den^ that 
this is law, because I deny that the trees are part of the freehold; for, if they 
are, then are carrots, thistles, and, much more, dock^ also part of the freehold, 
and ought not to be removed. But, if it is law, it is fit that all parties knew 
it, that, if dissatisfied, they may set about getting it altered, — < T, W. Banki^ 
near Bamslev, 

[Yes ; and we regret that this query has, with many others, been so long at 
theprinter'sy that we fear our correspondent will think we have forgotten it.— 
Cond,] 



Art. IV, The London Horticultural Society and Garden. 

February 2. 1836. — Bead, A communication on the cultivation of alstroe- 
merias, by Mr. William Scott, gardener to C. Barclay, Esq., M.P. 

Exhibied, Asp^ia epidendroides, a newly ascertained species of orchideous 

Slant, from Mr. Knight, Exotic Nursery, Chelsea. Oncidium CeboUeti, from 
Ir. Low, Clapton. Corrae^a Mflneri, worn Mr. Glenny. iSblsinum sp., from 
Demerara, from J. Batemann, Esq. The following varieties of Camellia 
jap6nica, from J. Allnutt, Esq, : — old double white, bufl; various-flowered, 
WelMnk j, imbricata, ranunculifldra, althaesflora, Allnutta alba, and another 
one. A collection of flowers from the Hon. W. H. F. Strangways. Fruit 
of the cockle pippin apple, from H. Hollist, Esq. 

From the Garden of the Society, Flowers,^ Gkny a elliptica, Chimondn- 
thus fragrans, and f. grandiflorus ; Echev^ria gibbifldra, and the following va- 
rieties of Camellia japonica : «nemonefl6ra alba, althaeaefldra, various-flowered, 
varie^ia pBna. Frmt, — Pears : Easter bergamot, from a wall ; Dowler'a 
seedhng, from a standard tree. Apples : russet-coated nonpareil, Hubbard's 
pearmain, Braddick's nonpareil, golden russet nonpareil, Wareham's russet, 
St. Julien, court pendu plat, winter queening, tulip, true old golden pippin, 
male carle. This exceedingly delicate and beautiful apple, in Finale^ near 
Genoa, is only here a vapid, pale, and a very poor-flavoured apple : such is 
the effect of climate I 

Articles for ZHttribution. Cuttings of kinds of cherries : late duke : and bigar- 
reau Napoleon. Kinds of pears : monarch, and beurr6 Bosc. The late duke 



164 Obituary. 

cherry is a fine, large, late, and very abundant bearing sort, with watery flesh : 
the fruit may be had as late as the middle of August, or, netted on a wall, 
even later. The bigarrcau Napoleon cherry is allowed to be the largest of the 
bigarreau tribe : it is a very fertile bearer. The monarch pear is a very hardy 
sort, seemingly as hardy as the hawthorn : the tree has a wild and thorny 
appearance, but the fruit is excellent. The beurre Bosc pear is as large as the 
Marie Louise, and in flavour excels it : it ripens rather later than that sort. 
Seeds of Pinus nigricans. 

Read, A communication on making a selection of kinds of apples for 
cultivation ; by Sir G. S. Mackenzie, Bart. The Meteorological Journal for 
1835, kept at the Societ^s Garden. 

Exhibited. Apples of'^the kinds : Hunt's royal nonpareil. Hunt's Duke of 
Gloucester, and Newtown pippin, from Thomas Hunt, Esq. Grapes of the 
kind Escholata sup^rba, from G. H. Ward, Esq. Specimens of metallic wire 
for gardens ; also a new sort of wall-nail for the above, from Mr. W. A. Row- 
land, 20. Prince's Street, Chester. A miscellaneous collection of flowers, 
from the Hon. T. H. F. Strangways. StreHtzia sp., Crinum am&bile, and three 
kinds of Cyclamen, from Mrs. Msuryat. E^pacris variabilis and campanulata, 
and the Cam^Ura jap6nica var. the eclipse, from Mrs. Lawrence. 

From the Society*^ Garden. Chimonanthus fr^rans, and f. grandiflorus; 
JTeli^borus odorus, Crinum amdbile, and the following varieties of Camellia 
jap6nica: anemoneflora dlba, aucubts^olisi, various-flowered, variegata plena, 
althaeaeflbra, and Wiltoni. Apples of the kinds Boston russet, tsiile ; white 
Easter, kitchen ; French crab, kitchen ; green apple : this has considerable re- 
semblance to the preceding, but is different, anci has less acidity. Gros Bohn, 
kitchen ; Rhode Island greening, table, kitchen ; northern reinette'; St. Julien, 
table ; Norfolk beaufin ; grey queening ; russet nonpareil, table. Pears^of the 
kinds Easter bergamot, poire d'Austrassie, and la fortunee de Parmentier. 
The last is one of more than a hundred new sorts of pears, which a favourable 
season would render it possible to judge of the merits of most of. This sort 
was first noticed in the Revue Horticole, in Le Bon Jardmier, 1829, ** as 
having a buttery, melting, delicious flesh, and as keeping until July." It is a 
great bearer, and may, perhaps, be found, in a different season, to possess 
merit nearer to that originally announced of it. There is a pear, called the 
merveille d'hiver, which will, perhaps, be found to be the sama 

Cuttings for Distribution^ of the Downton cherry, reine Claude, violette plum, 
nelis d'luver pear, and Comte de Lamy pear. The Downton cherry is an 
excellent bearer as a standard, and attains a good size as such. The Comte 
de Lamy pear is hardy, and, as a standard autumn pear, is to be recommended 
for its exceedingly rich sugary quality. The fruit of the nelis d'hiver is a hand- 
some middle-sized pear, not so desirable, on acount of this last quality, to the 
general fruit-grower ; hut, in private collections, it ought always to be included, 
as it is richer than even most of the new kinds. 



Art. V. Obituary, 

Died, on October 16. 1835, at Liverpool, in the 30th year of his age, Mr, 
Joseph Picken, of the firm of Caldwell and Picken, Nursery and Seedsmen, 
Knutsford, Cheshire ; a good man, of business habits, and a scientific practical 
botanist. — J. G, Greenbank, near Liverpool, January 26. 1836. 

Died lately, at Paris, in the 82d year of his age, M, JDeleuze, Honorary Librae 
rian at the Garden of Plants. He was well known in the learned world as 
the translator of Darwin's Loves of the Plants and Thomson's Seasons, as well 
as for some original works ; and he was the author of a History of the Intro- 
duction of Ornamental Plants into European Gardens, published in the Annates 
du MusSe^ from which we have derived some interesting facts, noticed in the 
historical part of our Encycloptsdias of Gardening, and of Arboricidture. 



THE 

GARDENER'S MAGAZINE, 

APRIL, 1836. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS- 



A AT. I. Some Account of the Gardens, and State qf Gardenings in the 

North Riding of Yorkshire. By J. B. W. 

I ENTIRELY agree with your highly inteHigent correspondent^ 
Scientiaeet Justitise Amator (VoLX. p. 365.)} that much valuable 
information might be acquired by gardeners, if they were occa- 
sionally to inspect the gentlemen's rardens in their neighbour- 
hood. Few gardens are so poor tnat they will not repay the 
trouble of a visit, by supplying some useful hint, or improved 
practice, to an acute observef ; or making him acquainted with a 
new or superior variety of fruit, flower, or vegetable ; or bringing 
under his notice one or other of the remarkable variations so 
often produced on plants by the difference of soil and situation ; 
or, what is, perhaps, of equal importance to a gardener of the 
present day, by exhibiting something either advisable to follow^ 
or necessary to avoid, in the higher department of his art, land- 
scape-gardening. 

The gardener who is confined within his own walls, whether 
by the illiberality of his employer or his own apathy, generally 
overrates his own horticultural skill ; and, instead of *' growing 
wiser as he grows older," becomes bigoted in his erroneous no- 
tions, and prejudiced against any deviation from the beaten track 
which he has so long followed. It is to freedom of intercourse 
that we are chiefly indebted for the vast extetision of knowledge 
in the last century ; compared with which, its most rapid pro- 
gress in former ages appears only a snail's pace. In gardening, 
especially, the modem improvements must, in a great measure, 
be attributed to this cause, acting through the media of horti- 
cultural societies and books. But, in the practical part of the 
art, seeing, and reflecting upon what we see, are better than read- 
ing, and reflecting upon what we read ; therefore, so far as it can 
be done without neglect of duty, a gardener ought to visit, with 
a view of acquiring knowledge, all the gardens accessible to him. 

Vol. XII. — No. 73. o 



1 66 Gardens^ and State of Gardenitig, 

I do not wish| however, to undervalue the advantages of read* 
ing; without it, a gardener must necessarily remain far in the 
reiM^ of the spirit of the age; and, in the choice of subjects, it 
is my opinion, that descriptions of, and critical remarks upon, 
places, such as those occasionally given in this Magazine, are 
quite as instructive to a learner, as a detailed method of culti- 
vating a particular kind of flower or vegetable. I have derived 
much gratification and instruction from these descriptions ; and, 
believing that they are alike interesting to other readers, I pur- 
pose giving^ as opportunity permits, short notices of the gentle- 
men's residences in my immediate vicinity. But these notices 
will be almost exclusively confined to the kitchen and flower 
gardens ; for I do not consider myself competent to discuss the 
more elevated subject of architecture, or to point out, except in 
a very casual manner, the beauties and defects in the laying out 
of the grounds. 

Perhaps a general view of the leading features of the sur- 
rounding district may not be unacceptable, before entering upon 
the subject of its gardens. 

The place where I reside (in the North Riding of Yorkshire) 
is within a few miles pf extensive tracts of hilly and barren 
ground, called the Moors and, accordinglv) the temperature 
is materially affected, in early spring, by the proximity of the 
high and bleak lands which bound us on the north and east. 
Richmond (a most picturesque town on the banks of tlie river 
Swale, in the neighbourhood of which are beautiful and very 
extensive views) stands on the very edge of the Moors; and, 
although only eight miles north-west of us, is described by a 
resident as being *^ a great coat colder in winter.'' It has been 
truly remarked, that tourists run from one end of the Continent 
to the other in search of beauties, which seldom surpass, and^ 
in many cases, do not equal, those contained in our own island. 
The taste of the present day is too highly refined for the enjoy- 
ment of homely beauties; but, should it ever again become 
fashionable for British gentry to admire British scenery, Rich- 
mond and its environs will not be overlooked. 

When viewed from a rising ground, the aspect of the country 
is fertile^ because it is well wooded ; yet it contains a consider- 
able extent of unproductive land, which, at the present low prices 
of produce, barely pays the expenses of labour, seed^ and taxes. 
This poor land is distinguished here by the appellation of clay 
land; which term, however, includes soils of very difierent tex- 
tures and qualities, varying from clay so stiff* that it is scarcely 
permeable to water, to a comparatively fertile strong loam. 
Gravel land is a light sandy loam, upon a substratum of sandy 
gravely : this land, when plentifully supplied with moisture, is 
exceedingly productive, and it suffers in a corresponding degree 



in the North Riding of Yorkshire, 167 

fT'om drought. The ash is the priDcipal forest tree of the dis-i 
trict, except in plantations, and it shows a striking difference in 
growth in the clay and gravel lands : in the former it generally 
has a stunted starved look, while in the latter it attains a consi- 
derable size. The oak grows best in the deeper soils ; but we 
eannot boast of many fine specimens. The wych elm is much 
more common than any of the other species ; it, however, does 
not thrive remarkably well. Wood, as an article of fuel, is of 
very little value here, in consequence of the low price of coals ; 
and, from the same cause, forcing is practised to a greater extent 
here than in the south, few gentlemen's gardens, however small^ 
being without one or two hot-houses. 

The North Riding of Yorkshire abounds in gentlemen's seats, 
to many of which first-rate gardens are attached: my visits, 
however, have necessarily been restricted to places within a few 
miles of me; and of these I may first notice Brough, the residence 
of William Wright Lawson, Esq. 

According to my judgment, the house is worthy of the situ-» 
ation, and the situation of the house ; one being badly chosen, 
and the other as badly designed. Neither is there any redeeming 
quality in the pleasure-grounds, which are limited in extent, and 
contain nothing worthy of remark. The flower-garden is merely 
a long narrow strip on the south side of the kitchen-garden, con-, 
tiguous to the boundary wall of the latter. An old-&shioned 
conservatory, and two peach-houses, stand against this wall, the 
remaining part of which is covered by fruit trees. If a good 
flower-garden should ever be formed at this place, that now ex- 
isting would be useful as a reserve-garden ; or it is well suited 
for the cultivation of florists' flowers. 

The kitchen-garden is in form a parallelogram, the longest 
direction of which is from east to west, and it slopes gently fi*om 
both those points to the middle. A broad gravel walk having 
a circular basin of water in the centre, and a flower-border 
with dwarf apple trees on each side, divide the garden into two 
equal parts. Another main walk runs parallel to the walls quite 
round the garden, having a border 10 ft. or 12 ft. wide between 
it ai\d the wall. The inner side of this walk is bordered with a 
row of dwarf apple trees, pruned and trained like those in the 
Horticultural Society's Garden ; on the north side of the garden, 
however, where the succession pine-stoves are placed, the walk 
is bordered on the inside with flowers, and a substantial railing 
for espaliers. The two great divisions of the garden are again 
variously subdivided by alleys, and by rows of gooseberry and 
currant trees, with here and there a young standard apple or 
pear tr^e. 

At each end of the garden, outside the walls, is a slip : that on 
the west is under grass, and planted with different sorts of filbert 

o 2 



Itift Gardening in Yorkshire* 

and nut trees : that on the east is now used partly as a nursery, 
and partly for growing potatoes ; but it is intended to plant there 
the riiubarb and sea«kale for forcing, that no unsightly litter might 
disfigure the principal garden. The melon-groundf which also 
contains the fruiting pine-stove, is on the north side of the gar- 
den, close to the stable-yard, and to another yard for the reception 
of dung, leaves, and rubbish. 

I have been somewhat difiuse in . describing this garden, be- 
cause I consider that its form and general arrangements are^ 
with a few exceptions, excellently adapted to convenience of 
working, and well deserving of imitation where practicable. As 
to management and cleanliness, I have not seen any kitchen- 
garden equal to that at Brough : scarcely a weed can be found at 
any time ; and the crops, so far as they depend upon the skill 
and industry of the gardener (Mr. Burrow), are invariably good. 
Leaves are used in the pineries as a substitute for bark, and with 
the best results. As a fermenting material, leaves are much 
superior to bark, not being liable to those almost ungovernable 
extremes to which bark is subject. Oak leaves are best, because 
they resist decomposition longer, perhaps, than any others; 
but, as oak leaves can seldom oe procured alone^ a mixture of 
sorts in which they predominate may be used. Leaves require 
no sweating, or other preparation ; they may be gathered and 
conveyed directly to the pits : care should be taken, however, 
that Uie pit be well drained, and that the leaves are not very 
wet, or they will soon decay. They should also be trodden 
firmly and regularly, to prevent uneven settling. Eight or ten 
inches of bark, according to the depth of the pine-pots, should 
be spread over the top, which will prevent the too rapid escape 
of heat from the leaves, and likewise be much better to plunge 
the pots into. A bed thus formed will retain a nearly uniform 
temperature for months. 

. The plan upon Which the peach-houses are constructed is 
superior, in regard to economy of space, to any of those described 
in the Encyclopedia of QardeniTigf or, so &r as I know, in any 
other work on horticulture. The following description and di- 
mensions are taken from a peachrhouse on the same general plan 
as those at Brough, but differing in several details. Lengthy 
32 fi.; width, 16 ft. ; height at the back, 12fl.; height at the 
front, 4^ ft. 6 in. The upright front sashes are hung by hinges 
to the upper wall-plate, and open outwards at the bottom for the 
purpose of admitting air. Every alternate upper light is likewise 
movable in the usual way. The flue enters the house at one 
end, beneath the back walk, and passes along the front and 
the other end, 1 ft. from the glass, returning along the house, 
3 fl. 6 in. from the back wall, to the place where it entered ; it 
then dips again under the walk, and enters the back wall. The 



On studying (he Natural System. 169 

flue thus encloses a pit 2? ft. long, and 8 ft* 6 in. wide, in which 
the trees are planted. Between the back flue and the back wall 
there is another border, in which standard trees are planted : 
these are trained to a trellis against the back wall. The trellis 
to which the other trees are trained is nearly horizontal ; and it 
extends over the whole of the house, except Sft. of the back 
border (which, being covered by a framing of boards, serves for 
a walk), and that part of tlie flue which passes along the front of 
the house. This trellis is S ft. 6 in. high at the back, and it 
declines to 2 ft. 6 in. in front. 

A vine, pruned on the spur system, is trained beneath each 
rafter ; the shoots are confined within a breadth of 18 in. or 20 in;; 
consequently, the obstruction of light is not so great as to be very 
detrimental to the peach trees. A great extent of surface is thus 
obtained for the training of peach trees, with the advantage of 
having a crop of grapes without any additionid expense. Such 
houses, however, are ill adapted ior very early forcing : when 
peaches are required earlier than the end of July, one of the 
houses described in the Encyclopedia of Gardening will be much 
preferable. Another disadvantage is, that, about the time the 
grapes are setting, and, consequently, require a close warm atmo- 
sphere, the peacnes will be about stoning, when a free circulation 
of air is indispensable to them ; but this difficulty might be in a^ 
great measure overcome by care and attention. It should never 
be attempted to have very late grapes in a house of this sort. 

An orange apricot tree, growing against a building in the 
kitchen-garden, deserves to be mentioned on account of its> 
great size. Its bi'anches cover a space of 42 ft. by 18ft.; and» 
being still full of, vigour, it most likely will extend many feet 
further. 

A large chapel is now in the course of erection near the man* 
sion, under the direction of Bonomi. 

North Riding, Yorkshire^ Dec* I. 1835. 



Art. II. On the Necessity of young Gardeners studying the Natural 
System of Botany ^ and Vegetable Physiology, By A Young Gar- 

BENER. 

Though I perfectly agree with the opinion you have so often 
expressed, as to the utility of gardeners making themselves ac- 
quainted with all the different arts and sciences, yet I think you 
will allow that the first they should study should be those im- 
mediately connected with their own profession, and that botany 
is at least one of the most important, if not of the very greatest 
importance, of these. 

o 3 



1 70 On studying the Natural System. 

Notwithstanding this, it is a fact, that many young gardeners, 
who have abundance of time on their hands, rest contented with 
a partial knowledge of the artificial system of Linnaeus ; while 
the natural arrangement of Jussieu is almost, if not entirely, 
unknown to them. I do not wish to undervalue the Linnaean 
system, nor have I any desire to take from it one of those many 
laurels it has so justly won ; but it must be acknowledged, that, 
by following it, we may acquire the names of a great number of 
plants, and at the same time be entire strangers to their proper- 
ties. A notion that there is so much difficulty connected with a 
natural arrangement of plants, appears to deter many from giving 
tiie subject anything like due consideration* That the classi- 
fication of Linnaeus is more simple, and much easier understood, 
than the natural orders, no one will deny ; but the latter are by 
no means so difficult as to deter any from becoming acquainted 
with them. I think, however, that the student, before he attempts 
the study of the natural arrangement of plants, ought, if possible, 
to make himself acquainted with vegetable physiology, as he 
would then have a knowledge of the fundamental principles on 
which such arrangements are founded. 

Without such knowledge, many^ on the very outset, being puz- 
zled with such words as Vasculares and Cellulares, or acotyle- 
donous, monocotyledonous, and dicotyledonous, give up the 
study, and can never afterwards be induced to return to it. To 
remove some of the difficulties which discourage young botanists 
at the commencement of their study, is certainly an object worthy 
of some attention ; for, if it were not for the first obstacles, they 
would prosecute the study with pleasure ; and if you, or any of 
your correspondents, would introduce the subject in the form of a 
few plain remarks in your Magazine, from its wide circulation, and 
the number of young gardeners who peruse it, I have no doubt 
it would be more useful than all the expensive volumes which 
have been written on the subject The most superficial observer 
must notice the striking resemblance which certain plants bear 
to others of a different kind ; and that they have a tendency to 
unite and form groups, or families ; but no such grouping can be 
considered as truly natural, any farther than the true species of a 
genus. Nature has not chosen to mark so distinctly the different 
classes or orders of her works. In the i^lices we see a connecting 
link between the Acotyl6dones and Monocotyl^dones ; and these, 
affain, are gradually united by many other genera to the Dicoty- 
ledones. Even in the different orders of these divisions we 
behold a union pervading the whole, like the different counties 
in a kingdom: they are not only united by one particular part, 
but all around. In short, from the majestic tree of the forest, 
down to the humble moss or lichen which grows updn its sur- 
face ; throughout the whole of nature, not only in the vegetable. 



New Method ofgiafthig Vines. 1 7 1 

but in the animal kingdom, from the dead and inorsanised sub- 
stance, to the most perfect of beings ; we see a continued chain, 
which reaches from the earth to the skies : the only place where 
we can with certainty draw a line of division, is between the 
creature and his great Creator. 
Mid'Lothiaih March 6. 18S5. 

In Dr. Lindley's Ijadie^ Botantf^ and Mr. Main's Vegetable 
Physiology^ and, when these have been thoroughly mastered, in 
Lindley's Introducti&ii and Key^ our correspondent will find 
every thing which he requires. To treat of the natural system 
of botany at length, in the Gardener's Magazine^ would occupy 
far too much space; and, given, as it must necessarily be, in 
detached portions through many Numbers, would only be of 
real use afler the whole was finished ; by which time, probably, 
the " Young Gardener '* would be engaged to fill a place, 
and no longer possessed of sufficient leisure to be able to 
devote that degree of attention to the subject which it requires. 
— Cond* 



Art. III. A new Method ofgraflingy or rather buddings Vines, 

By Mr. George M*Leish. 

I BEG to submit to your readers a method of grafting, or rather 

of budding, vines, which I was led to adopt merely from my 

own ideas of vegetable physiology, and which, I feel confident, 

will always be attended with success. I am not aware that the 

method is at all known; at least, I have never heard of it, and to 

me, at least, it is quite original. The well-known method of de- 

tatched grafting I bad tried repeatedly, but without success ; and, 

in endeavouring to trace the cause of this failure, I remembered 

having seen two new vine-houses, which, under the management 

of several most distinguished gardeners, had for a series of years 

been partially accelerated, for the important purpose of furnishing 

abundance or bearing wood; and such was the failure in both these 

instances, that, as a last resource, the vines in one of the houses 

were cut down to the parapet every second year. In this place, 

the gardener was changed five times in as many years; but, 

when the fifth made his entree^ he was accompanied by a most 

auspicious companion, success. In the other place, the gardeners 

were not more successful : the buds broke so irregularly, that 

only two, or at most three, eyes at the top of the vines appeared 

with sufficient strer^h to render their retention tolerable ; while 

the rest of the shoo|s downwards were as bare as a barber's pole 

In both the instances alluded to, I readily perceived that there 

was a great want of humidity in the atmosphere, and, also, that 

o 4 



172 



New Method of grafting Pliies. 



there was a very rich deep border. Although^ in ray endeavours 
to graft with detached scions^ I had taken care to keep up a very 
damp atmosphere, still my attempts proved abortive : to a gar- 
dener who knows that a single bud, when immersed an inch in 
any tolerable soil, will not fail, under ordinary care, to become 
a plant ; or, that a cutting of young wood, when in full leaf, 
put in a heap of fermentuig tan, and shaded, will also root freely; 
the failure of detached scions, even when grafted in a masterly 
manner, will certainly appear paradoxical. Knowing that the 
same kind of sap which, when put in motion, causes the emission 
of roots in the cutting, produces also the union between the 
stock and scion in patting, I was led to put tlie question to my- 
self, whether a sinme bud, inserted in the stock, and enveloped 
with any light mould that may keep moderately moist, would not 
effect the desired union? To enable myself to give a decisive 
answer to this question, I took a small black Hamburgh vine, 
which had grown for a year or two in a pot, the stem of which 
did not exceed ^^ of an inch in diameter, from which I ex- 
cised two pieces of the extent of 
half their diameters (see J%. 15.). 
I then took two shoots from vines 

f)wing out of doors, from which 
selected the buds (a and b) ; 
first cutting quite across the 
shoots, and afterwards slipping 
them longitudinally, reserving 
nearly all the pith to the part 
containing the bud; except the 
two extremities, which I cutaway 
till the bark of the stock and 
scion came nicely in contact* 
I then bandaged them tightly 
together in the usual manner, 
only leaving the buds uncovered 
by the ligature. I next fitted a 
small flower-pot (size No. 60.) 
round the grafts, which I filled 
with the mould of an old cu- 
cumber bed : this was done about the beginning of Novem- 
ber, and about a month afterwards the vine was plunged in 
a mild heat The buds of the vine soon broke; and, in about 
three weeks afterwards, the buds from the scions were seen 
emerging from the mould in the pots. The bud a is now about 
4 in. above the mould ; and the other, as might be expected 
about half that distance. I may mention that I have sufiered 
strong shoots to issue from the stock above the scions; so that, if 




Use of Slate for horticukural Purposes. 1 73 

the scions had been suffered to draw the nourishment famished 
by the stock, they would probably have extended upwards of 
I ft. in length. Should you think the above hints worth your 
notice, I have no doubt they may prove acceptable to some of 
your readers ; and, if so, they are voluntarily, though hastily, 
tendered. 

Ville parmi les ColUnes^ Jan. 21. 1836. 



Art. IV. On the Use of Slate for horticultural Purposes, 

ByW. B. 

The introduction of slate for horticultural uses well deserves 
the encouragement it meets with. It can, indeed, scarcely be 
too highly recommended, from its almost imperishable nature, 
the facility afforded by the sawing machinery of cutting it into 
plates suitable for nearly all the various purposes to which wood 
is generally applied, and its cheapness, arising from the increased 
quantity now sent into the market, through the enlargement of the 
quarries which has taken place since the repeal of the duty. 

The slate tubs for orangeries, conservatories, and the decora^ 
tion of lawns and walks, lately exhibited at the gardens of the 
London Horticultural Society at Chiswick, by Messrs. North 
and Co. of Palace New Road, Lambeth, (the introducers and 
manufacturers of the slate billiard tables,) led me to examine 
into their merits. The appearance of their shape and colour, 
when seen upon a lawn, or amongst foliage, is very pleasing and 
ornamental ; and a decided improvement has been made in their 
form, each side being now made to take ofi^ instead of to slide 
up, which is much less likely to injure the fibrils of- the roots. 
These slate tubs have been seen and approved of by Mr. Aiton 
and Mr. Munro ; and they can now be sold much cheaper than 
when they were exhibited last summer at Chiswick; Messrs. 
North and Co. having discovered, since that period, a much 
quicker method of manufacturing them. One of the first em- 
ployers of slate for horticultural purposes, since the repeal of the 
duty, was William Harrison, Esq., F.R.S., H.S., &c., who has 
fitted up his conservatory at Cheshunt with it : the pavement, 
shelves, and stages are all of slate, and have a very neat and 
elegant appearance. Mr. Low of Clapton, and Messi*s Rol- 
lison of Tooting, have also used it in their houses, and much 
approve of it. 

A terrace, with steps, coping, and balconies, has been made of 
slate, under the direction of Lady Farnborough, at Bromley 
Hill, which keeps perfectly free from moss or ^taii^ without any 



Design for the Grounds of a Villa. 175 

cleaning, although it i$ situated under the c^rip of trees. In 
this instance, the slate was rubbed down with coarse grit, to give 
it a porous face, and was afterwards painted of a stone colour ; 
which, when flatted (that is, the last coat of paint given, mixed 
with turpentine alone, without oil, to avoid the shining appear- 
ance of oil paint), strongly resembles stone. 

For the lining of reservoirs, fish-ponds, and canals, slate might 
be advantageously used, as, from experiments now in progress, it 
appears to answer satisfactorily; and does not exceed me cost 
of other materials in use, that are not so well adapted for such 
purposes as slate. 

The repeal of the duty on slate has caused a great increase 
of the supply afibrded ; thereby assisting the shipping interests, 
giving increased employment at the quarries, and afibrding the 
manufacturers of slate occupation, during the winter months, at 
such works as may be made within doors. 

Tables for public-houses, tea-gardens, bowling-greens, &c. ; 
and shelves in bars, kitchens, and pantries, and even book- 
shelves, might be made of slate ; more especially where the ob- 
ject is to render the building, as far as practicable, fire-proof. 

The engraving {^/ig. 1 6.) represents two orange tubs made of 
slate ; and a variety of designs, for other objects, may be seen at 
the manufactory of Messrs. North. 

LondoHy March 2. 1836. 



AttT. V. Design for laying out the Grounds of a Villa of Four 

Acres in Extent. By Mr, T. Rutger. 

The design {Jig. 17.) is for a villa and pleasure-grounds, 
comprised in about four acres of land. It consists of the house 
and its approach, with the stables and yard on the right, and on 
the left a yard to be appropriated for laundry, poultry court, &c., 
as may be required; a shrubbery-garden on the north, with a 
pond and fountain ; beyond which is the kitchen-garden, with 
slips on the north and south, and a small range of forcing-houses : 
on the left is the gardener's iiouse, and a small orchard ; and, on 
the right, the melon-ground, with a shed at the back. There is 
a walk, or road, behind the shrubbery, from the stables to the 
melon-ground, which may serve, also, as a back way from the 
garden to the house ; and an arbour or two, with garden-seats 
and vases, &c., for embellishment, may be introduced in the 
garden or pleasure-grounds, according to the taste of the person 
employed to lay it out. 

63. Portland Place, April 30. 1835. 



Design for the Grounds of-a Villa. 




Design for a Flonoer^GardefL 177 

Art. VI. A Series of Designs for laying out and ptaniingFhwer* 
Gardens^ with Remarks on each by the Conductor* Design 5« 
By A Country-bred Gardener. 

Our readers, by turning to Vol. XL p. 449., or to Vol. VII. 
p. 726. 727., will be reminded of the intention of this series of 
designs, for correcting a bad plan of a flower-garden. The 
one now before us (^.18.) was accompanied by the following 
remarks : — 

'^ Sir, Having seen your plan of a flower-garden, published in 
Vol. VII. p. 726. and 727., as an exercise for the talents of 
young gardeners in laying out grounds, I beg leave to sub- 
mit the design {Jig. 18.) for your inspection ; but I am rather 
doubtful whether it will meet your approbation, as I have seen, 
in one of your former Numbers, objections made by you as to 
dispersing the beds regularly over the surface ; though that, I 
think, depends a great deal on the taste of the gentleman or lady 
that may be going to make a garden. Towards the upper left- 
hand corner, I have introduced a narrower walk, to go in at one 
side, and round what seems to be an ornamental tree or shrub^ 
and out at the other side : this walk may be admitted, or not, as 
may be thought most agreeable. My humble opinion of the 
original is, that the walks are very well ; but the beds next the 
house, and, again, at the farther end from the house, are too 
much in a line ; some of them too close together, and too many 
of them of one shape. 

^^ A Country-bred Gardener. 
'* April 28. 1832." 

The plan of A Country-bred Gardener, we regret to say> 
has many faults, and but few beauties. As the plan has been 
in our possession four years, if the author of it has been a reader 
of the Gardener^s Magazine during that period, we have no 
doubt the faults will now appear almost as obvious to him as 
they do to us. To point them out in detail would be to repeat 
much of what we have said on former occasions : suflice it to 
say, that there is a total want of connexion in the position of the 
beds relatively to one another, and to the walks ; a total want 
of expression and character, because the beds are in no degree 
grouped ; and a want of harmony in the forms of the beds^ 
because some of them are of the most artificial, or, in other words, 
geometrical, shapes, and others of shapes which. may be called 
natural or accidental : the whole shows a want of artist-like 
feeling, and of knowledge of composition. — Cond. 



Design Jbr laying out 





and planting a Flowei-Gardett. 





i = 



W^ 



180 Flower-Garden aiid Arboretum in Front i^a Villa, 



Art. VII. A Design Jbr laying out a Piece <^ Ground in Front of 
a Villa Retidenee, as a Mower-Garden and Arboreiutn. By Mr. 
T. RirrOER. 

The accompanying plan (J^. 19.) is intended to be placed at 
the south of a villa residence, the principal front of which may 
be supposed to look to the east ; with a conservatory on the 
south of about 80 ft. in length, projecting from the building, froin 
the centre of which you enter the flower-garden, which is sepa- 




Haslic W(dlcs for Gardens. ' 181 

rated by a thick hedge, or by shrubs closely pkiDted, from the 
dirubbery or arboretum. If an arboretum, the water at the end 
of the straight walk is intended for an aquarium; if a shrub* 
bery, it may be turned into a pond. The side wings of the 
flower-garden are intended for children's gardens; or they may 
be apprcpriated for florbt's flowers^ 



Art. VIIL On a Method of making elastic Walks Jor Gardens. By 

Mr. Pbter Mackenzie. 

Many things have been invented to render the body of man 
easy and comfortable ; and, of these, the improvements which 
derive their advantages from elasticity appear to be preferred : 
the Indian-robber shoes, and the water-proof elastic hats, I think, 
are proo6 of this. The object of this paper is to carry the em- 
ployment of elasticity a little farther, and to introduce it into 
garaening, if it. is not already in use* Among the various 
methods of making walks pointed out in your Encyclopedia 
of Gardenings 1 can find none that accord exactly with those 
that I would recommend in this paper; namely, elastic walks. 
Their object is to add pleasure to the flower-garden; for in many 
.gardeds the walks are of such a nature,, that one would almost 
think they were intended to make the persons walking on them 
do penance in the temple of Flora, instead of aff()rding ease 
and pleasure while contemplating the cultivated beauties of tfie 
vegetable kingdom ; but, I believe, if the plan be adopted which 

1 shall presently recommend, the fairest flowers of creation will 
linger with delight among the ambrosial sweets of the flower- 

Sirden, and walk with as much softness and comfort as if on a 
russels carpet. 

The method I would recommend to make elastic walks is this: — 
Remove the earth 1 ft. deep; and, if found' necessary to have a 
drain, make it in the centre or side of the walk.. After the 
drain is finished, fill the bottom of the walk witht small stones 
to the depth of Sin. or 4 in.; then fill up the remaining 8 in. 
with flow-peat, or decomposed moss (Sphagnum). This kind 
of peat is light and spongy, it resists putrefaction, and remains 
longer unimpaired in its form, than any other kind of peat. 
After it IS piit into the cradle of the walk, it must be levelled 
with the spade, and trodden upon with the feet, so that no ine- 
qualities may appear on the surface : afterwards the roller should 
be brought over it. After this treatment, it will become more 
compact, and will have sunk a little: this will allow room for 

2 in« or 3 in. of fine engine ashes to be laid above it. The ashes 
that have uiidergone two burnings are the best for colour, having 
a close resemblance to gravel. After distributing the ashes 

Vol. XII. — No. 73. p 



182 FloricuUural and Botanical Notices^ 

equally over the surface of the peat with a rake, they must be 
rolled over and over, until they form a kind of cake above the 
peaty and then the walk is finished. It may be thought that 
walks of this nature will be damp, but I have always found them 
as dry as those that are made with stones and gravel; and they 
are strong enough for all the ordinary wheeling that is required 
in the flower-garden. I have no doubt that the valetudinarian 
would derive great comfort from such walks ; and if they tend 
to make the flower-garden a greater source of pleasure, I shall 
have gained my object. 
West Plean^ Jan. 1. 18S5. 



Art. IX. Floricultural and Botanical Notices on Kinds of Plants 
n&udy introduced into our Gardens^ and that have originated in thefn, 
and on Kinds of Interest previous^ extant in them ; supplementary^ 
to the latest Editions of the " Encyclopisdia of Plants^* and of 
the " Hortus Britannicus.** 

Curtis*s Botanical Magazine / in monthly numbers, each containing 
eipht plates ; Ss, 6a, coloured, 3s* plain. Edited by Dr. Hooker, 
Kmg's Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow. 

Edwards^s Botanical Register ; in monthly numbers, each containing 
eight plates; 4^. coloured, 3^. plain. Edited by Dr. Lindley, 
Professor of Botany in the London University. 

Stveet's British Flotoer- Garden ; in monthly numbers, each containing 
four plates ; 3«. coloured, 2s. Sd. plain. Edited by David Don, 
Esq., Professor of Botany in King's College, and Librarian to the 
Linnasan Society. 

Maunds Botanic Garden^ or Magazine of Hardy Flower Plants cul- 
tivated in Great Britain ; in monthly nmnbers, each containing 
four coloured figures; large paper ls,6d,, small Is, Edited by 
B.Maund, F.L.S. 

"Rosacea. 

\BSSt. RO'^A L. 19iS9 ceniilbMti L. [ISSS? LB r.m Bot mag. 1 3475 

var. ?musc58a3f«/. 8ubvar.*criBt&taHooAr. cretied-cafyxed A or 3 jiLjl Fk France 

A subvariety of the moss rose, obtained from France, and 
curious from the manner in which the moss springs in tufts from 
the edges of its sepals. In a note by Mr. Curtis, he says, ^* Its 
beauty and variety will, I hope, plead an excuse for a departure 
from the rule against figuring varieties in this work." {Bot.Mag.) 

M.i/rtdcea. 

8180. TRISTA^NIA A Br. 
tl9G47 inacroph.tUa AIL Cimn. MSS. 

Sffnonyme : Triatknia /atlrina X, Br., Hori. Brit. 19047., Bot reg. 1 18Sa 

In its native country (the sandy southern shores of Moreton 
Bay, New South Wales (S. lat. 2T SO'), Mr. Cunningham states 
that it becomes a tree 50 fl. or 60 ft. high. The plant figured 



supplemeniaty to Encyc. of Plants ai%d HorL Brii. 18S 

had been kept in a green-house for some years, and flowered 
when it was 4 ft. high. (Bot. Reg., t. 1839.) 
C<mp6sit(Sj suborder Heliinthea. 

941Si COREOTSIS rmag. t 3*74 

*2aX)la divenifblia Hook, various-leaved O or 8 Jl Br O Br Texas 1825 S co Bot. 
Sjfnotttfme : C. auricoUu var. divecsifbUa £Uiott, Carol, vol ii. p. 4S7. 

** Sent from Texas by the late Mr. Drummond, who was 
much struck with its beauty, and who gathered it not only upon 
the coast of Brazosia, but in the interior of the country round 
San Felipe. It promises to be a hardy and most desirable an- 
nual. Its nearest affinity, as a species, is, undoubtedly, with C 
amiculdia^ with which Mr. Elliott appears, though doubtfully, 
to have united it. It differs from that plant in its much smaller 
size ; thinner and usually more divided leaves, with broader and 
blunter segments ; in its much larger flowers ; and, above all, in 
the truly annual duration of the root." {Bot. Mag.j t. 3474.) 

S41& CALLIO'PSIS Behb. 

1£SQ16L tioctdria Nnt rsard. t5S8 

var. S *atrocaDgulnea Mound O or S Jl.o Dk Bd N. America 18S3 i oo llaund*i bot. 

This is a very distinct variety, and much better entitled to be 
considered a species than many varieties that are so designated. 
When we consider how different this plant is from C. tinctoi ia, as 
it was when introduced in 1823, how difierent the dark-flowered 
variety of the common nasturtium is from the species ; and also 
that white foxgloves (Digitalis purpurea var. Ilba) and white 
wood hyacinths (<Scilla non scripta var. iilba) are frequent in a 
wild state, we cannot help thinking that nine tenths of what 
are now recorded as species by botanists are, probably, nothing 
more than varieties. We shall be told, perhaps, that there is a 
wide difference between plants in a wild state, and plants in 
culture, and also between the nature of herbaceous plants, and 
that of ligneous plants; but we think we are entitled to deny 
this : the nature of all plants is essentially the same, and the 
question between an annual, a perennial, or a tree that does not 
flower, perhaps, till it has attained the age of a quarter of a cen- 
tury, as to sporting into varieties, is merely one of time. As to 
culture, the difierence, at first sight, appears greater ; and we 
admit it to be great in plants of a very limited range of latitude 
and altitude : but take a plant of a very extensive range, whether 
an herb or a tree, and we shall find it in something analogous to a 
state of culture in those localities where there is a maximum of 
favourable circumstances. We should say, for example, that 
the Qu^rcus i^obur was nearly equivalent to being in a state of 
culture in Sussex, and the Robin/a Pse (id- .Acacia in Limestone 
Valley in Virginia; and both these species to be in a comparatively 
uncultivated state, the one on the mountains in the Highlands 
of Scotland, and the other in Pennsylvania in lat 40° 20'. 
Accordingly, we find a very great difference, both in the appear- 

p 2 



18i Floricultural and Botanical Notices. 

ance of the trees, and in the quality of die timber, in these two 
habitats; and hence the varieties Q. JRobiir sessi)ifl6ra and Ro- 
bin/a Pseud*^cacia macroph^lla. In like manner, in the case of 
herbaceous plants, on the alluvial banks of rivers, many are found 
comparatively in a state of cultivation ; and, consequently, so 
luxuriant as to appear like different species. We throw out 
these ideas chiefly to direct the attention of our readers to the 
subject of species and varieties ; not that we by any means under- 
value the latter, and would not wish them kept distinct whenever 
they are truly so, as in the case before us. 

To return to this very beautiful variety of Coreopsis, Mr. 
Maund judiciously observes, that, if plants of it, and of the com- 
mon variety, be mingled together, and seeds gathered from them, 
their distinctions will soon be lost; so will seeds of the golden 
pippin apple if the tree has been grown in a garden along with 
other apple trees ; but let it be grown alone, and we will venture 
to assert that plants raised from seeds will come as true as in the 
case of the plant before us. 

Scrcfpliularidcece. 

1717. PENTSTE*MON 

* MunrayantM Hook. (In honour of the ikilAil curator of the<Glasgow Botanic Garden, who has 
been the means of rearing so many of Mr. Drummond's planti, and to whose underiating kind- 
ness and friendship that naturalist was greatly indebted for much of the success that attended 
his exertions.) Murray's teariet ]£ A or 3 aut S San Felipe 18S5 S D pil Bot. mag. S472 

" A native of San Felipe, in Texas : discovered by Mr. 
Drummond, in 1834, and by him sent to our gardens, where it 
promises to be a very great acquisition^ being remarkable for its 
stately growth, Jts singularly glaucous and large foliage, and the 
number, and size, and" scarlet colour **of the flowers. The seeds 
arrived rather late in the spring of 1835 ; so that, in the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, the autumn advanced rapidly upon us before 
the blossoms were generally expanded. . , . It will probably prove 
a quite hardy herbaceous perennial." (Bot. Mag., t. 3472.) 

Amaryllkcess. . 

g74. ZEPHYR A'NTHES Herb. [Svf. il..gard. S t. t aS8 

•SQfiSa Drumm6ndt D. Don Drummond*s tf .AJ or 1| jl W tinged with Fk Texas 18S5 a r.m 

An elegant bulbous plant, found in the Texas by the late Mr. 
Thomas Drummond, to whose memory it has been dedicated by 
Professor Don. It is said to be nearly related to Z. vereciinda, 
but to be *^ essentially distinguished from it by its larger size, 
much larger tube of its perianthium, and broader leaves." {Swt. 
Itow.'Gard,^ t. 328.) 



933. ^ARCI'SSUS i Corbulkria 

_ . D. Don conspicuou8-/louMrrf</ tf A or J , _ . 

Synonyme : Corbulkria conspicua Hataorth, Uonog. xfarcist. p. i. 



*758Sa conspicuus D. Ikm conapieuoas-flovoered tf A or | my T O. Sw. fl.-gar. 8 8. t S36. 



This species, or variety, for we believe it to be nothing else, 
which comes near to N. turgidus (Swt, Flam.-'Gard^ t. 164.), is 
the most showy of the hoop petticoat division of the Narcissi. 
Professor Don says, " We cannot take upon ourselves tp say 
that these forms are entitled to be ranked as distinct speqies;.Wt 



Rcifl^s IQustratians. of the Himalaj^s. 185 

tbey were so regarded by our late valued friends Mr. Haworth 
and Mr. Sweet, who had both devoted much attention to the 
subject of this difficult genus, and to whose opinions we willingly 
submit in such matters." (Swt. Flcnv.'Gard,j 2 s. t. 326.) In 
our opinion^ both Mr. Haworth and Mr. Sweet carried the 
making of species to a most absurd extreme; and we need only 
refer in proof of this to the Narciss. Monog, of the former, and 
the Geraniaeecs of the latter. It is, we should think, the duty of 
professors like Mr.. Don and Dr. Lindley, not to " willingly 
submit ^ to such authorities, but to examine into the merits of the 
case, and then to form an independent opinion of their own. 
Unless this be done by every succeeding botanist, the science of 
systematic botany, instead of making progress, will become little 
better than a useless assemblage of names. 



REVIEWS. 

Art. L Royle*s Ulustrations of the Botany and other Branches qf 
the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains ^ and of the 
Flora of Cashmere^ ^c. Part V., containing from p. 137. to 176. 
of the Illustrations of the Natural Orders; with nine beautifully 

' coloured piates of plants, and one plate of fossil bones» teeth, and 
shells* Folio. London, 1835. 20s. 

{Continuedjrom Vol. XT. p. 202.> 

. There are doubtless nmnerous species of ^tis and- Ampel6p- 
sis, not yet introduced into Britain, which would stand the open 
air as well as the species which we already have, and thus add 
to the variety of our climbers. 

. Geranidcece. — Several species of Geranium and Er&dium are 
found in the Himalayas. Mr. Royle has named a very beau- 
tiful i^eeies of Geranium, G. Lindleyanum, after his friend Dr. 
Lindley, from whom he acknowledges having received great 
assistance during the progress of his work. 

'Balsaminea, — This is an Indian order, there being no fewer 
than forty-seven species of the Impsltiens enumerated by Dr. 
Wallich. I. glandulifera is a gigantic plant, which is cultivated 
in Nepal, in the botanic garden at Saharunpore, and in the Mus- 
sooree Experimental Nursery. As all the species of Impeltiens 
are annuals, there can be no doubt that the tender kinds would 
flower in the open air in Britain, as well as the common balsam. 

Oxalidece. — Four genera are indigenous in India. O'xalis 
co'miculata is found in Europe, North America, Mexico, Japan, 
the plains of India, the Himalayas, and some of the African 
islands. 

. ^ The different species of Oxalis are well known to contain osalic acid, 
oombiaed with potass* O. AcetoBeUB» called in England wood sorrel^i, well 

p 8 



186 Boylis Illustrations of the Natural History 

known for its acid leayes, and as a substitute for Rumex Acetosella, is repre- 
sented in Ihdia by O. comiculata, which is there called chooka Upputtee^ or 
three-leaved sorrel, and prescribed as a cooling medicine. The roots of Oxalis 
tuberosa are eaten in Chili, when cooked. Those of O. crenata, a plant of 
Columbia, bearing tubers like small potatoes, is one of those called arracacha, 
and has been introduced into England as a substitute for that invaluable root. 
It might be so into India, and be useful wherever the soil and climate are 
better suited to it than to the potato." 

Zt/gophyllea. — The most important species of this family is 
Guaiacum officinale, celebrated for its sudorific properties ; it is 
found in the West Indies, and might be cultivated in Bengal. 

^utdc€€B. — iZuta albifl6ra is common in the Himalayas, at 
elevations of from 5000 ft. to 8000 ft., and would possibly stand 
the open air in Britain as well as the common rue. This last 
plant, in dry calcareous soils which are somewhat rich, forms 
one of the most beautiful of evergreen shrubs, attaining a height 
of 6 ft. or 8 ft. ; as may be seen in the gardens in some of the 
old chalk pits in the neighbourhood of Greenhithe in Kent. 

Diosmae. — Diosma altaica is found in the Himalayas, and 
also Z)ictamnus himalayanus. 

Xanthoxylece* — The genus Xanthoxylum is overspread in 
different parts of its substance with vesicles of essential oil, 
which cover the leaves with transparent dots. This oil is the 
cause of the aromatic pungency of the different species of this 
genus ; and hence, in India, the capsules and seeds of X, hostile 
are employed for intoxicating fish, and are chewed as a remedy 
for the toothach. Diflferent species of Xanthoxylum, Toddaltay 
and Brucea are found in the Himalayas, and would probably 
stand in the open air in Britain. 

Simarub^ceae. — In the Himalayas this order is represented by 
Nima quassioides; but, as it grows only in moderate ele- 
vations, it may probably not stand the open air in Britain. 
The Himalayas support an Indian flora at their base and 
within their valleys : European as we ascend ; and " almost 
polar on the summits of their lofty mountains, which only for 
a few months in the year are freed from their covering of 
snow." Under this order Mr. Royle has introduced an interest- 
ing comparison of the flora of the north of India with that of 
Egypt ; pointing out what useful plants might be supplied by 
the former country to the latter, and what from Europe to both. 
He observes, in a note, that " the present intelligent ruler of 
Egypt, when lately sending an unlimited order for plants to be 
sent to him from England, particularly specified the useful 
plants of India." (p. 162.) Our friend, the Bey Galloway, the 
pacha of Egypt's chief engineer, who is now (Feb. 1835) in 
London, informs us that the teak tree grows vigorously in the 
government garden at Grand Cairo, under the direction of Mr. 
Trail, an Englishman, with whom we expect sooato be in cor- 



»' 



of the Himalayan Mauniains and of Cashmere. 187 

respondence. In concluding the remarks referred to» Mr. 
Boyle observes : — 

^ The extent to which the acclimatation of plants may be carried, or the 
benefit which may be derived, it is at present difficult to conceive ; for not 
many years have elapsed since true prmciples have, even in England, been 
applied to the subject, where, as my friend Dr. Graham expresses it, ' every 
rare plant was supposed to require heat ;' and now the gardens and shrubberies 
are adorned ¥rith the richest varieties, and all intelligent cultivators seek for 
plants from congenial climates. India, open bv sea to the productions of 
South America, has already possessed herself of such as the guava, custard- 
apple, pine-apple, tobacco, maize, capsicum, and others, which appear as much 
at nome as its native productions: but the difficulty of communication on the 
north, and the nature of the countries and people which intervene, are suf- 
ficient to account for the few productions of the Oriental region which have 
travelled southward. It is fortunate that the Honourable Company's Botanic 
Garden at Saharunpore, with a nursery in the hills, is so favourably situated 
for carrying on the experiments necessary for the acclimatation of the useful 
plants of this re^on ; which, no doubt, the present zealous superintendant, 
Dr. Falconer, will carry into execution, as the means are afforded or oppor- 
tunities pfier. Such experiments, though they can be extensively or bene- 
ficially carried on only when the climate and natural products of a country 
have been ascertained, are well calculated to convince those who, unacquainted 
with a subject, are yet inclined to question its utility; and, though incapable 
of appreciating the worth of the information obtained, or the truth or error of 
the inferences deduced, yet consider themselves fully qualified to pronounce 
upon their value. But the botanist, contemplating his science in all the bear- 
ings with which modem improvements have invested it, in examining the 
peculiarities of a new vegetation, ascertains also what it is capable of yielding 
useful to man, either as diet, in medicine, or in the arts ; and, connecting 
structure with the climate in which it is found, infers, with almost unerring 
certainty, for what useful productions of other countries it is particularly 
adapted ; and has thus the gratification of contributing at once towards the 
perfecting of his science, and pointing to the means for improving the re- 
sources of the country for the benefit of which his investigations are, in the 
first instance, especially intended." 

Coriartece. — There are some species of Coriariese found at 
from 5000 ft. to 7000 ft. of elevation} which would probably 
endure the open air in England. The fruit of the Indian spe- 
cies is eaten on the hills, while that of the European is con- 
sidered poisonous, fifteen French soldiers having died by eating 
this fruit in Catalonia. C ?7iyrtifolia, rich in tannin, is used in 
Europe for staining black ; and the leaves, in France, have been 
employed to adulterate senna leaves, and have produced fetal 
consequences. 

All the orders hitherto treated of by Mr. Royle belong to 
the subclass Thalamiflorse ; the next subclass is Calyciflorae. 

Celastrine/e. — A number of species of £u6nymus are found 
in the Himalayas; some, as E. Hsimiltouidnusy have already 
been introduced into England, and stand the open air, as will, 
doubtless, all the others. It may be laid down, we think, as a 
general principle, that when we find one or two species of a 
genus decidedly hardy, all the other species that truly belong to 

that genus will be hardy also. There are, doubtless, at present 

p 4 



1 6^ Bdi/l^i Ittustfattons of the Himalcya$: 

many apparent, and, perhaps, some real, exceptions ; but most 
of these, we think, arise from species being assigned to genera 
which ought to be separated from them, and form genera of 
themselves. Time, and the vigorous prosecution of the study of 
the affinities of plants, which is now going on among botanists, 
will determine this. If unity of organic structure be necessary 
to constitute unity of family, it is difficult to conceive how there 
should be any great diversity of constitution in that famity. 

There is a species of -Tlex (ilex dipyr^na), .common in the 
Himalayas, which bears a very great resemblance to the British 
holiy, especially when covered with its clusters of scarlet berries 
in November and December. Mr. Royle also mentions /. ex- 
celsior and J. serr^ta, both " lofty species." Would that we 
had them here ! 

** Of the Dicinese, the holljr is weH known to be employed for making bird- 
lime, as some of the figs are in India ; and the genus is remarkable for con* 
taining 'the Ilex paraguaiensis, or mate tree, which produces >the ftimous 
Paraguay tea, now an article of considerable South American commerce, for 
which, if it weve thought desirable, a suitable locality might no doubt lie found 
within the Indian* territories. The Ilex vomitoria is considered to be tonic, 
inebriating, and, in larger doses, emetic; while -Prinos verticillatus is ac- 
counted, in North America, a powerful febrifuge." 

^h&mnece "are found in almost every part oTthe ^lo'be within 
the temperate and equinoctial .zones.; .and tlie different genera 
affect respectively cool and warm situations." 2Szyphus is a 
tender genus. Ceanothus formerly contained tender and hardy 
plants; but the former have lately been separated from it. Of 
this genus there are two Nepal species. lAovenia dulcis is found 
at 6500 ft. of elevation. Several species of ^hamnus and c^ 
Paliurus are natives of the Himalayas, and there can be no 
doubt but they would bear the open air in Britain. 

Terebinthdcea. — The mango thrives as high as 4000 ft. on 
t^ Himalaya range ; but does not ripen its fruit Sdbia, a new 
genus found in Nepal, grows at a considerable elevation in the 
mountains ; and there are severals pecies of 22hus which are very 
common there. All of these, no doubt, would grow in the open 
air in England. 

The plates which accompany this work are most 1)eautifully 
engraved and coloured. We cannot close the book without ex- 
pressing our ardent wish that botanic gardens were formed in 
all countries, for the mutual exchange of seeds and plants. As 
the mass of society becomes more and more enligfalen«d, the 
people will force this subject on the attention of their respective 
. governments. Half the money npw thrown away on pro forma 
ambassadors would estdbli^ and support botanic gardens aU 0¥€t 
the world; and the other h«lf wotild be (jaite sufSt^ient to p^y 
working ambassadors, who would do the diilies required of the 
office inuiph better tl^an the present ones, with very few ex- 
ceptions. 



Skirr^s <rout tkromh Nerth Ameri&g. 189 

Art. II. A Tour through North America, together toith a Compre' 
henstve View of the Canadas and the United States, as adapted Jbr 
Agricultural Emigration, By Patrick Shirreff, Fanner, Mungos- 
wells, East Lothian. 8yo. Edinburgh, 1835. 

(jConHnuedfrom Vol. XI. p. 199.) 

Th£ following remarks will account for the state in which 
Hyde Park is kept, and for the general inattention to neatness 
throughout America : — 

'* The progress of a people in refinement and taste, manifested in a com- 
bination of nature and art, is commonly the work of time, and tJie decoration 
of grounds an unproductive investment of capital. Thus, the residences of 
England, having descended for ages in the same line, without the power of 
possessors changing their destination, may be said to represent tne accu- 
mulated savings, labours, and tastes of many generations. In America the 
country has not been long possessed by the present owners, and property does 
not necet^arily descend in the same line; and if to these causes be added the 
high {Mice of labour and the scarcity of capital, the state of the residences will 
be sufficiently accounted for. Dr. Hosaek has great merit in what he has 
accompHshedi, but it is mod^er^r to compare his grounds, in point efembeUisb- 
ments, with the fine places in Britam, which have originated in circum* 
stances which America is not likely soon to experience. 

" Throughout the whole of my transatlantic tour, the inhabitants of die 
country manifested perfect indigence to the beauties of nature. It was 
rarely I could learn the name of a plant, with the exception bf trees. Nur- 
serymen, seedsmen, and farmers were, generally, unacquainted witih varieties, 
and, with die exception of two or three individuals, no one seemed interested 
in the matter. Rhododendrons grow as plentifully in many parts of the eastern 
states as furze in Britain; yet f saw vast numbers of this plant shipping at 
Liverpool for Philadelphia, although millions of the same variety could have 
been obtained for the trouble of lifting, at no great distance from the city. 
Gardens and nurseries were overrun with weeds, and did not display beauty 
either in decoration or arrangement. 

** The French Canadians, of the ordinary classes, almost invariably live in 
block houses, with large windows, that seem ill constructed, externally and in- 
ternally, for economising heat, which th^ nature of the climate and scarcity of 
fuel render so desirable. They have a clean appearance, being of^en white- 
washed with lime; and the window-boards and roofs are occasionally painted 
of different colours, and seldom harmonise with the house. A tree or shrub 
is never found in their gardens, and an orchard, except in the neighbourhood 
of the mountains, is almost unknown. 

'* Colonel Talbot's residence, near St. Thomas, on Lake Erie, in Canada, 
may be described as a cluster of mean wooden buildings, consisting of dwelfing^ 
houses^ stables, barns, pigsties, and cattle sheds, constructed and placed 
seemingly without regard either to convenience or effect, commanding a view 
of Lake Erie, from which it is distant about 200 yards, and at the moiith ' of 
Otter Creek, a small brook, with clay banks of considerable hdght. The clay 
banks behind the colonel's house have a barren and naked appearance, wlnle 
the lake in front is too near» The situation, nevertheless, has capabilities to 
make a fine place, when taste shall build a habitation. The garden, which 
was badly kept, contained some fine apple and pear trees, which we viewed 
from die outtide of the fence. There were a Isw weeping wtUows, the -first I 
.flttvjT in Canada,' and which raised the colonel eonaideratdy in my eatimatioo, as 
they are pot, I believe, indigj^^ous to the country. 

" Afler dinhig at Columbus, I strolled into the woods north of the village 
ni search of the pawpaw firuit, which I had beifeiM mudi' extoUfed by some of 



190 Shirr efTs Tour through Narik America. 

my fellow-travellers. This plant grows plentifully as underwood on most of 
the rich soils in this part of the country. I found the firuit growing on slender 
trees or shrubs 15 ft. or 20 ft. hmh ; it resembles, in size, shape, and colour, 
the jargonelle pear of Britain. 1 found them variable in quality, and the best 
might rank witn a third-rate pear of Scotland. The forests were now clothed 
in the splendour of autumn, and the richness and variety of their tints was of 
the most pleasing description. The oak, maple, beech, and dogwood seemed 
to vie in brilliancy; ana I often observed many leaves on the same lateral 
branch, exhibiting every shade from vivid green to the darkest purple." 

We shall conclude with a long extract from the fii'st chapter 
of the second part of the work, which places Mr. ShirrefF in the 
highest rank as a scientific agricultural writer. This passage 
deserves to be thoroughly studied by every young gardener and 
farmer : — 

*' From whatever sources arise the materials which compose and sustain 
organised bodies, no symptoms of decline can be discovered in them. Nature 
seems to be a system of continued reproduction, and, when aided by man, of 
progressive increase. 

*' The quantity of matter which has been organised since the beginning of 
time must be immense. But, whether the world is viewed in whole or in 
portions, nature has no appearance of decay, but seems a manufactory pro- 
ducing new fabrics, which are again reduced to their elements, in endless 
succession. Generation succeeds generation, and year after year furnishes 
sustenance. In the operations of nature there is no loss of materials, and when 
they are aided by human industry, she generously rewards man with an in- 
crease of her returns, and continues to reproduce the increase. The bounties 
of nature seem inexhaustible, and, in some measure, proportioned to man's 
industry. 

*' The system of nature, such as I have ventured to describe, may be illus- 
trated by the details of the farm. Pastures which have continued under the 
influence of nature annually yield herbage without decrease. When they are 
stocked with sheep, man is rewarded with the increase of the animals, and the 
herbage is reproduced as before. If the pasturage is improved by draining 
and top-dressing, there will be an increase in the returns from sheep, and the 
improvement in the pasturage continues from year to year. When an im- 
provement in the sheep is effected, there will be an additional return from 
them, which, by continued attention, becomes permanent. 

** When pasturage is superseded by grains and roots, their increased returns 
above pasturage are the reward of cultivation ; and drainage, manures, and 
labour greatly increase the returns. In such a system of farming man acts a 
prominent part with nature, and skilful industry is required to continue the 
increase. Without skill and industrv the returns from cultivation yearly 
diminish, and ultimately fall short oJt those from pasturage or undisturbed 
nature. In this case it is not nature but man which fails to do his part ; and 
the decrease may be considered a just retribution. 

'' A reflecting mind will discover much evidence of nature's economy 
throughout the universe ; and the farm supplies familiar illustrations. Cows 
and sheep, by consuming grass, yield butcher meat, milk, butter, cheese, and 
leather. These varied fabrics emanate from the same source, and, when re- 
duced to their elements, may again enter into the composition of grass. The 
straw of grain crops, and other vegetable matter, after being eaten by or tram- 
pled under the feet of animals, decomposes, and enters into wheat, barley, and 
turnip, or any other plant. In this manner the vegetable and animal kingdoms 
assist each other; and so perfect is the economy of nature, that none of her 
materials are lost in the intercourse. 

" By judicious management, the fertility of a form may be maintained, or 



Shirr eff^s Tour through North America, 191 

its productions reproduced year after year ; the produce usually disposed of 
being the reward of cultivation. If such produce were to be consumed on the 
fkrm, its fertility would be augmented, and the reproductive and progressive 
increase of nature, when assisted by man, exemplified. But the progression 
in fertility is checked by excessive luxuriance, which diminishes tne returns. 
Thus lavish and niggardly cultivation is both punished, and illustrative of 
the maxim to use the things of this life without abusine them. 

** Man seems to have been endowed with rational powers for supplying 
himself with the means of subsistence, which he accomplishes chiefly through 
the vegetable and animal kingdoms. Vegetables directlv minister to his wants 
in various ways, and indirectly, through domestic animals, which are altogether 
dependent on them. The farm illustrates the direct supply in the production 
of wheat, potatoes, and flax ; the indirect supply, in butcher meat and wool. 
In farm economy, vegetables and animals may be viewed as manufacturing 
machines, assisting man and each other, and the united results of which are 
necessary to the formation of certain fabrics, such as milk. From this source 
man is supplied with many of the luxuries as well as the necessaries of life. 
The results of the mulberry tree, silkworm, and cochineal insect are united 
in some of the lustrous clothing of the fair sex. 

** The materials entering into organised life may be varied, and partly un- 
known to man. The most important elements of them, however, are to be 
found in air and water, and may, therefore, be said to pervade the universe. 
Should a difference of opinion exist regarding them, it is encouraging for the 
farmer to know that they abound everywhere within the sphere of his oper- 
ations. 

** The localities for manufacturing sustenance are almost as varied as the 
machinery or plants. The sea, air, and exterior of every organised body are 
stations, but tne surface of the earth or soil is the chief. The localities may 
be considered workshops, differing in merit, without generally contributing 
materials towards the manufactures. Sustenance manufactured in the sea, 
and on the surface of the earth, equally sustains human life, and, in both cases, 
contains the same elements. 

** Soil is not of);en r^arded simply as a workshop, although no other view 
of it accords with the operations of nature and of man. n does not in any 
case appear to contribute materially to the formation of plants, and is only 
useful to them by affording support to their roots, and holding their sus- 
tenance ; being a receptable of air, water, decomposing organised bodies, and 
mineral substances Soil may be rendered fertile or unfertile by imparting or 
withdrawing whatever promotes vegetation. 

** In the preparadon of human sustenance, then, soil is a workshop ; air, 
moisture, lignt, heat, and decomposing organised bodies, raw materials ; plants 
and animals, machinery ; certain minerals and labours, oil for the machinery* 
In manufacturing produce, nature supplies air, light, heat, and moisture ; man 
furnishes organised bodies, machinery, and oil, which may generally all be ob- 
tained by capital. The parts performed by nature and man vary according to 
the fabric produced. In the case of pa«tura§e, nature contributes the greatest 
share ; in cultivation, the capital, skill, and industry of man are conspicuous. 
The neglected farm, incapable of producing turnip with a visible bulb, yields a 
fiill crop with a judicious application of labour and manure. The united ex- 
ertions of nature and man insure success. She accomplishes much when 
unaided by man, but he cannot obtain any thing without the assistance of 
nature. When she withholds heat or moisture, the manufacture is suspended, 
and she possesses the power of arresting or altogether destroying the ma- 
chinery. Farmers combine nature's agency under the term climate; and they 
are familiar with the general effects of heat, frost, drought, and moisture. If 
given quantities of manure and labour were bestowed on equal portions of 
soil, similar in quality, situated in Scotland, on a level with the ocean, and 
the top of a mountain, the difference of produce would be the effect of 
climate. 



140 IkMia BegifUrfir 1886. 

' . *' Map has been doomed to earn his bread by the sweat of his brow. £x» 
perience confirms that the industry of an inclividual^ closely applied to the 
cultivation of the soil in the temperate climes of the world, is more than ade- 
qaate to supply sustenance to himself. It is^ a beautiful feature in farming, 
tliat aipricultural improvements furnish additional food, increase almost every 
comfort, and ameliorate climate. The goodness of God to man is thus mani- 
fested, in providing him with the means of subsistence, and a reward according 
to his incuistiy." 



Art. Ill* The Annual Dahlia RegUlerfor 1836 : containing Par^ 
ticulars qf the Introduction of the Dahlia into this Country^ Mode 
of Cultivation and Management , the Properties of a gooa Flovaerf 
Arrangement of Stands for Shotos, Shoto Floxvers, Sfc, S^c; up' 
raards of Fifty highly coloured Figures of dissimilar Dahlias^ con^ 
sisting chi^y of very superior new FlotoerSf toith Catalogues of 
Growerst also^ Specimens of several old Flotoers^ tvith an Alphas 
betical Index of 700 Varieties of the Dahlias ; and an Account of 
Exhibitions held in England ana Jersey in 1835. By an Amateur. 
Royal 8vo. London, 1836. Price \L \0s. 

The titlepage so fiilly explains the nature of this work, that 
little remains for us to do, except to describe the manner in 
which it is executed. The engravings are from drawings by 
Woodroff of Bath, and Wakling of Walworth. They are printed 
from stone, and very well coloured. The letterjiress consists of 
1 4? pages of introductory matter, almost entirely extracted from 
gardening periodicals, and from an article on the dahlia, published 
in Baxter's Library of Agricvlture and Horticulture^ and written 
by J* Mantell, F.L.S. The remainder of the work consists of 
tlpie enumeration of the dahlias that were exhibited at 45 different 
shows during the year 1835, with their prices, and the height 
to which the plants grow. It thus appears to be for the dahlia- 
grower, what the Gooseberry Book is for the gooseberry-grower ; 
and to those cultivators who speculate in this popular flower, it 
will doubtless be found a very useful work. 



A RT. IV, Catalogue of Works on Gardenings Agriculture^ Botany ^ 
Rural Architecture, ^c, lately published^ with some Account of 
those considered the more interesting. 

Dje Cakdolle^ M. Aug. Pyr.i Notice sur les Graines de T Ananas. 
(Extrait de tome vii. des '* Memoires de la Soci^te de Phy- 
sique et d'Histoire Naturelle de Geneve.) 

It appears not to be commonly known at Geneva, that the 
oir<;umstance of the pine*apple ripening seeds in Europe is by 
no means uncommon, and that, io consequence, a number of 
new varieties from seed have been procured in England. The 
rarity of the appearance .of seeds at Geneva induced M. Aug. 



LoudofCs Suburban Gardener. \g$ 

Pvr. de CandoIIe to have drawings made of tfie seeds m a fruit 
Munich was sent to him for that purpose by a suceessflil culti* 
vator at Preguy, near Geneva; and these are her^engravedi 
and scientifically described. The references to the plates are 
not so correct as they should be, in particular those to piMe ii. 

Bridgeman, Tl, Gardener, Seedsman, and Florist, New York : 
The Young Gardener's Assistant; containing a Catalogue of 
Garden and Flower Seeds, with Practical JL>irections under 
each head for the Cultivation of Culinary Vegetables and 
Flowers; with Directions for cultivating Fruit Trees, the 
Grape Vine, &c. 8vo. New York, 1835. 

This appears to be a very judicious compilation, chiefly from 
European works ; and it is gratifying to observe that, since 1829, 
it has gone through six editions. 



Art. V. Literary Notices* 

Flora Hibemica is preparing for publication, and will appear 
about the middle oF April. Part L, comprising the Flowering 
Plants and the Ferns of Ireland, by J. T. Mackay, M.R.I.A. 
A.L.S., &c.^: and Part II., comprising the Mdsci^ Hep^ticee, and 
Zichenes, by Thomas Taylor, M.D., M.R.I.A.; and the\</lgaB, 
by W. H. Harvey. In one royal 8vo volume of about 600 
pages. 

Gerantacea. — A new work on this subject is projected by 
Messrs. Ridgway, to appear in 4to numbers on the first day of 
every alternate month, price ?5. The flowers will be paintra in 
oil, by the first artists in flower-painting, from which the en- 
gravings will be taken, and coloured to imitate the originals. In 
the execution of the flower, it has been attempted to surpass 
any works that have preceded it, so that any individual flower 
might form a copy, that ladies fond of flower-painting might 
use, preparatory to their painting from nature. 

The History, Classification, and Culture of the Dahlia is now 
publishing in Leipsic, in large 8vo numbers, at one dollar each. 
The German title of the work is Zur Geschichte^ Kultur^ und 
Klassifikatiofi der Georginen und Dahlien. Von M. Gerhard. 

Within the last two years we have had various applications 
for a Gardener's Calendar; and, in consequence of having an- 
nounced some years ago a Gardening Annual, applications have 
also been made to us for such a gardening book as would be 
suitable for persons* who ivsd" very ^mall gardens, and did not 
wish to go to the expense of a work that treated of arboriealture, 
hmdscap&igardeningv fiiroing, and v«rioas matters of that son^ 
which if e only appUodbto to large pia6es. In cotisequenee of thoge 



196 General Nbii^. 

Ukkxi from Sir Hugh Plfl[tt*8 Garden of Eden, edit. 167d., wliidh wis firtt 
;piri>liahed in I600» under the title of Fl&ra's Paradise: — 

** A Stove for all VejgetabUit, good and cheap. And for the keeping of any 
flowers or plants abroad, a^, also, of these seeds thus sown within doors, or 
any other pots of Aowers, or dwiurf trees in a temperate heat, with small charge, 
you may perform the same by h^^iig a cover of tin or other metal over the 
vessel wherein ^ou boil 3^our bee^ or drive your buck, which, havii^ a pipe in 
the top, and heme made in the fashion of afuqnel, may be conveyed into what 
place of your orchard or garden you shall think meet ; which room, if it were 
so made as that, at your pleasure, it may become either close or open^ you 
may keep it in the nature of a stove in the night season, or in any other cold 
weather; and in the summer time, you may use the benefit of the sunbeams, 
to comfort and cherish your plants or seeds. And this way, if I be not de- 
ceived, you may have both orange, lemon, pomgranet trees, yel^ peradventure, 
coloquintida and pepper trees, and such like. The sidea of this room, if you 
think good, may be plastered, and the top (hereof may be covered with some 
strainel canvas to take away at your pleasure. Qiuere, if it be best to le^ the 
pipe of lead to breath out at the end only, or else at divers small vents which 
may be made in that part of the pipe which passeth alongst the stove. I fear 
that this is but a meer conceit, because the steaqi of water, will not extend far ; 
but if the cover to your pot be of me^tel, and made so .clps^ that no fur cm 
breadi out saving at the pipe, which is sodred or well closed in some part of 
the cover, then it seemeth probable, this, cc^ver mi^ be put on after the pot is 
scummed." {G^trden of Eden, part ii. p. 17.) — R, F, J, London, August, 
1835. 

Transvlanting^ — Plant not deep, nor trench deep ; but tempt the roots by 
baiting the surface with dung9 to make them run ebb within the reach of the 
sun and shoures, (Reid's Scots Gardener, edit. 1683, p. dl.) 

Si/mmetry. — Make all the buildings and plantings ly so ^ut the house, as 
that the house may be the centre; all the walks, trees, and hedges running to 
the house. 

As the sun is the centre of this world ; as the heart of the roan is the centre 
of the man; as the nose the centre (^ the face; and as it is unseemly to see:a 
man wanting a leg, one arme, .^c, otr his UQse standing at one side of his face, 
or not streight, or wanting a cheek, ane eye, ane eare, or with one (or all of 
them) great at one side and small on the. Qther ; just so with the house-courts, 
avenues, gardens^ orchards, &c., where regularity or uniformity is not ob- 
served. ■ ' ^ 

Therefore, whatever you have on the one hand, make as much and of the 
same forme, and in the same place as the other. (Ibid. p. 2.) 

7%ff Influence of Lightning Conductors on Vegetation has by many been cop- 
sidered as beneficial, and by some as injurious. Mr. Matthew, the author of 
8 TVeatise on Naval Timber, relates in JamesorCs Journal, October, 1831, four 
experiments which he has made, from which it appears to produce neither 
good nor evil. — Cond* 

Plants were groum in Mots by Charles Bonnet of Geneva, as related by 
Du Hamel to the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, April 16. 1749. {Gent, 
Mag,, xix. d59.) 

Potash cannot be made advantageously from resin iferous, or odoriferoiis 
woods; such as pines, firs, cedar, cypresses, sassafras, hquidambar, &c. ; 
though more or kiss of this salt can be obtained firom all vegetables whatever. 
(PhSi Trans,, abridged, vol. p. 777.) 

Ihi^ Roots, — In the very cold pari of the winter of 1833, M. Toneard, 
found that his tulip roots, in the ground, had been devoured by some anim^ 
which had scratched up the soil in order to get at them ; and, putting a sn^e 
with a tulip root in it, close to the spot, he, the next morning, found the root 
gone, and a dead field mouse close to it. A second morninc the same thing 
occurred ; a third was caueht in the trap, and, when discovered, was complet^y 
benumbed. It was caremUy warmed^ but x^ry soon died. J>r. Boucher ex- 



Gtneml IfyUcet. 19^ 

av&adthefaodyy and' foimd that the tulip had poisoned it: whea the thaw 
came, these anunals ceased to attack the tuMp roota. (Athenemm, July 25, 
1685.) 

7%tf (^ffnttf Bambi^sa. ^- The disappointment created by the mutilated articls 
on the genus BambiUa in the twenty-fifth monthly part of the Penny Cychm 
peedia^ has induced me to trouble ^ou with a few observations upon that useful 
genus of plants, some of the species of which appear capable of cultiyation io 
tibe milder parts of our own island, and are therefore entitled to notice in your 
excellent depository of horticultural knowledge. The article Bambuta, in the 
Penny CychpcnUa, appears to have been drawn up with a view to comprehend 
^1 the information that the most recent discovenes could furnish on the sub* 
ject» in the most compendious and methodical form ; but I find it reduced to 
one only, out of the three sections of which it ought to have consisted ; and 
confined wholly to an account of eighteen Asiatic species oi bamboo, without 
even an mdication of one of those found by Humboldt and others in the New 
World, although there appears little doubt that some of these will be found as 
suitable for European, and even British, cultivation as the Asiatic. It has been 
remarked by Humboldt, as a circumstance of peculiar good fortune, that he 
and his companion Bonpland met the bamboo twice in flower, once on the 
banks of the Cassiquiare^and a second time near the village of Muerto, between 
Buga and Quiiichao, in the province of Popayan. (Humb. de XHttrilmtione 
Geographica Piantarum, p. 205. Paris, 1817.) Now, in the Island of Nevis^ 
one of the Lesser Antilles, I have seen it regularly blossoming, in a dry volcanic 
soil, every year, about the period of Christmas ; and the circumstance was there 
regarded as one of ordinary occurrence. I am aware that, in the East Indies, 
the flowmng of the bamboo is by no means regarded as a rare occurrence; 
but, as the reverse appears to be the case in America, I have been induced to 
notice the fact of my personal observation at Nevis, for the purpose of calling 
attention to the possible influence which the dry volcanic tufa ^(called in that 
island terras, ana employed for the same purposes, and with the same effect, as 
the terra puzzolana brought from Italy) may have in the production of this 
phenomenon. Humboldt says, " These arundinaceous trees, although they 
spread wide^.y over the marshy soil, and frequently attain an altitude of from 
50 f^. to 60 ft., rarely blossom in the New World. Neither the illustrious 
Mutb, who examined so many guadales (as those marshy spots covered with 
bamboos are termed by the inhabitants) in the kingdom of New Granada, nor 
Tafalia, who accompanied Ruiz and Pavon in their travels through Peru« 
was ever able to obtain either the flowers or the fruit of the bamboo.** 

Humboldt further observes, at p. 208. of the same work, that the bamboo is 
by no means so frequent in the marshy situations of the New World as 
is generally supposed, being rare in the province of Caraccas and New 
Andalusia (with the exception of the valleys between the villa^^es of Cumanaco^ 
and San Fernr.ndo), in the humid forests of Guayana, which overhang the 
streams of the Cassiquiare and Atabapo, aud almost wholly wanting at the 
mouth of the Apnre,wnich traverses the province of Varinas,and on the banks of 
the Rio N^o. They are most abundant, he observes, on the western side of 
the Andes, and form vast forests in the kingdom of New Granada, not only in 
the hottest situations, between Turbaco and Mahates, but in the more elevated 
and temperate valleys, between the village of Guaduas and the town of Bogotk ; 
09 the western slope of the Andes of Quindiu, near Buenavista and Carthago ; 
on the banks of the Cauca (between Buga and Quiiichao of Popayanl ; and 
on the opposite side of the volcano of Rucu-Pichinca, near the city ot Quito. 
* Of these bamboos, that species whid), from its principal locality, Humboldt 
has described under the name of Bambusa Gndduasy flourishes inchflerently at 
all varieties of elevation, from the level of the ocean to a height of 860 hex&- 
podes and upwards (about 5S74< English feet); and grows equally in marshy 
and in dry alpine situations. This bamboo, flourishing at heights when the 
mean annual temperature does not ei^eeed 61° or 62' of Fahrenheit's thermo- 
meter, and ^^ ordinary teaiperaHare by dajr varies from 5T ^^ to 66'' 20^, 
Vol. XII.— No. 73. q 



.1 98 Foreign Notices : — France. 

*4aid by nidifc from 5(^ to 53^ 6(/ of Fahrenheit, might possibly, by care, be 
Jiabituated to bear the ordinary severity of the winters of our southern aad 
western coasts, and add at once to the ornament and utility of our pleasure? 

grounds. Could it, and its Asiatic congeners, be successfully acclimatised, their 
oUow and durable stems would form an iuTaluable substitute for the lead 
and iron employed for the distribution of water through our towns, besides 
answering many other useful purposes in which great strength and durability 
are required in combination with great levity. Even the frames of the sashes 
for covering our stoves and conservatories might, possibly, be advantageously 
and economically formed of this substance, and its cultivation thus rendered 
at once useful and ornamental. — WilUam Hamilton. Oxford Place, PfynunUhf 
Feb. 23. 1835. 

Lobefia, splendent and/ulgens^ two beautiful varieties, apparently belonging to 
one species, were introduced to Europe by rather a smgular circumstance. 
Specimens of these plants were gatherea in flower in Mexico, by the celebrated 
botanists Humboldt and Bonpland, and put into their herbariums in the usual 
manner. When these botanists arrived in France, they found ripe seeds on 
their dried specimens ; and these seeds being given to M. Thouin of the Jardin 
ties Plantes,were the origin of all these showy lobelias now common in British 
and Continental gardens. This is stated on the authority of Dr. Lippold, an 
eminent German botanist and horticulturist, now in London, and the author 
of the VoUtandige Gartner, 2 vols. 8vo, &c. 



Art« II. Foreign Notices* 

FRANCE. 

The Deciduous Cypress (Cypres chauve, Fr, ; l'ax6dium dfstichum Rich,), 
in the park of iRambouillet, has attained the height of from 65 ft to 70 ft.; 
and the circumference of the trunk, at 1 ft. from the ground, of different trees, 
varies from 5 ft. 3 in. to 9 ft. 9 in. ; while, at 3 ft. from the ground, it varies 
from 4 ft:« to 8 ft. 6 in. These trees have borne seeds for many years ; but 
we have never succeeded in raising plants from them. — M. Bourgeois, Direct 
tor ^ the Roi/al Farm of Rambouillet, in a letter to M. VUmorin, of Nov» 1834^ 

The Red Oak (Chene rouge, Fr, ; Qu^rcus rubra ilficAx.}, in the same forest, 
has attained the height of from 80 ft. to 90 ft., with trunks, the diameter of which, 
at 1 ft. from the ground, varies from 4 ft. 2 in. to 4 ft. 9 in. ^ and at 3 ft. from 
the ground, from 3 ft. 8 in. to 4 ft. 3 in. The trunks of these oaks are straight, 
and clear of branches to a ^reat height. The plantation where they stand has 
lately been thinned by cutting down half the trees. The wood appears to be of 
excellent quality, and is hard, though somewhat porous ; the ^am, or texture, 
having altogether the appearance of the common oak ; but it is finer, and the 
wood appears to be more united (liant). These trees have produced acorns 
for many years : all those of this year (1834) were sent to the government 
nurseries at Versailles. — Id, 

Ulnstitiit Horticole de Fromont is very well known by name both in France 
and England ; but in the latter country the difference of language prevents 
young gardeners from knowing much about it^ and in the former country there 
IS a general prejudice amongst the ordinary cultivators of the soil agsdnst 
science and novelty. The Anna/es published monthly at this institution, Sad 
of which five volumes have appeared, abound in proofs that the science of 
culture, whether in the garden or in the field, is perfectly understood by the 
professors and gardening authors of France; and by none better than M. 
Soulange-Bodin himself. Every person, at all attached to gardening, who visits 
Paris, ought not to leave it without devoting a day to Fromont, where they 
will be gratified, not merely by seeing the different modes of propagation, and 
particularly some modes (such as herbaceous grafting) little known in this 
country, and the results; but also a very agreeable park; and some good speci- 



Fore^ Noiiees .* «— Belgium^ Qermanyj, 199 

ioeiHh oT trees and shnibs. Among the latter is a Magndlta macrophfllay wYa6L 
18 said to be as lai^ as, or larger than, tiiat of the Duke of Devonshire at 
CShiswick. —- CoruL 

CuRwathn of the Bamboo in jp^ancr.-— A piece of bamboo, about 18 in. in 
height, was planted, on the 1st of April, 1833, in a garden at BSeres, in the 
department of Var. It has already produced severS shoots, from 20 ft. to 
26 ft. tong. The. ground in which it was set was constantly irrigated during 
the summer.. One of the ^oots, which only came out of the ground on the 
3d of last September, had obtained 25 ft. of elevation on the 29th of October.. 
Its circumference at the base was 9 in., and at the height of a man about 7| in. 
(Athefueunty Sept. 19. 1835.) 

Seedg, — Several tombs were discovered last year at Monzie, St. Martbi 
Dordogne, the most remarkable circumstance attending which is, that the head, 
of the skeletons were pktced on a heap of seeds, contained in a cavity left in 
the cemeiit, large enough to contain the occiput. These seeds have been sown, 
and from them have been raised the ITeliotropium europse^um, Medic^ hi- 
ptilina, and Centaurea Cyanus. This circumstance confirms the opinion lately 
advanced by several physiologists, that certain vegetables preserve their ger- 
jninating power for an indefinite period, if kept out of the reach of the agents 
necessary to germination. Some of these vegetables are birch, aspen, ground* 
sel, rushes^ broom,, digitalis, heaths, &c. {Atkeneeum, July 25^ 1835, p. 572.) 

BELGIUM. 

Ghevty Oct^ 19» 1835. — I enclose an engraving of a new building for the 
Ghent Hx>rticultural Society : it is intended partly as a. cassino, or concert 
room, and as an exhibition for plants, either of which names it has as much 
right to as the one it bears : in fact it is a compound of aUlthree. Hereafter a 
garden is intended to be laid out. The building and ground have cost a great 
sum of money, and there appears to be much room lost. The building appears 
heavy, and out of proportion to its breadth ; but,, till finished, it is unfair to give 
an opinion. T certainly do not approve of the compound association, and 
should have preferred seeing a smaller building, huUt expressly and solely for 
our Society j and, also, that part of the money expended on the present struc- 
ture should have been set aside for the purpose of giving encouragement to 
gardeners and to horticulture, by increasing the number, value, and utility of 
the prizes ; which, at present, consist solely of medals ; whereas books and 
small pieces of plate ought to be substituted ;. and any surplus funds might be 
employed to enable the Society to send out to South America an able collector 
of plants. In the mean time, the present building will do no harm ; and„ though 
it might have been arranged much better for the purposes of horticulture than 
it is at present, it is very likely to increase the number of members, and may, 
in a few years, be the means of benefiting the Society.. At present our Society 
requires many reforms ; and, until such reforms take place, the rules of the So- 
dety cannot be called beneficial to horticulture. But, from the present state 
of society^ and from the opinions of some of our most influential members, I 
am led to believe that the period of reform is not distant. I hope, also, to see 
a botanical work established by the Society ;, for, until the gardeners in this 
country become perusers of botanical works, there will never be one who is 
capable of taking care of, or superintending, a valuable collection of plants, in 
the way they ought to be cultivated. I send you the first number of a new 
work, called the Le Cultivateury ^c, though it relates more to agriculture than 
horticulture.— W, T, C 

GERMANY. 

The Lake Zirkniiz, in Camiola. — " This lake is about six miles in length by 
three broad. Towards the middle of summer, if the season be dry, its surface 
rapidly falls, and in a few weeks it is completely dry. The openings by which 
the waters retire beneath the soil may then be distinctly perceived, sometimes 
quite vertical, and in other places bearing a lateral direction towards the ca** 

Q « 



200 Foreign Notices : — Getwany. 

veras which abound in the surrounding mountfiins. Immediately after the re- 
treat of the waters, all the extent of the surface which- they covered is put 
under cultivation, and at the end of a couple of months^ the peasants are 
mowing hay, or reaping millet and rye, in the very spot where, some time before, 
they were fishing for tench and pike. Towards the end of autumn, and after 
the rains of that season, the waters return by the same natural channels which 
had opened a passage for them at the time of their departure." {JametofCs 
Mdxnbwrgh New Philosopkical Journal, January— April, p. 220.) 

Notes on the TSreety Gardens^ Gardeners, Garden Artists, and Garden Authors 
of Germany. — The oldest palms are in Vienna and Dresden. The C6ryphB 
umbraculifera has a head with an enormous circumference. One in Schonbrunn 
is nearly as large. There are here, also, Chamae^ rops humilis, Z^ia, and 
Euterpe joisiformis, which belong to Prince Antoine, and which have grown 
so high, that thev have been obliged to make the house higher. 

It is worthy of remark, that a fiaron Dietrich, in Vienna, sent out ships, at 
his own expense, to Brazil to collect palms, &c., for the emperor.; and such 
wonderful abcoveries were made, that several palms were found from ^0 ft. to 
40 ft. in height, which are now exhibited in the Brazil Museum at Vienna ; 
by which the age of the trees can easily be ascertained, and an idea of tropical 
vegetation g^ven. 

The oldest orange trees in Germany are at Dresden, and have been there 
since the time of Kmg Augustus the Great. He was very fond of turnery, and 
sent for orange trees with very thick stems firom Asia; and, in order to keep 
them fresh, tney were laid in a cellar : after a short time they began to grow ; 
and they were removed and planted, and grew extremely well. ' 

The largest and best green-houses in Germany are in the Burg at Vienna : 
they are 80 ft. high, and 300 ft. long. [According to other accounts these di- 
mensions are much exaggerated ; but they will no doubt be corrected for us 
by Baron Jac^uin, or M. Charles Kauch.] In the middle there is a space for 
flowers, in which, in winter, there are several thousand bulbs in flower sent 
every year from Holland. Once every year there is a fete in this garden, 
which IS called the rose feast. After breakfast the company retire to a ball, 
where the nobility are seen waltzing surrounded by flowers. 

The best imitation of nature is seen at Schonbrunn, where^ in. the new 
hot-houses, you might fancy yourself in a Brazilian forest. The Calddia and 
other ^roideae, Cymbldia, Scitamlneae, and Till^dsi^, grow hanging down 
from old trees. The ferns grow in deep shade among rocks. This arrange- 
ment was made by M. Schott, court gardener, who was several years in Brazil, 
and who has succeeded in giving these plants such a natural appearance. 

Amongst the most remarkable garden^ in Germany are those of Laxenburg, 
Bruck, Cassel^ Munich, the new garden at Potzdam, the gardens at Manheim, 
at Frankfort and the new gardens at Stuttgard which contain 4O0 acres, and 
have cost, perhaps, already more than a minion of florins. 

Amongst the Hungarian gardens, those that belong to Princess Chrasal- 
kowitz in GeteJo, the Count of Brunswick in Corompa, and Prince Esterhazy 
at Eisenstadt, Count Szandor, Count Festetits^ and several others, are the most 
worthy of notice. 

In Bohemia, the most remarkable are those of Prince Kinsky, Prince Taxis 
near Leitmetitz, Count Tuff near Briin, and Count Sternberg near Praeg, 
Schonborn, Szinnen at Tchonhoff* near Toeplitz, Prince Clari at Toeplitz, 
and Count WalUs and Count Canal in Prague. 

Amongst the most considerable landscape-gardeners at present in Germany 
may be reckoned the following: 7— 

M, Zeyher in Schweitzengen. He has laid out the gardens at Schweit- 
zengen, Manheim, Carlsruhe, and Baden. 

Riedel. He laid out the park at Laxenburg, and several private gardens 
about Vienna. 

Lenne at Berlin. He has laid out the gardens at Potsdam and Magdeburg ; 
and we have great expectation from his improvements now making in the park 
at Berlin, known as the Thier Garten. 



Foreign Notices : — Spain. 20 1 

Sckeli, He laid out the gardens about Munich. 

Clous. He has improved the gardens at Cassel. 

Otto. He laid out the botanic garden at Berlin. 

Lubek, He laid out the park at Briick on the Lejtha. 

Schoch, He laid out the park at Worlitz. 

Hitter. He laid out the parks at Presburg, at Konigshaiden, Gambo, Mayer- 
hoff^ St. Miholy, Zurz, and several others. 

The following dilettanti architects, and nurserymen, have laid out gar- 
dens : — 

Prince PUckler Mmhau, He laid out his own garden in Muskau. 

Carlowitz, He laid out some gardens in Dresden. 

J>erseik, He laid out the botanic garden, and some others, in Dresden. 

Koch, Architect in Vienna. He laid out the garden of Prince Kinsky in 
Prague, the gardens of the Counts Garoly and Crdady, in Hungary. 

Hosefitkai. He laid out Petzlersdorf near Vienna, and several others. 

Bosch. He laid the garden at Stuttgard, and the botanic garden at 
Rosenstein. 

Kins. He laid out the gardens at Leipzig. 

Rinz, Nurseryman. He laid out several places about Frankfort, and the 
public gard^i on the ramparts. 

Authors who have written on gardening : — 

Puckler Fiirst von Moskau. Andeutungen der Landschafts Garten- 
kunst. Folio. 10/. 

Zeyhevy Grarten Director; He i» preparing a work on Perspective, and 
IJght and Shade. He has written a work celled Beschreibung des Schwe- 
zingen Gartens, mit kupfer. 8vo. 

Otto. Glashaiiser-bau, Die Gacteen, &c. &c» 

Antome. Monographie der Piirschen.. 

Schott. Filices. 

Soch. Hortus Schonbrunnensis. 

Bouchse. Blumen Treibereyen. 

Sckell. He has written some articles in the Prussian Transactions. 

Kms. Baumzucht. 

Bitter. KiinstHche Treibereyen. 8vo. 

Schoch, Kleine Schrift iiber Anlagen. 

The above notes were furnished by M. J. Ritter, Garden Director in 
Austria and Hungary whilst in London, in July, 1835. Though. we have 
spared no pains to get the names of places given above properly spelled, yet 
we fear we have not in every case succeeded. M. Ritter saw one proof before 
he left London, and we sent another to the office of the Austrian Embassy. 

"SPAIN. • • 

Some valuable information, respecting the state of rural improvement in 
Spain, will be found in a very, interesting work lately published by Captain 
S. E. Cook, F.G.S., &c., of Newton, Northumberland. The perusal of this 
Work has given us more distinct ideas of Spain, and the Spanish people, than 
any work with which we had been previously acquainted. We feel grateful to 
Captain Cook for having enabled us to love and esteem a people, of whom, in 
Several respects, we had entertained very erroneous ideas ; and for satisfying 
us that Spain is fast participating in the general march of improvement. It 
is fortunate for us, at this time, when we are collecting information respecting' 
trees, from every source, for our Arboretum Britanjiicum, that Capt^n Cook is 
as enthusiastic an arboriculturist as ourselves. . He has a chapter on forests, 
from which. we shall make large extracts ;. and we shall also extract several 
incidental remarks on this topic, and on various others suitable for this 
Magazine, from different parts of the two volumes before us; for all which 
Captain Cook has kindly given us his permission. 

' Physical I)wisions o^Spcmi. — Spain is divided geologically into three grand 
divisions, the productions' of which amalgamate with each other. *' The first 

Q 3 



202 Foreign Notices t — Spaifu 

is the northern zone, which includes Galicia, Asttirias, the Free or Basque 
Provinces, Upper Navarre, and the maritime part of Old Castile, This is the 
region of humidity and mobture, and possesses, especially the ,part8 which 
adjoin the coasts, a remarkable equality of temperature throughout the year. 
It is the .only dairy country in Spain.; which branch of industry, as well as 
that of breeding horses and other domestic animals, is as yet in its infancy, 
although capable of almost indefinite extension. The natural limits to this 
region, inland, are the ranges which separate it from Castile, and bear up the 
sreat table land which forms the centre of Spain.; and the termination of the 
Western Pyrenees, in the uplands of Lower Navarre and Old Castile. 

" The vegetation of this division is characterised by the Quercus /Zobur ; 
Quercus /Mex, the true ilex ; the Menzi^sia Daboect, Irish heath ; common 
fern ; C7Mex strf eta and europae^a^ and other plants of a northern and moist 
climate. The forests are now not extensive, but it contains more valuable 
and available timber than any other part of Spain. It produces little or no 
oil, and wine only in small quantity and of inferior quality. 

*' The second is much the more extensive division, as it includes the Ca&- 
tiles, Estremadura, Aragon, and part of Catalonia, with the xipper parts of 
Valencia* Murcia, and Andalusia j thus embracing a large portion of all Spain. 
The peculiar characteristic of this region is, the dryness of the atmosphere 
during the greater part of the year. Co[)ious winter and vernal rains, acting 
on a soil generally tenacious of moisture, impact a fertility peculiarly suited to 
the cerealia, leguminosse, and the vine, which are the finest in the world, with 
the least skill and attention bestowed on them. This wide range extends 
over the varied climates, elevations, and soils, which maintain the mesta, or 
flocks of merinos, in their wandering life. The olive is abundantly grown in 
some ..parts, but less so than in the southern region. The silk-wx)rm, which 
now can hardly be said to exist, ought to enrich the greater part of what is 
now one of the poorest countries in Europe. 

^* Upper Ara^on and Catalonia are referred to this division. The situation 
of these countries, at the foot of the Pyrenees, would seem to insure them 
humidity J but it is by no means the case. On their western side the high 
Pyrenees break the flow of vapour from the Atlantic, and cause it to be pre- 
cipitated on the northern division, leaving nearly the whole region included 
in these provinces comparatively dry. 

" This region contains the vast pine forests of Aragon, of the Sierras de 
Cuenca, Segura, and the Guadarrama, and of the central range of Castile. It 
is characterised by the Spanish ilex ; the Quercus Toza ; and>^uercus/irasina, 
or a species presumed to be this, which is widely spread over its middle 
elevation ; by the white ^istus, which grows in prodigious quantities in some 
of the middle parts; and by the absence of those which are enumerated as 
marking the divisions on each side of it. 

" The third region is that which lies along the coast of the Mediterranean, 
at the foot of the ranges which extend in a parallel direction to it, and protect 
it from the piercing cold of winter, to which the middle division is exposed. 
The coast ot Western Andalusia, and the valley of the Guadalquivir, as far as 
Cordova, or Andujar, must be referred to this division. It is characterised 
by a dry and burning atmosphere, during part of the year, and a teropen^e 
winter which succeeds it; a portion of it having abundant rains^ whilst others 
depend on irrigation for the produce of their culture. The productions are, 
sugar, cotton, rice; the batata (sweet potato), and other firuits of southern 
climes ; and it is the favoured country of the lemon, orange* and palm. In 
it, at present, is almost exclusively found the scanty production of the mul- 
berry« It is difficult to assign arbitrary lines to the vegetation, or to afGuc the 
limits of it, as some species, properly belonging to it, spread into the upland 
region above it, the aloe and cactus, for instance; and the palm will, in. 
sheltered situations, resist the cold of Madrid, although its fruit only matures 
in this region : but the Cerat6nia ^Siliciudstrum (algarroba), which is a delicate 
tree, nearly all those in Catalonia being killed to the ground in the winter oC 



Foreign Notices : — Spain* 203 

1829«-30» or t^e beautiful oleander^ might serve as general boundary marks; 
Tiie Sals^lse, whieb pcoduce the barilla, and the liquorice root, are the exclu* 
sive produce of its soil. This division now contains no extensive forests, and 
timber is but scantily spread over its surface. It produces wine and oil in the 
greatest abundance, and of the best qualities. This region may be appro* 
priately named after one similarly situated in another hemisphere, the Tierra 
Caliente. 

*' These divisions^ which are founded on the arrangements of nature, will be 
oecasionally referred to in these sketches, in which the botanical department 
is omitted, excepting the important and neglected branch of the forests. 

'^ The southern and middle districts contain the most interesting botany of 
Spain : they realise what an eloquent modern writer said of Italy, which is 
naturally far inferior to it, that '* her waste is more than the fertility of other 
countries." This i& literally true of Spain, where, in the most wild and un* 
cultivated parts, the air is perfumed with delicious scents; the ovens are 
lighted, and the ores are smelted, with the most aromatic shrubs; and in cases 
<n epidemic, in many districts, they would send out to the Sierras for brush- 
wood to burn in the streets, con^dent that the aroma would ward off or 
disperse the pestilence. The syngenesious plants alone would reward a 
botanist for a toilsome journey. No country in Europe can compete with 
them in this class of vegetable production. The /ridacese and the Clstaceae 
are equally varied and abundant.. It is very much to be regretted that some 
use should not be made of a station so conveniently situated as Gibraltar, to 
forward the views of science in that most interesting locality, where^ with com- 
parative ease> and at a trifling expense, most valuable information might be 
obtained." (vol. ii. p. 216-^223.) 

Forests. — The forests of Spain have sufiered much from the destruction of 
the trees by the peasantry ; and though there is an excellent code of forest 
laws, they are inoperative from the general habit which prevails of evading 
their execution » Some of the most magnificent forests, in the Castiles, in 
Andalusia, and Estremadura have been passed by nearly unnoticed, both by 
native and foreign botanists, though the herbaceous plants have, in most parts 
of the country, been carefully examined by Gavanilles, Roxas de San-Clemente, 
And others. In the maritime district there are few forests naturally ; and a 
law, by which the king is proprietor of every tree in these districts fit for naval 
purposes, completely prevents them from being planted. 

*- Nothing can be done until the government resolutely puts an end to this 
system, by sweeping away every impediment, and enforces the execution of the 
laws, and the appropriation of common and waste lands to the purpose of 
planting. In many districts they may be said to be entirely without wood for 
any purpose, whilst the country around is in a state of wild and unproductive 
waste. This is the case in various parts of the Castiles, of Aragon, and of 
Andalusia and Estremadura. In the mining districts they are compelled, in 
many places, to burn the aromatic shrubs of the country, which are rapidly 
/consumed, and even now are becoming scarce, and are only suited for certain 
purposes ; whilst the more solid fuel must be brought coastwise from distant 
parts. In the cities, the fuel is becoming more and more scarce, and must 
generally be fetched from great distances. The increase of population is 
retarded by a system which deprives the tender child, or the sickly adult, 
of the means of resisting the severe winter cold which prevails over the 
greater part of Spain, and is the more felt after their burning summer. The 
destructive habit that has bared those plains, which, more than any other, 
require shelter from the ardent sun, is confined to no part or race in the 
country. Immediately after the conquest of the southern provinces from the 
Moors, who were careful protectors and cultivators of trees, the work of 
destruction commenced, and their extensive woods are now scarcely to be 
traced. The feeble remains of former habits are to be seen in some villages of 
the kingdom of Granada, where an ancient tree of large dimensipns, which has 

Q 4 



204 Foreign Notices : — Spain* 

Blood for ceDtnries, maybe observedy as in the villages in England, the object 
of respect and veneration to the people. The French inva«on has fearfully in- 
creased the destruction, by the wanton havoc always made by soldiers in time 
of war. The only people who are exempt from it, in some de^ee, are the 
people of the nortnern provinces, and tne CSatalaos and Valendans ; but in 
those provinces it is little better, and the mode of pruning or polling them, 
especially the pines, is ruinous to the growth of these trees. In Biscay they 
now cultivate scarcely any other than the beech, the worst «nd most unprofit- 
able of trees, under whose shade no v^etation thrives, in the maritime part 
of the free provinces, their building timber is the miserable pin de Landes, 
bought from the French, which is valueless, whilst their mountains would 
produce the finest timber. 

• « To give the most clear idea of the forest vegetation, especially in the ixn- 
portaat bearings of the successive elevations, or zones, two sections will be 
given : one (J^. 20.) extending across the Pyrenees to the west, and follow- 
ing the line of the Sierra de Cuenca, Sierra de S^ura, Sierra Nevada, and 
Serrania de Ronda, to Gibraltar ; the other [which will appear in a subse- 
quent extract] from Valencia, by the Sierra de Cuenca, the Sierra de Guadiff- 
rama, across Old Castile, by the Puerto de Pajares in the elevated range of 
Asturias, to the Bay of Biscay. These two lines intersect each other, and, 
by filling up the parts which they do not touch, will give a general idea of the 
natural forest system through the country. 

" The northern side of the High Pyrenees afibrds a coii4>lete example of 
successive zones, or Unes, of superposed vegetation, which can be traced along 
the flank of the higher range, by threading the mountains. between Bagneres 
deBigorre and de Luchon, and the -country east and west of these places, in 
the ascending series, the vine, chestnut, and oak of various species, are suo- 
ceeded by the beech, the silver fir, and a few of the Pinus sylvestris, or Scotch 
pine; and the highest and most inclement range, up to the limits of congelation, 
and the habitat of lichens and other Siberian plants, exclusively by the jF^nus 
uncinata, the most interesting tree of these regions. In descencfing, on the 
southern side, the Pinus sylvestris is again met with amongst the uncinkta; 
and, considerably lower, another speries, first described by La Peyrouse, as the 
P. Laricio, but, in the supplement to his flora of the range, as P. pyrenaica, a 
name most improperly apj^ied to a tree which scarcely belongs to it, but is 
placed on its southern foot. This species is first met with below the Peiia de 
Ventimilla, a magnificent gorge, about three leagues lower down 'than Venasque, 
in Aragon, and extends to the neighbourhood of Campo, where it forms ex- 
tensive forests, covering the district between the Cinca and the Essera, which 
are the main streams of the south side of the High Pyrenees, and are fed 
firom the glaciers of Mont Perdu and the Maladetta. This habitat is a tem- 
perate and dry region, at a moderate elevation above the plains of Lower 
Aragon. 

" This section must be understood to be carried over the jfiankg^ or sides, of 
the chain, and not as following the gorges or sinuosities of the wata: courses, 
which afford a regular but somewhat different succession, including the lime, 
elm, beech, oaks, alder, birch, mountain ash, various salices, and other shrubs, 
amongst which is the beautiful 5ambucus racemosa, an elder with clusters of 
bright scarlet berries, like bunches of grapes ; the yew and holly, whidi are 
found in the beech region near Bagneres de Luchon ; and the box, which occurs 
in tolerable quantity in ascending to Gavamie. In the high valleys, the last 
trees and shrubs correspond with those of the north of England, and above 
them, where it has not been destroyed, is invariably foimd the Pinus uncinata. 
The once magnificent beech forests of Bagneres de Luchon, the destruction of 
which commenced before the revolution, and was deplored by Arthur Young, 
no long^ exist but in the form of copse, in which that tree is of no value. 

<* The principal forests of the silver fir (Plcea pectinata) now remaining ar« 
in the country between the two Bagneres, in the Spanish valley of Aran, and 



Foreign Notices : — Spain, 205 



in the Western Pjreneesy where it ranges on both sides of the ehein. The 
P. sylvestris grows above it, but now in small quantity, and may be seen in the 
Lake of Gaube, where a scrap of natiye forest yet exists, owing to its having 
remained in possession of the government. In it the three species of pine, 
some of them of great antiquity, may be seen growing together, the uncmkta 
gradually taking the higher place. 

^ P. uncmdia, — The upper zone of this chain is formed entirely of the P, un- 
cinata, which is a species hitherto almost unknown, or unattended to, and whieh 
.is certainly one oi the most valuable trees in the European flora. The name 
was given in consequence of a peculiarly hooked form of the scales, which is 
extremely marked, especially just before maturity. This character has been 
disputed; but a very little practice and observation will enable any one to pro^ 
nounce without hesitation, on seeing the different colour and diaracter of 
the tree from those of its congener the sylv^tris. The cone is rougher, and 
of a different and more rugged texture, than that of the sylvestris, or any other 
I am acquainted with. . An additional proof of the hardiness of the tree is 
afforded by the early ripening of the cones. I gathered some in the Valley of 
Andorre in July, which were full formed, at a season when those of southern 
climates are yet far behind in vegetation. The reason of this admirable 
arrangement is evident. In these elevated regions the season of vegetation is 
so short, that the operations of fructification must be proportionably accele- 
rated, to insure their completion. The seed from these cones vegetated ; mid 
it is of great importance to be aware of this fact, because the collecting the 
seed of this species is difficult, in many seasons, from the early falling of tlK 
snow. The ride I followed was, to select the cones when they had assumed a 
brown green, and cut dry to the knife. On opening them in this state, the 
seeds will be found quite formed, in the state of a green almond when it is eaten. 
It is of the last importance that they should not be taken out of the cones 
until the planting season, and that they should be kept dry. I had a quantity 
nx)iled by some wet moss, from other plants being imprudently packed with 
daem, in my absence. The port and bearing, as well as colour, are quite 
difierent from those of any other species. The form, where the tree is fairly 
developed, is round and massy, frequently resembling that of some of the 
deciduous trees, the long arms sweeping the ground. The foliage is longer, 
and much more tangled, than that of the Scotch pine, and the green much more 
intense. It is so dark, that the Spanish woodmen distinguish it by the name 
of pmo negro, the two varieties of the sylv^tris being called bianco and roseo. 
The growth, as far as I could judge, t^peared to be about the same, or of 
rather greater, rapidity than that of the Scotch pine. The wood is highly 
resinous, so much so that it serves for torches; and it is reputed in the 
Pyrenees to be of very great duration. A peculiar quality, which, if it suc- 
ceed in other respects, will make it invaluable in some parts of England, is 
that of resisting the wind. In the most elevated and inclement regions, where 
I have observed the tree in every form and situation, I never saw an instance 
where the wind appeared to affect it, nor where it showed a weather side. At 
the upper limits of its habitat, where it is compelled to yield to the law of 
nature, and lower its ' diminished head,' the same rule is observed, and, instead 
of the stunted and starveling appearance of the rest of the tribe in similar 
situations, it assumes the shape of a furze bush, presenting an impenetrable 
and bristling front of dark spicula on every side, the stem or branches being 
quite undiscoverable. This is the species to which the name of pyren^ica 
ought to have been given, it being, as far as observations have yet been made, 
peculiar to that chain. It may be expected to form a valuable addition to our 
forest trees ; and it is singular that it should have hitherto been nearly un- 
noticed. It is mentioned in Sweet's catalogue as introduced in 1820 ; but, in 
the botanical garden at Glasnevin, near Dublin, is an individual of mudi 
longer standing. I have not seen that tree since I visited the Pyrenees, but 
I have little doubt, from the recollection of it^ that it is the right sort. I 



206 Foreign Notices : — Spain. 

«ould obtain no certain information of its history : most probably it came from 
Paris. 

*' The republic of Andorre occupies a wild and alpine valley opposite to 
that of the Arri^, the waters falling to the side of Catalonia, and joining 
those of the Segre. The lofty ranges which bound this valley are clothed 
with P, uncinata, and, alone in the Pyrenees, it resembles those of Switzer- 
land, the lower part being covered with walnuts and other deciduous trees, 
and the upper parts with continuous masses of dark pine of this species. 

" 7%e rhododendron ferrugjmeian grows in the valley in prodigious quantities, 
attesting its elevated situation ; and in the high pastures, above the trees, is 
the habitat of the beautiful Gentiana pyrenMca, and other rare plants* These 
are the sites where this species is now found ; and I conceive it nas never been 
much extended beyond the Arriege to the east, and the Lac de Gaube and its 
district to the west, being replaced by the silver fir and Scotch pine, as the 
chain respectively declines in height to its flanks. It is found both on the 
primary and secondary formations ; and I am not aware of any difference in its 
growth, in these different soils. 

" "Ptnus pyrendica, — We now proceed to the P. pyrenkica of La Peyrouse, 
which grows at the foot of the chain, immediately opposite the highest range, 
and at an elevation, probably, from 2000 ft. to 4000 ft. La Peyrouse had 
never seen these trees ; but described them, as I have been informed, from 
the reports of others, who brought the cones and branches to him, conse- 
quently the original description in the work is quite erroneous. That in the 
supplement is, however, extremely accurate. I believe M. la Peyrouse was 
indebted for his information respecting this tree, and many plants of the 
southern side of the Pyrenees, to M. Paul Boileau, now maire of Bagneres 
de Luchon. The foliage is of a light grass green, quite unlike any other 
European species. The spicula are very long, and of free growth. The tree 
is of elegant and noble form, and more resembles those of southern climates 
than most of the European sorts. The cones are of a light reddish green, and 
the seed is enclosed in a thin shell. The wood is not bad, but is of much in- 
ferior value to the other kinds which grow above it. I visited the place where 
these trees commence to appear, in the autumn of 1829, and procured some 
cones, as well as some from the trees in the garden of M. la Peyrouse, near 
Toulouse (now in the possession of his son, to whom I was indebted for them), 
where the trees planted about thirty years since are now of large size. On 
observing the real habitat of this tree, the impropriety of the name is evident ; 
but subsequent observations will show that it has -a much wider range, and 
ought to have a different denomination. There are other species mentioned 
in the list of La Peyrouse j but, in the various tours I made in the Pyrenees, 
I never met with any other than the three species above mentioned. 

** The P. pumilio I believe to be only the stunted uncinata at a great 
elevation. 

'' A^hiet communu and Itdrix europce^a, — Neither the spruce nor larch 
(if bies commiinis and Lknx. europse^a) exists in the Pyrenees, nor, I firmly 
believe, in any part of Spain. A contrary opinion is held in the country 
respecting the larch ; but, after much enquiry and observation, I am quite satis- 
fied that the real larch neither exists, nor has existed, in Spain. The word 
eUerce certainly would appear to be connected with Xkrix ; but even if the 
Arab derivation, mentioned as traced by Mr. Drummond in the account df 
Cordova, were incorrect, which there is no reason to suppose, words do not 
prove the existence or identity of species. The practice of Spain alone, where 
the same words are applied to different trees in almost every province, would 

Erove the fallacy of depending on etymology to solve questions of natural 
istory. 

'^ The Oaks on the north side of the Pyrenees are, the iZobur, of both kinds ; 
the Toza, or Tauzin, and its variety the pubescens ; the curious variety, the 
fastigiata, or cypress oak, which is found in the route to Gavamie ; and ano- 
ther variety of which I am ignorant of tht name, the acorns having failed. It 



v^ 



jtbreign Notices : — Spain. 20Y 

bas peculiarly large buds and shoots, and an ill-sbapen leaf, and grows also in 
Asturias. Below towards Cayonne, and, I believe, on the opposite flank, in 
Languedoc and Roussillon, the Q. Siiber (cork tree) abounds, but no ever- 
green oak b seen on the northern side of the High Pyrenees. On the Spanish 
side, high up, in the Pena de Ventimilla, and at the village of Andorre, are 
found the first evergreen oaks. In Aragon they are termed the alcina, and 
are of the species which will be more particularly described hereafter as the 
Spanish oak. The elm described by La Peyrouse as a variety of montana^ 
under the name of m. pyrenaica, if it be a variety, grows on the Malvern Hills, 
where are two Malices which are also common in the Pyrenees. 

20 



Forest Section aero$$ the High Pyreneet. 

Jj, PUun of Languedoc M, Mediterranean. K, North fide. S, South tide. a, Lowei 
region, oak, chestnut, lime, &c. A, Beech and yew, holly, elder, &c. c. Silver fir and Sootd 
pine. tf, <f, Plnuf uncinilta. e, Scotch pine.' /, P. pyrenaica of Lapeyrou«e, supposed U 
he identical wKh P. hisp&nica of the Sierra de Segura. gy P. halep^nsia. 

*' Sierra de Cuenca, — The section is now carried across the Ebro, and the 
treeless plains of Aragon, to the Sierra de Cuenca. The lower zone of tha 
range, on the south side, is the P. halepensis ; above which, and mingled witl 
it, but now nearly extinct, is found the P. Pinaster ; and above that, occu 
pying the highest part of the range, I found the P. sylvestris. I have ever} 
reason to believe that there is no species at a higher level than this, whicr, 
supplies Madrid with building timber, floated down by the Tagus to Aranjuez. 
This species is named by the woodmen alvar, and I saw it in the Val de 
Cabras, about three leagues from the city of Cuenca ; the whole intervening 
mnes, on the route from the city, being now exclusiveljr the P, halepensis. 
Travelling to the west from this, we again cross the plains of La Mancha, 
and reach the Sierra de Segura, which is described in a visit to it. The 
upper zone of this vast district is covered by a tree, undescribed by any 
Spanish or other author, to my knowledge, unless it be the same as that 
noticed by Roxas de San-Clemente, as growing on the Sierra de Baza, which 
is a detached fragment of this range at its southern end, and called by him 
Pinaster hispanicus. 

** The description of this tree is so exactly identical with that of Aragon, that 
J am quite convinced they are the same, and they grow at similar elevations. 
The cones of both these species are now in England; and, as they have vege- 
tated at the garden of the Horticultural Society, and other places, it will be 
known certainly whether they are identical, of which I have not the smallest 
doubt) firom ample examination and opportunity of judging. The height of 
range of this species, in the localities mentioned, may be taken at from 
2000 ft. to 40001):., and in the Sierra de Segura somewhat more. One pecu- 
liarity is to be observed in the cones of this species. A quantity I brought 
from the spot were packed amongst geological specimens, and opened at 
Somerset House diuing the heat of summer^ when a delicious perfume, a per- 
fect '* Sabsean odour " exhaled from them, but was quickly lost in the gases 
of an atmosphere very unlike that of its native Sierra. 

From a variety of concurrent and cross testimony, I have no doubt what- 
ever that this same species exists in the Sierra de Cuenca, in that part of it to 
the south, where are the sources of the Gabriel, the chief subsidiary of the 
Xucar. This district is called the Marquesado de Moya, and the timber of it 
is floated down to Valencia, where it is known in the timber-yards by the 
game of pino bianco. As the species is peculiar to the country, and is thus 



208 Foreign Notices : — S^'ia. 

widely spread, it ought to be denominated P. hisp&nica. The tree would be a 
noble sadition to our park or ornamental kinds, from the differences of its 
foliage from the common kinds, and the beauty of the form. It is essential to 
observe that its native habitats are entirely on limestone. The timber cannot 
be called good, but is of middling quality, probably a little better than that of 
the silver fir. It is white and dry, without much turpentine, and by the navy 
was used for de6ks and similar jiurposes. The lower zone of the Sierra de 
Segura is of halepensis. There is said to be P. Pinea ; but it never occurred 
in the wide range I took through those forests. This forest supplies the 
building timber of Granada, at least the best quality, the forests of T, Plnea, 
which probablv supplied the Moors, being now extinct. South of the Sierra 
de Segura is the Sierra Nevada, on the north side of which are now no pine 
forests, or even remains of them. In the neighbourhood of Loxa are remnants 
of halepensis, which supply their scanty stock of fuel. On the southern side, 
the forest of Macael, wnich is in an elevated situation of the Sierra de Filabres, 
is of halepensis. The woodwork of the Alhambra appeared to me to be oS 
the P. Pinea, or stone pine ; and I have no doubt forests of it existed in the 
time of the Moors. It is still called, in that district, pino real, probably from 
the use made of the wood. Pinos del Rey, and Pinos del Valle, vil^es in 
sites, no doubt, named from local causes, are now without them, as is Pinos del 
Puente, on the outskirts of the Vega. 

'* The Serrania de Ronda terminates the southern section of the forests. 
In the barrancos and river courses is P. Pin&ster, which is used at Marbella 
for smelting the iron ore. Mixed with it, but lower down, is P. halepensis, 
and to the western side, I believe, the Pfnea. High up, on the most elevated 
ridges of the Serrania, is a species I have not been able to classify, and know 
only by the vague descriptions of the natives, obtained too late to enable me to 
visit the place. It grows on S. Cristobal, and the Sierra ^e la Nieve^ and is 
not improbably, from the description, P. sylv^stris. 

{To be cantinuedJ) 

SYRIA. 

The following is an extract from a letter lately received from J. W. Farren, 
Esq., the British consul at Damascus, by Wm. Wingfield, juir., Esq., son of 
Wm. Wingfield, Esq., of Theobald's, Cheshunt, whose lady, Mrs. Wingfield, 
being possessed of an excellent taste for ornamental gardening, and being, at 
the same time, an ardent admirer of the beauties of Flora, has had the honour 
of first introducing the dahlia into that part of the world ; and who, in order 
to meet the wishes of the consul, has a^n very lately forwarded a package, 
containing a variety of articles both in s^s and plants, such as will, no doubt, 
be received with much pleasure. The extract is as follows : — '*I have often 
intended to write you a few lines of acknowledgment and thanks for the very 
beautiful dahlias you sent us ; and you will be gratified to learn, that they have 
flourished in perfection; and that, ^while you are the first to introduce that 
beautiful flower into Syria, it has ornamented the fair foreheads of all the 
Circassians in the richest harems of Damascus ; has decked the bridal gar- 
ment, and publicly ornamented the tomb. Indeed, you have no idea of the 
enjoyment your kind attention has been the cause of. The house in which we 
reside is really an Oriental palace; courts, gardens, terraces, marble pavements, 
fountains, and jets-d'eau, &c. : and you can scarcely hare an idea of the 
luxury of these mansions. We are having one of the gardens laid out in the 
English style: the dahlias have been taken up ; and, in replanting them, we shdl 
follow the directions given by you. You must not diink me inconsiderate in 
saying that we look forward with pleasure for the pelargoniums, and other 
seeds and roots, which we hear you had intended for us. You know what a 
scarcity of choice flowers and plants there is in Syria, and what a treasure 
they are here, and how admked by the natives. I have just had sonke bulbous 



Foreign Notices : — India^ North America, 209 

roots from France of the double orange lilies, tulips, &c., which I hope to 
ouhivate. You recollect our pelargoniums (those sent over by Bfrs.V^ngndd): 
there is no other sort in the country; nor is there such a flower as the mosg 
rose in Asiatic Turkey." 

^ ' While it appears that the splendour of the Orientals at Damascus is not 
inferior to many other places m the East, and that the gardens, in point of 
extent and scenery, may be imposing, yet it is evident that floriculture is at a 
low ebb ; while, at the same time, uie soil and climate in Syria are such as to 
induce us to believe that no country in the world can offer greater facilities 
for the growth and perfection of a vast number of the most splendid flowers 
now known, which may be inferred. fronj what the country in other respects 
produces ; as it is said that ** it abounds in oil, corn, and several sorts of fruits, 
and peas, beans, and all kinds of pulse and garden stuff," and that there are 
to be seen *' the finest plains and pastures in the world." Should, therefore, 
this spirit for floriculture at Damascus continue to be indulged, and be fostered 
by the kind liberality of individuals in Europe, even Syria may shortly become 
possessed of the beauties of Flora in many of her richest varieties. — T, Rutger* 
Portland PlacCy March, 1836. 

INDIA. 

Botanic Garden, Calcutta, Feb, 16. 1835. (Extract of a letter from Dr. 
Wallich to Messrs. Loddi^es.) — The plants you sent me by the Asia arrived in 
the most beautiful condition. Your plan has therefore succeeded admirably ; 
viz. that of sending plants rooted in peat moss [live plants of iSbh&gnum], 
enclosed in almost hermetically sealed boxes. I opened the box m the pre- 
sence of several friends, who were almost as much delighted as myself on the 
occasion. The moss was, with very little exception, as fi^esh almost as the 
day 3^ou put it into the box, and as wet as if it had just been taken out of its 
native place of growth. I should say that double the quantity of light, indeed 
as mucn light as could possibly be given, would have added to the success of 
this most ingenious plan. The fuchsias and alstroemerias were very much 
drawn up and blanched. It would be desirable to have many small panes 
fixed into the lead on future occasions, taking care to secure them well with 
iron cross-bars. If you could employ some panes of very thick glass, I would 
take care to use these panes again when I send you similar collections. I 
subjoin a list of the plants that were alive : — Oalathea (Mar6nta^ zebrlna, 
C6nna iridiflora; Alstroemeria pulchella, psittaclna, tricolor, oculata [Lod- 
diges's Bot^ Cab., 1851. ; the SalsUla L. ; but not the SaldUa of some of the 
botanists of Britain, which is ediilis Tussac. {Mr, D,Don, in Brit, Flow,'- 
Gard*, and quoted in G. M., xi. 77. >] ; Fuchsia bacilldris, strfcta, globdsa, 
virgata ; Cactus chil^nsis, Phycella glauca, Habranthus robustus, 5isyr(nchiunx 
chU^nse, Duvaua (iS^chinus) dentata, SopKbra macrocarpa, Stemddia chil^nsis, 
Pemettia (^ rbutus) mucronata [See G. M., x. 286.], Lobelfa mucron^ta, 
Billbergia Mcolor, Tillandsia (Billbergt0) amoe^na, humilis. 

NORTH AMERICA. 

Lemon HUl, Philadelphia, Aug, 18. 1835. I have now been more than 
three years in this country, and continue to like it well. I should have written 
much sooner ; but, as I was in no settled situation till now, I postponed it. I 
have great pleasure in saying that we are here making rapid strides in the 
science of horticulture, and the time is not far distant when we shall be able 
to compete with our brethren over the water. A number of houses entirely 
for the forcing of foreign grapes are now building round Philadelphia, one 
520 ft. in length ; and in the city, green-houses, hot-houses, camelha-houses, 
and propagating^houses are being erected. There is more glass going to be 
put up this season- than on any former occasion. A magazine similar to your 
own is now established, conducted by Messrs. Hovey of Boston [see Vol. XL 
p. 530.],. There is a Eva^6Ma here, that was introduced in 1828, from 



210 Foreign Notices •• — South America* 

Mexico, by Mr. Poinsette. It went under the name of E. heterophf Da fcnr a 
few years, until it8 true character became more constaacuouB. it was then 
named Poinsettn, in honour of Mr. Poinsette, by Mr. Kobert Buist, nursery- 
man and florist, Philadelphia. Last winter it was surprisingly grand with me 
in the stove. The bractefe were 18in., and on some plants 20in.,in diameter, and 
of the most brilliant scarlet, remaining in the greatest [>erfection from the first 
of December to the latter end of March, and forming, during the solitary 
months of winter, a most magnificent ornament to our collections. It is easy 
of cultivation, and certain of flowering regularly, if kept in the warmest situaF- 
don of the house. I treat it in every respect the same as a eeranium, except 
keeping it in the hot-house during winter. About the middfe of May, I cut 
down the last year's wood, which is commonly from 3 ft. to 4 ft. in length, 
leaving one or two eyes according to the strength of the plant. The wood 
that is cut off will be found to make the finest plants from cuttings, making the 
cuttings three or four days previous to their being planted, so as to dry the 
milky substance that comes from them. After the plants are struck, they 
ought to be put out. of the pots into the open nround, and taken up, with the 
greatest of care, with lai^ balls of earth. You have no idea what a fine 
addition this is to the stove. Every collection about London, or in Europe, 
should procure a plant of it, if it is not with you already. I never saw diis 
plant either in Scotland or England, and can with confidence say it is the finest 
thing I have ever seen : some call it the Dutchman's parasol. You seem to 
doubt (Vol XI. p. 530.) about there being a male and female Macli!kra aurantiaca, 
or Osage orange, in the nursery of Mrs. M*Mahon, near Philadelphia There are 
four old trees in that nursery, three females and one male. Only the female 
that stands alongside of the male produces perfect seeds. The other females 
are about 30 yards from the male, and their firuit is abortive, and is not near 
so large as the fruit from the productive tree. The above facts became pub- 
licly luiown in 1832, while the nursery was in the possession of the late firm of 
Hibbert and Buist. I have not the smallest doubt but the Maclurfli would 
produce fruit in the south of England by planting a male and female close to« 
gether. It is generally supposed that the wood will make an excellent yellow 
dye. Should you deem these remarks woithy of a place in your Magazine, I 
think it will be the means of our nurserymen exporting euphorbias. I shall 
continue with pleasure to inform you of anything that may come under my own 
observation. — Peter Mackenzie, Gardener to Henry Pratt, Esq^, Lemon HUl^ 
Philadelphia. 

Our correspondent is so kind as to offer to send us certain dried specimens 
and native plants. We should prefer to them seeds of trees and shrubs, if it 
would not give him too much trouble to collect them. We particularly wish 
acorns and nuts, and these should be packed in moist iSphagnum, as soon as 
convenient after they are gathered, in order to preserve the vital principle. If 
they vegetate during the voyage it will be of no bad consequence. — Cond. 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

Hie Timber Trees which grow in the Neighbourhood of Caraccas,-^! have just 
received from Sir Robert Ker Porter a valuable box of specimens of the 
various timber trees which grow in the neighbourhood of Caraccas^ most of 
which promise to become of ^eat commercial importance, when the state of 
society admits of the formation of roads and other conveniences for felling, 
transporting, and shipping them. At present they are of no commercial or 
other earthly value. I regret that among them I have no specimen of the 
aguatire (Sichingia Erythrdxylon Humb,), which abounds on the mountmns 
of Higuerote, and fiirnishes a timber of the most beautiful blood-red hue, and 
compact grain : of this I have been labouring in vain for years to obtain a 
specimen. Sir Robert gives me only the local names of specimens he has sent, 
which prevents my learning anything farther about them ; nor has he accom- 
panied them, as I requested, by specimens of their leaves, flowers, or fiuit. 



Foreign Notices : — West Indies. 211 

Among th^m ar6 two spedmebs of cedar; one inscribed Gedro amargo, or 
Bitter cedar, and the other Cedro dulce, or Sweet cedar ; both of the colour 
of new mahogany, and both exhaling the cedar odour strongly : their resem* 
blanoe is such, that, but for the difference of name, I should have concluded 
them to be taken from the same tree. Whether the specimens are the produce 
of a Pinus Jiiniperus, or what, I cannot say. They do not appear to me to 
resemble the timber of any of the bignonias, several of which are vulearly deno* 
minated cedars ; as the B. leuc6xylon, or white wood, and B. pentaph^Ua; both 
of which are called white cedar in our English islands ; but the timber of which 
is white, and of a totally different grain and texture, as well as destitute of 
smell ; while the specimens sent have not only the red colour, but the grain 
and peculiar odour, of the Bermuda cedar. One of the other specimens re- 
sembles satin wood ; and one or two others, which probably come from some 
of the species of Br6wnsa, the timber of which is known in this country under 
the^ name of zebra wood, appear as handsome as rose wood, and are close 
grained and heavy. Should an opportunity of private conveyance offer, I shall 
cut off a piece from each specimen, and send it to vou, accompanied by its local 
name. Upon referring again to the specimens, 1 find a considerable difference 
in colour and grain between the Cedro dulce and the Cedro amargo; and 
neither are so red as the Bermuda cedar : the smell of the former, also, is 
fainter, and its colour paler, than those of the latter. The wood resembling rose 
wood is labelled Chacarandan ; and, from its weight, its specific gravity must 
be considerable. 

Besides these. Sir Kobert has sent me six seeds of the wax tree of Guayana, 
accompanied by nearly six inches of a candle made from the wax. Enclosed you 
will find two of these seeds accompanied by some of the wax (as it is called, 
although evidently a resinous substance, and not sebaceous), which I took off 
the upper part of the candle. Should you desire more, I shall gladly send it to 
you. Sir Robert says the tree producing it is called by the Indians Cuajo ; 
the j aspirated, like ho. He says it is a large and shady tree, but professes him- 
self ignorant as to the manner m which the wax is obtained. I nope you will 
be able to make the seeds v^etate, and that you will succeed in determining 
what the tree is. Party spirit runs so high here, that I fear I shall be unable 
^o execute your commission. I have tried two different quarters, but, as yet, 
without effect.— W. Hamilton. Plymouth^ April 15. 1835, 

WEST INDIES. 

The PracticahiUty of cultivating Wheat y and other Articles of Agricultural Pro* 
duce, at certain Elevations, in the West Indies, — The problem of the practica- 
bility of cultivating wheat at certain elevations in the West Indies, which vulgar 
opinion absolutely denied, and which the remarks of Humboldt rendered at least 
questionable, is now solved, as far, at least, as Jamaica is concerned, in the 
most satisfactory manner ; and I think I may be allowed to anticipate the day 
when wheat will be added to our other imports from that fine colony, and tend 
materially to the advantage both of the parent state and the inhabitants of the 
island. Dr. Bancroft's information on this subject is as follows ; -^ 

" Victoria Wheat. The Jamaic^ Society have received samples, from three 
or four different places, of the wheat_ppoduced there, all of which appear to 
be of a favourable sort. First, from the mountains of St. Ann's, where the seed 
had been sown in the latter end of January, and the corn was ripe the latter 
end of April. In another part of the same district, the dates of sowing differed 
from the above, but the wheat ripened in nearly the same periods Secondly, from 
the mountains of St. Andrew's: on one property (Fair Hill), the sowing and 
the ripening happened at the same dates as in the first-mentioned case. Of this 
corn, one grain produced 28 ears, containing 1500 grains. Notwithstanding 
this apparent success, the proprietor of the place thinks it unlikely that planters 
would grow Victoria wheat in preference to the great corn, as it is called here 



212 Foreign Notices : — West Indies. 

(i. e. Z^ Mdys), On another plantation, again, Charlottenberg, the seed was 
sown early in March, and received a top dressing in the course of a few days : 
it had ah'^idy sprung three inches above ground ; and, as fevourable moderate 
rains continued to mil subsequently, the com throve well, and ripened in the 
early part of June, producing abundantly grain of a larger size than the parent 
seed ; the ears being, in general, large ancf full. Six of these, for instance, yielded 
336 grains, weighing three ounces ; making an average of 56 grains, weighing 
half an ounce, to each ear. The owner of this plantation, Mr. W. B. King, an 
assistant judge of assize, and member of assembly, has since sent me two 
bundles of the ears of his wheat ; and I intend to enclose one or two of them as 
a specimen of the produce of the Victoria wheat here. From a trial just made, 
Mr. King has no doubt that this grain could be cultivated in many parts of this 
island, and that it might become a profitable resource.*' 

I have no time to comment upon this, farther than to observe, that, besides 
furnishing a practical refutation of a vul^ and pernicious error, it opens a field 
to much cunous and valuable speculation. From the similarity of climate, I 
conceive that, if any wheat was likely to succeed, the Victoria held out the best 
chance, and, accordingly, sent an ample supply by different channels. The ex- 
periment having so far triumphantly succeeded, and Humboldt's period, of from 
70 to 74 days between seed time and harvest, having been in every instance 
verified, it will be worth while to try other varieties of wheat; and, if any of your 
correspondents will supply me (post free) with samples of the most approved 
sorts of wheat, I shall gladly transmit them to Jamaica. I regret that Dr. Bancroft 
has omitted the dates of sowing and ripening, the elevation above the sea, and 
the mean temperature of the months during which the wheat was growing. 

The TrifbUum incamdtum, of which I sent out several supplies of seed, has 
succeeded admirably at Charlottenberg, at an elevation of 4000 fb., wher^it has 
grown and flourished luxuriantly, and has since produced seed. At Fair Hill, 
in the mountains of St. Andrew's, a considerable patch, which was planted at 
an elevation of about 2000 f^. above the sea, after flourishing well for a few 
weeks, was destroyed by the occurrence of a long drought. In an island 
where fodder is so scarce as in Jamaica, this plant promises to be of much 
importance. 

. O'xalU crendta. The climate appears to be too hot and dry for the O^xalis 
crenata: further experiments, however, may exhibit more favourable results. 

The Pita does not appears to realise my expectations, either from the un- 
suitableness of the soil, or the want of humidity, or other causes, which, at this 
distance, I am unable to ascertain. Could i personally visit that part of the 
province of Carthagena in which it grows spontaneously, I should be able to de- 
termine the circumstances essential to its culture ; in point of climate, that of 
Jamaica must correspond closely with its own. On this point, however, I antici- 
pate favourable reports. Dr. Bancroft has sent me a few seeds of the Cheno- 
podium Qtiinoa from Quito ; and of a plant called TomcUa de Arhaly said to be 
a native of the equator, but the seeds of which he received from the alpine 
regions of Antioquia, where its fruit is used in cookery, like the true tomata 
(Lycopersicum edule), and is also considered as a very palatable food when 
eaten by itself. 

Dr. Bancroft says the name of tree tomata {Tomata deArboT) is given to it, not 
from any affinity it bears (as far as he could learn) to the genus iS'olanum, but 
from the analogous use of its fruit : from the appearance of the seed, however, 
and a leaf whicn he sent me, I suspect it will prove to be a iS'olanum, and, pos- 
sibly, the S, quit^nse ; only that the leaf sent (nearly 8 in. lon^ by 4 in. broad) 
is oblong-ovate, acuminated, very entire, hearted at the base, with the lobes un- 
equal, and overlapping the midrib ; contrary to what is usual, waved, together 
with the primary veins. This, however, may be the effect of bad drying ; Dr. Ban- 
croft saying *' it was not properly pressed when first gathered, and it has, con- 
sequently, shriveled in lengtn and breadth, being at least one inch shorter than 
at first." The leaves of the S, quitense are, I believe, lobed. Dr. Bancroft says, 
** To what genus or order it may belong, I cannot at present tell. I am informed 



DoiKcvMr Nffl^kes. ; '^England. € 13 

{present 4I0 •ooosider it, »t «Qtt, raiihfr «8 a «hrubl>y troe jthw ws » tfm >prof]ier : 
jMEsbaps it wiH f)rove .to be ^only a itall hdolNUKoiw pkvokt. Sonoe <ttf 4lie •mds 
J diambMtfld o»ve been sown m the mountains, and Jbuvc aironcly grown 
^ tii^ iielght 'Of abo«ft t5 in^ iftnd :ppockK:ed leaves whiqh are oompairativ^y of 
an coonwoivs aiae." This plant will probably be a conaervatory one, if jM«t 
ft Wdy annual in this country, *-» ^. HwiiUinu Ot^fitrd Piaot^ Flymouth, 



Aat. III. Domestic Notices^ 

ENOLAND. 

A PLdin^ofBrtigm&ndasuaveolenSjgtowa in the gajrdeA of Kichard Durant, 
*£sq^ Putney Hill, and now in flower there, wa^ propagated from a cutting in 
August 1833. It is in a pot 12 jn^ deep, by 13 in. over; its he^ht isSfl.; 
and it lias a single «tem 2 ft« high^ with a spreading top, the circumference of 
which i&19ft. It shows at the present time 102 flowers and flower buds, 80 
of which are expanded. Each of its pure white trumpet-like flowers measures 
53 square-inches ; so that it wili,.in about four w.eeks from its first banning to 
flowerj^produce 8586 square inches of flower, and^all from less than one solid foot 
of mould. We have another Brugm^nsior, that was exhibited at Chiswick last 
year, three years 6ld» which had upon it, thirteen weeks before the exhibit 
tion^ 2S8 flowers and flower buds. Another, now in flower^ one year ol^ 
^rowin^ in a pot, size 16, has 40 flowers upon it. — JT. Spenfie^ Rutney Hiu, 
Oct. 14. 1835. 

^We shsltl be glad to receive an account of the mode in which this plant was 
grown. — Coifrf, 

^ ^Brugm&nsxdi suavioliens W. grown in the same sort of loam and peat as men- 
tioned above, is 16.ft. high, and had 700 flowers on it during the year 1835. 
'The flowers, when expanded, were, on an average, 1 ft. long, and 36 in. in cir^ 
cumference at the mouth. The conservatory is about 60 fl. by 30 ft., built by 
P. Robinson, Esq., ar(!hitect ; and the height of the dome is 30 ft. It is the 
best place in the country to grow camellias ; and the worthy owner (R. Wil- 
liams, Esq., M.P.) spares no expense to beautify his mansion, and extensive 
pleasure-grounds; and, if he continue to enjarge thei^ (as I have no doubt he 
will), they will be the finest grounds m the. country ..-^Jamei Harbison, Brides 
head koute^ Feb. ID. 1836. 

The CAimondnthuM ;/i'%nwu 'has produced fruit, ajsp^cimen of which I send 
joju: It does. not often fruit here; in the neighbourhood of London it may, 
probably, do so morefvequently, -^ Id^ 

MtriJemerias in the open 4ir iu JOetyonshire, '— I send herewith a Stem of 
Alstroemecia.ovata, 14.ft. long (Loddiges),; and another of A. hirtella, 11 f^. 
long (Ta^y to «how, in proof of what I stated in ,a paper on acclimatising 
trees, .whicni«ent,vou some time since [and which shall appear in. an early 
i^umberl, the great luxuriance with which .they grow in the open air in Devon. 
^^S.iGiendismitfg, Bicton. Gardens, near JS^eter, August 22, 1835. 

'JMhfrus rotundifoUus W.,<though one of the very handsomest of it^ genu^^ 
i?. It believe, in but few collections at present; yet few plants are more orna^ 
'mental, or more deserving a place in the flower-garden, than this beautiful 
pea. It is a.perennial, quite hardy, and not much of a climber, as it seldom 
exceeds 3 ft., or at most 4 ft., in height It is a free flowerer, and produces its 
loqguprttht racemes of delicate rose-coloured blossoms as early as the first 
or secondweek.in.AiIay, a month earlier than. most. other species of its genus. 
It generally ripens its seeds, by which, and also by dividing the roots, it may 
1)6 .readily increased. According to all the authors that I have had an oppor- 
tunitv of consulting, it is stated to have beep first brought to England in 1822; 
but this cannot be the true date of its first. introduction to this country, for it 
18 certain that it was cultivated in the Oxford garden, before the late Dr. Wil- 

VoL.XII.— No. 73. B 



214 Entomological Society* 

liams was appointed to the botanical professorshm, in 1795 ; and I know that 
he considered it to have been introduced to Oxford by his predecessor. Dr. 
John Sibthorp, who enriched the garden by the introduction of a great num- 
ber of plants from Greece, and other foreign countries. As far as I have ob- 
served, there is no specimen of this lathyrus in the Sibthorpean Herbarium ; 
neither is it described in the Flora Grceca. The earliest account I find of it is 
in the Annmls of Botany y by Konig and l^ms (vol. ii. p. 451.), where it is 
described as a newly discovered plant, in a paper entitled '* Some Account of 
the Vegetable Productions of the Countries situated between the Terek and 
Kur, rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea. Extracted from a description of 
these parts by F. It. Marschall von Bieberstein." The work of M. Bieber- 
stein from which the extracts were made was published, according to the 
Annals of Botany, in 1800; and, in the same year. Professor Willdenow pub- 
lished the name of this plant in the third volume of his edition of Linnaeus's 
Species Plantarum, p. 1088« : this was six years after the death of Dr. Sibthorp ; 
by whom, I think, there is no doubt the plant was introduced into the Oxford 
Garden. It appears not to have been in the Kew Garden in 1812, when the 
second edition of the Hortus Kewensis was published. It has been recently 
figured and described in Maund's Botanic Garden.; but, as I have no access to 
that work, I am unable to refer to the plate in which it is figured, [t. 51L] -* 
JVilliam Baxter. Botanic Garden, Oxford, March 7. 1836. 

Jponue'a rubro-Kxerulea, — Many persons are deterred from cultivating this 
beautiful plant, from the idea that it requires a stove to bring it to perfection. 
This, however, is not the case, as nothing could be more splendid than the bios* 
soms on a plant which I had last summer, in a pot in the open air. Three or 
four large magnificent blossoms, of a most brilliant ultramarme blue, expanded 
every morning for several weeks, dying off a pale pink; and in the end the 
plant produced several pods of ripe seeds. It was raised in heat, and trained 
up a slight fi'ame, but received no farther culture, except occasional watering. 
— F. Bauck. Bayswater, Oct, 28, 1835. 

StrelitzisL augitsta H. K. — A magnificent specimen of this plant is now in 
fine flower in the stove of Joseph Wilson, Esq., Clapham Common, under 
the care of my very esteemed friend Mr. Joseph Gunner, who is gardener 
there.— W. P., jun. Wandsworth Road^ March 1. 1836. 



Art. IV. Entomological Society^ 

Tub labours of this most usefufl -Society, though only lately commenced, 
will ultimately be of immense advantage to the gardener and the farmer. We 
can strongly recommend these Transactions (in two parts. Is, 6d. each) to 
all who can afford to purchase them ; and, at all events, to all gardening and 
agricultural societies, and to all county book clubs. Mankind in general know 
little of the gigantic operations that are performed by insects, and of the 
immense influence which creatures, that could not be seen with the naked eye 
by our rude ancestors, have directly and indirectly on hnman happiness. We 
intend, from time to time, to notice the progress of this Society, as far as 
respects vegetable cultivaticm ; and, in the mean time, we give the following 
extract from the Address on the Second Anniversary^ by the Kev. F. W. Hope, 
President :— 

'* In Grenada, the Cicada (Delphax saccharivora Westwood, Mag, of Nat. 
Hist,, vol. vi. p. 407 — 413.; vol. vii. p. 496.) still continues its ravages on 
the sugar canes, and I regret to state that two thirds of the crop are already 
destroyed. A species of C<5ccus, which infests our hot-houses, prevents the 
l^ne-apple from arriving at perfection. In various counties, arising, probably, 
from tne mildness of our late winters, the wire worm, the flea beetle, and the 
saw fly and caterpillar have nearly annihilated the turnip crops. To find 
antidotes against these evils should be the unceasing object of your enquiries. 
Respecting the turnip beetle, there is now a better prospect of checking this 



Reifoipeciive Criticism. 215 

scourge, as we have lately become acquainted with its lanra and pupa in a 
notice by Mr. Lekeux. 

** A communication from Mr. Mills of Durham, respecting the com weevil 
being efiectually destroyed by the application of heat, deserves to be generally 
known. Buch notices as the above will convince the public that we are not 
mere collectors of insects, but that we cultivate science in the sincere hope of 
being able to apply our knowledge beneficiall v." (p. 5.) 

7\im^ Fly, — At the ordinary Meeting of the Entomological Society held 
on Monday evening, a communication from Mr. Raddon, respecting the natural 
history and habits of the turnip fly, was read by the secretary, which was 
accompanied by specimens of the larvae and pupae. The larva is a small black 
caterpillar, having six legs of about the eighth of an inch in length, being 
extremely active, and hopping about with great agility, so as to render it 
extremely difficult to eaten it. Towards the end of the summer, it enters the 
earth, and there undergoes its change of form, coming out of the pupa a 
beetle. [It is creditable to the Society, that they have made this subject the 
theme of a prize essay, and have been the means of bringing before the public 
even so much, as is stated above on the turnip beetle; for the. pamphlet of the 
Doncaster Agricultural Association on this insect, and the means of preventing 
its ravages, published in 1834, is a comprehensive proof that the attempts at 
preventing its ravages>have been more numerous than the attempts to ascertain 
mtimately 'lAs personal history ^ which last object is the one that would have 
most conduced to- the discovery of what was to be prevented ; and, hence, to 
the employment of the most effectual means of ejecting this object.] The 
best essay on the habits of the insect, and the readiest and cheapest mode of 
preventing its ravages, is the subject of a prize to be given by the Society in 
the course of the present session. {Newtpcopery Jan. 6. 1836.) 

SUkwormi,^ — At the ordinary Meeting of the Entomological Society held on 
Monday evening,. M. Hoffinan of Munich* presented a series of specimens 
of the silkworm in its different stages. He stated that he had long had them 
successfully in cultivation at Munich, were he had upwards of 30,000. In the 
mountains of Savoy, where the cold is much- more severe than in England, 
they flourish equally well ; and he expressed himself confident that, both here 
and in Ireland,, the production of silk in lai^e quantities might, with moderate 
care, be successfully introduced. — jS. Jati. 1^36. 

The Subject of the London Entomolo^cal Society* s. Prize Essay for 1836 is 
the Coccus of the Pine-apple Plant, — The plan of the essay is, that it do 
include a description of the natural history of the insect, and of a mode or 
modes of preventing its ravages, founded upon actual experiments ; and be 
accompanied by testimonials of the measure of success of the mode or modes. 
Every candidate is to forward his essay with a fictitious signature, and the 
testimonials, and a sealed letter including his real name^ under cover, to the 
secretary, 17. Old Bond Street, on or before Jan 4. 1837» {Mag, Nat, Hist,y 
ix. 219.> 



Art. V. Retrospective Critichnt. 

ArboretVM Britannicum. (p. 32.) — "The asterisk before •Cbe»huiit, Mr. 
Sanders, \ should have been omitted, as the place has little- or no pretensions 
to an arboretum. " Harrison's, Esq., place there is entitled, at least, to 
tbef.— -XiZ." 

This error arose from some mistake, as we fully intended to mark Mr. Har- 
rison's place with a *; as we were perfectly aware of that gentleman's possessing 
an arboretumy from the comprehensive and well filled up Return Paper we 
have received of it. — Gond. 

WistatisL chmensis producing Seed^ (p. 75.) — Observing some observations 
on a plant of Wistaria chinensis havine produced seed at . the resideoce of F. 
Bemasconi^ Esq.; a[nd^ having served £at worthy genUeman in the capacity of 

R 2 



i\t^ BOrmpetUve Okidm^ 

ffiT^tntx for opwonU ^ c%ht y«an» I am wcH tc yn an f d widi cb» pliof m 
question, and am of opinion that it is of a dilTerent variety ftom anjr I h«iw 
ever obscfttd k any odwr place. I therefore hope diat a aliwt kncory of it 
D^ prove intercstmg to ycat, and also to your readers^ and, if so^ 1 shall fitek 
a pleasure in bMing placed it at your serrice. 1 parettaaed the plant a seed* 
ling at &e •dapton I^oriery, in tlie aatamn of 189(^; anfd I waa there mfbrmeiA 
it bad I een raiseri from some Reeda imported br Mr. Loudon, concNittor of 
the Gard. Mag» [We brooght seeda, ami also • few plants, firom Carlsrtihe, in 
the winter of IS^ and ganre some of the aeedft to the Clapton If srsery. We 
weM informed by M. Ha^weg, the director of the Botanic Garden at CMa» 
mhe, that they were produced by Gl/cine mn^nai»; btrt the tree being, at fhae 
time, witboot leaveB, we could not ascertain the fact from oar owfi knowledge.] 
In the apring following, I planted it out ii4lere it is now growing, in July, 
1899^ it flbowed three dasters of flowers wiueh prodifteed aeeds^ the plant 9t 
that time being in a very vigoroos state of growtii. In the end of June, l8S4v 
the plant was again in Hower, and again produced seedf the greater part of 
wtrieh, at M. BenuMConi's partieiiltf deMpe, waa sent to tile lionion HorB* 
ddtural Society ; for which, I beliercv he reeeived a letter of thanks. In the 
autumn of tiie same year, it flowered a second time; but the seaeon was too 
€tkf acbaneed for the seed to ripen before the approach of winter. The above 
dates are only taken from nemoiy ; bat, to the best c»f my belief, they are oofw 
rect ; and, taking theae liu;ts into con«dera6on, I cannot agree with Mr. Sleigh, 
in supposing that the fmetiferoiis liabit of the phmt is to be attribnted to the 
nature of the soil it grows in ; bot am of opinion it is entirely owing to its 
being a variety, or, perhaps, species; and I ftitter myself that the three follow- 
ing reasons will convince yon .also. 

First, the plant produeed-aeeds the third year after planting, and the fonrth 
year iroiti the seed^ being at that time, in n very v^oroos state of erowth ; 
seeondly, it flowered at a much later season than the common kind ; and, 
thirdly, I have seen many plants of WistMi chin^nsis, growing in m similar 
aituation to that ^described by Mr. Sleigh, by the bide of gravel wtilks, that 
never showed the least inclination to produce seed. One of these last-men- 
tioned plants grows over the door of the mansion in Cashioimry Park, the 
princely residence of the Earl of Essen ; and I have no doubt that tny worthy 
fHend Mr. Anderson (His LordeAiip's very intelligent gardener) will foet a 
pleasore in ^showing it to Mi:. Sleigh. A few seeds, which ripened while I 
Was with M. Berhasconi, which 1 had remaining, I gave to Mr. Young, a vety 
respectable nurseryman -at Taunton, who has now got a stock of plants. — 
Jarnet Duncan^ Gardener, Walfifrd House, N, Taunton, Somerset, Feb. 19, 1695. 
IVie Detiructkm of the White Scale on the Pine Plant seems to have drawn 
forth thejarrinrelementa of contention between L« O. L. and J. B. W. (p. IM^); 
the one affirmnig that these insects can be thoroughly eradicated without 
previous removal from the plant, and the other that they cannot* I have, 
unfortunately, been subject to the facetious rub of J. B. W., in meetiilg in my 
peregrinations with pine- apple plants inordinately *' prolific in the white scale ; ' 
and yet I have succeeded, though every plant has been infested with myriads, 
in destroying them,, without having recourse to the shampooing process. 
Ailer trying various methods, I was successful, on about 600 plants, with the 
foUowiog mixture, which, you will observe, is little different from the recipes of 
old writers on gardening : — 2 lb. sulphur, 2 lb. soft soap, l( lb. tobacco, 2os. 
mix vomica, 1 oz. camphor dissolved in a wine^lassful of spirit of turpentine* 
Add 8 gallons of water, and boil the whole an hour. When the mixture haa 
fallen to a temperature of 130^, immerse each plant separately, keeping the 
Uquid as near as posaible to that degree of heat. This I did in Bfarch, lSSd» 
when the plants were disrooted ; and I have never seen a scale on them ainoe. 
I am in possession of a more simple mixture, which has proved, in other in* 
stances, e^fualiy efficacious ; but to the above I can speak from my own un- 
qualified success, without the. aoJuUary process of rubbing* -^ Jf . 0» MUtott, 
March 8. 1836« 



V 



QHO^ies ami Ammers. tlT 

Art. yi. Ctneries and Anstoers* 

Tat MMek» ( Vinnmi iJham L.>: FacU in iU EcoMmmy^mtd, mamh,m M». 
kUwn. to- ike Quetihm (eaipremed m VoL XL p« 318.X nkgtksr, m My TWa 
PioBfir deweioped fivm One Setd, hoik are of tie mtme Sejf. ^ I ac^d y^a ap^d^ 
mmam of a £ew plants of theoooMioa miBtlctoe ( Kiscum ilbiiBi JU% wwaed fcom 
seeds wbiek I h«ve» at ditfereot times, sotim on the bark €>f some apple trees 
IB the Oxford Betaaic Garden, 

Ko. U This is from a pbwt which, I beliere* is about 18 or SO^ears old : it 
is. aiarge fdant, and ramifies very much frosa the base ; it is ncnv in fiiH flower, 
and the lowers on att the branches (whether they originaUy proceeded from 
1 «Mr S embrvoSy it is now impossible to ascertain) are maUn 

No. 2. This is from a plant of about the same age as No. 1^ and, tike that, 
it isTerj much branched from the base. The flowers on this plant are all 
Jkmaie^ 

No. a This, also, is from a large and oldish plant, and whidi, like Noa» 1. 
nod 2., produces from its rery bwe a number of branches, &U of which bear 
fimaU flowers only. 

No. 4. This specimen is from a younger plant than the three precedina ones: 
tiM stem is simple at the base, but aftennurds much branched^ All the Sowers 
9^ female^ 

' Not 5* The specimens of this number are from a^*oung plant which has two 
distinct stems from the very base ; and I think it is not improbable that the 
seed from whirh they were produced had a double embryo; a circumstance of 
oommon occmrence in the seeds of this plant. All the flowers on each of the 
two stems are female* 

No. 6* The specimens of this nnmber are from a y^ry young plant, which 
has two distinct stems from the very base: these, like those of No. 5., were pro* 
bably produced from a seed with a double embryo. The flowers produced trom 
both stems are, like those of No. 5*ffenmie. 

No. 7. The specimens of this number are from a younger plant than that 
from which the specimens No. 6. were taken : it has three distinct stems, all 
of which appear to have been produced from one seed ; consequently, the seed 
most ha?e had a triple embryo. From the appearance of the buds, I should 
expect that the flowers, when developed, will prove to be all of the same sex. 

No. 8. The four specimens o£ tbi:) number are from four distinct stems, 
which, to all appearance, must have been the produce of one individual seed : 
the plant is a very voung one ; and I believe this is the first season of its 
flowering. All the flowers on the four stems we female. 

No. 9. A young plant, with two distinct stems, from a berry sown on the 
berk of an apple tree, in the Oxford Garden, about three years sgo. 

The seeds from which the above specimens were produced were all sown at 
n sufficient distance to prevent their coming in contact with each other. The 
specimen No. 2. was growing on a crab tree, in a shady situation ; which is 
probably the cause of its being of a greener colour than the other, and, also, 
of the leaves being longer and narrower, and the plant of a more slender growth. 
All the other specimens were exposed to the sun nearly the whole of tne day. 
«- WU^am Barter, Botanic Garden^ Oxfbtd^ Match 6. 1836. 

The Two Plants of Mistletoe^ noticed im Vol. XI. p. 3ia, as deemed to 
hate been produced from One Seed^ are (^ dutinct Sexes, — The two plants 
arpse from the [hawthorn tree's] bark, very near each other: both have 
grown remarkably quickly. They are of distinct sexes. In June, 1885, the 
^male plant showed symptoms of decay, and is since dead. I have just gone 
sorrowing to the tree, to take another view of the lifeless stump; when, to my 
surprise and gratification) I perceived, about 1 in. from the dead stump, on the 
Side fiupthest from the male plant, three ycning branches that had just j^eered 
out ; so that I hope I may still have the graufication of showing my friends 
the two jMxes of the. mistletoe, in two plants from one seed. — Henry Turner^ 
Botanic Garden^ Bury Si. Bdmimd't, St^fitik, Augmi, 1835. 



919 Queries and Answers. 

[It is admitted, in Vol. XL p. 318., that there is a slight shadow of doubt 
hanging over the impression that these two plants were produced from one 
seed J odierwise the facts of the cas3 would lead to a conclusion different to 
that ftom which those of the cases related by Mr. Baxter would lead. As it 
is, with best thanks to both correspondents for the relating of the cases, there 
is ground of need for additional cases before the question can be regarded as 
settled. Any correspondent who may feel interested in it, may assist in set- 
tling it by sowing inmidual seeds of mistletoe, quite distinctly from one an- 
other, and observing and stating the results. It can scarcely be practicable to 
discern which seeds contain more embryos than one, before they have germi- 
nated to evince them ; but it is essential, and much, to be able, if more than one 
plant be developed in any place of sowing, to feel certain that they have pro- 
ceeded from one seed. 

The fact stated by Mr. Turner, that young living shoots had sprouted forth 
about 1 in. distant from the dead stump of an older plant, is very interesting 
in its apparent relation to a question first mooted by Professor Henslow, and 
communicated by him for the Magazine of Natural Huton/f and published in 
that work. (Vol. VI. p. 500.) The nature of this question will be apparent 
from the following conclusion of Professor Henslow's :...." there can be 
no doubt of the mistletoe being propagated [in the bark or young wood of the 
trees in which it is parasitically established] in the manner of those terrestrial 
plants, which, like tne potato, possess rhizomata, or under-ground stems, from 
whose surface young plants are developed at intervals." 

The male flowers in one of the numbered sets of which Mr. Baxter sent 
specimens were in bloom, and had an odour somewhat resembling that of ripe 
apples, perceptible on being smelted to.] 

The Raisin des Cannes, and other Grapes. — If this should meet the eye of 
any person who knows any thing of the original plants from which Mr. Hooker's 
drawings of the raisin des Cannes and Black Prince grapes were taken for 
the Pomona Londinensis ; and if those plants are still existing, or authen- 
ticated plants raised from them ; I should be much obliged to receive an eye 
of each by post. Perhaps Mr. Fish would take the trouble of making the en- 
quiry, and procuring the cuttings for me. The Black Prince was figured from 
some place about Highgate, and the raisin des Carmes from a plant in the 
possession of ** J. R. Wheeler, Esq., of Gloucester Place, New Road, London, 
who received the plant from George Jenner, Esq., of Chiselhurst." — D, Beaton, 
Haffield, Ledburt/, Herefordshire, 

White Scale on Pine Plants, (Vol. XL p. 604.) — My method of destroving 
the white scale on pine plants is as follows : — Take soot and sulphur, each an 
equal quantity, and mix them well together in a dry state ; then take a small 
brush, or a bit of sponge tied to the end of a small stick, and apply the above 
mixture to the plants, causing it to run down between the leaves as much as 
possible. I found that one dressing cleaned a pit of pine-apple plants under 
my care ; and I never have seen any insect on them since, though it is two years 
ago* This powder has been used by others, as well as myself, and it has no 
bad effect on the plants whatever. — William Trotter, FlUwick Gardens, Nov, 
27. 1835. 

The Canker on Cucumber Plants, (Vol. XL p. 605.) — I find that the spread- 
ing of fine white sand, about half an inch deep, over the surface of the mould in 
the fiwnes in use for early forcing, is an effectual means of kee^nng away the 
canker, and also the damp, provided a proper heat be kept up. It also keeps 
down the rank steam, which is oflen ii^jurious to the plants. — Id, 

The Canker on Cuaumber Plants, (Vol. XL p. 605.) — In answer to Mr. 
Shuttleworth's enquiries respecting the canker, to which cucumber plants are 
sutgect, I have to observe^ that, when proper water is used^ it is seldom that 
cai&er makes its appearance^ In order to remote it, lay on the affected place 
fresh lune finely powdered ; and repeat this every day until Uie (yseasedisap- 
pears, taking care to brush off that which was laid on the preceding day^ -^ W. 
H^ndersotii Gardener. Crum C^le, March h lfd36. 



Qmeni Garden MeurkeU 



•19 



Art. VTL Covent Garden Market. 






YkeCcXAage Tribe. 

Cabbage, per dosen : 
WW! 



rwte 

PUnto, or Colewortt 
Savoys ... 

BruMeb Staroati, per lieTS 
German GreeDs, or Kak^ per 

doien ... 

Brooeoliy per bunch : 

IVbite ... 

Green . . 

Purple • . . 

Legvmet. 

Peas, forced, per punnet 
Ktdneybeans, /breed, par 
hundred ... 

TWerf MK< itooTf. 

per too 
per cwt 
6 per bushel . 
Kidney, per busbd - 
Scotch, pier bushel 

New. ^ 

erusal 
ticho 
i'umlpt. White, pe 
Carrots, per bunch 

Tfnm 



Potatoes - A\ 



New. per pound . 
Jerusalem Ar- € per i siere . 

tichokes (perdosen . 
Tumlpt, White, per bunch - 
Carrots, per bunch 

Horn ... 

Parsneps, per docen 
Red Beet, per dosen . 
Skirrei, per bunch 
Soononera, per bundle 
Salsify, per bunch 
Horseradish, per bundle 
Radishes, Red, per doten 

hands (91 to 90 each) 

Tke Spinach Tribe, 
Spinach JPJJJ*^,.^^ I 
Sorrel, per half sieve - - 

7%e Onion Tribe. 

Onions, old, per bushel 
for pickling, per half rieve 
when green (Ciboules) per 
butich ... 

Leeks, per dos. buncbei 

Garlic, per pound 

Shallots, per pound 

Asparaginoue Plante, 
Saladst^e. 

Asparagus, per hundred : 

lArge . . 

Seconds ... 

Middlimr . • . 

Small ... 

Sea-kale, per punnet 
Lettuce, Cabbage, per score 



From 










5 



















s 

6 
£ 




5 
2 
3 
3 
I 
1 




1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
9 



9 



9 6 

16 

1 

3 

1 



6 
6 




5 
9 





6 

6 
6 
6 
6 
3 
6 
8 


6 
6 
6 
6 



9 



2 
10 
5 



3 6 

2 6 

3 

9 

8 

8 



7 

5 

2 

10 

1 

6 



To 
£9,4. 

4 

8 

2 6 

9 6 

1 6| 






























6 

4 
4 
5 
1 



10 
3 



7 10 
8 





















4 
3 
4 
3 





9 
1 



5 



3 
1 
7 



5 

4 


9 

C 



9 
6 
3 
1 
3 








6 






6 

r 

6 

9l 
6 
8 
9 

6 






16 






6 
6 
8 



Ebdive, per score 
Celery, per bundle (19 to 15) 
Small Salads, per punnet - 
Watercress, per doten small 
bunches ... 

Poi and Sweet Hertt. 
Parsley, per half sieve 
Tarmgon, per do& bunches : 

Dried ... 

Green . • . 

Fennel, per doaen bunches - 
Thyme, per dosen bunches . 
Sage, per doseii bunches 
Mint, forced, per doaen bua 
Peppermint, dry, per dos. bun.' 
Maijoram, ary, per doi. bun. 
Savory, dry, per doaen bun. 
Basil, dry, per dos. bunches 
Rosemary, per doien bunches 
Lavender, per dosen bunches 

Statke and Fruits far TVirte, 
PkHdiag^ tfc. 

Rhubaib Stalks, forced, per 
bundle • . . 

MdibU Fvnt^ and FvcL 
Mushrooms, per pottle 
Morels, dry, per pound 
Truffles, dry, per pound : 

English ... 

Foreign . » 

FraUf. 

Apples, Dessert, per budid : 

Nonpareils 

Court pendu 

Reinette grise 
Baking ... 
French, per bushd 
Pears, Dosert, per doseii : 

Beurri ranee • 

Beurri de Pentec6t« - 

Colman*s 

B^nne Chr6tienn« 
Raspberries, red, per ounce 
Strawberries, forced, per oi 
Pine-apples, per pound 
Grapes, tiot-house, per pound 
Cucumbers, frame, per brace 
rt_-__-- C per doaen 
^^^'K** I per hundred 
Bitter, per hundred 

Lemons [jlJg^,^ ' \ 

Shaddocks, per doven 
Pomdoes, or Forbidden Fruit 
Olives, per dozen 
Sweet Almonds, per pound . 
Bcasil Nuts, per liushel 
Spanish Nuts, per bushel - 
Barcelona Nuts, per peck - 



£ e.d. 

S 

I 6 

9 

4 



S « 


















2 

4 
9 
9 
9 
6 
1 
1 
1 
1 
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6 
6 

4 
4 
2 
2 
6 



1 10 
6 












3 
6 

5 



2 2 
8 
19 
3 
14 

16 

1 



To 
£k 4, 

7 
[0 9 6 

3 

6 



5 



9 












6 

6 
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6 


6 



6 
6 

9 




























3 












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1 



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1 





8 
8 
8 
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3 

19 


19 
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3 

12 

3 


















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1 6 









5 

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7 6 

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16 





Ohserva&oni. — From the date of the last report, until Friday last, the 18th, 
we have, with sliglit iotermissions, had a series of cold and chilling winds, 
with much rain, which has materially retarded the progress of vegetation. 
This, superadded to the effect of the dry summer (whicn has induced, through- 
out the winter, a scarci^ of most articles), has materially enhanced the value 
of the vegetables in demand at this season, as very clearly mcKcated by the scale 
of prices quoted : an exception to the rule prevails as regards the forced ar- 
ticles. Asparagus has been abundant, and very low in price. Sea-kale (except 
for a short period) has been plentiful, and at a moderate rate. Broccolis of mt 
best description have been very scarce, and certainly dear ; but, as in all pre- 
vious seasons, when the value of any article, bat that of immediate necessity, 
reaches its maximum, it is less sought after, and declines in price : so that of 



MO London HmikuliKral Sodety mnd Garden. 

broccoli is now not noir wo hj^ although miidi better in quality, as it was 
three weeks since. Celery, endive, lettuces, and saladings generally, are scarce 
and ratberdear. Of potatoes we have had, uf to the {^resent time, « full 
supply ; bvt, in consequence of the pivvalence of violent winds |br the last tan 
^MTs, BO arrivals, couCwifla, have takien phice. The stock on hand 4ias been 
exhausted, and prices very materially ennanced ; but this state win immediately 
yield to a vnafterial reduction cm tbe tarrivsd of a snpply to be daily caq^aetod. 

Of fruits, our supply has principally consisted of apples, whidi are worth 
more than before qiioted. Of oranges, the quality is now much improved by 
jreeent arrivals i pnoes low. A few bot*bouse grapes, some raspberries and 
strawberries, a small parcel of peas, some new potatoes, and a good supply of 
French beans, were in th« market this morning.— C, G. M, March IB^ ' """ 



Art. VIII. TAf London Horiiculiural Society and Garden. 

MaBCB 1 . l8S6,''^Woi%sjpiresented. Among these is Memoires de la Soci^t^ 
d*£'canomie Rurale de la Uussie meridionale, presented by the President of 
the Society, Coqnt Woronsow. 

I ^ExhiffUcd, Camellia jap6nioa 8up&^, and a seedling and very freely growing 
Ikind, from J. Allnutt, Esq. A2ilea /edtfdlia, sinensis, pdntica^ J^uphdrbta 
spl^ndens, Amfur^llif sp„ and camellias and Thododendron8,f9om Mr. G. Glenny. 
Winter orange apple, and a capital kind of kitchen pear, which ke^s till M^y, 
and passe-Cohnar pear, from A. Arcedeckne, Bsa. 

Front the Society's Garden, Chimonanthus fragrans, and f. grandiflteis; 
and the followiing varieties of Capa&Ma jap6nica, Regans, Chandleri, anemone** 
fldra alba, aucub^foWn, s^nguinea, Rossl sinensis, Dorset/t, various^flowered, 
double white, liawes*s waratah, iParks's striped fose; Amaryjlif .sp«, .Gladi- 
olus Tamosfssimus, Azalea indica i^ho^nlcea. 

CuiHngs^or JMttributiMi. Peart, Althorp crassane. Broom Park: 'Mts 
very (peculiar flavour xavf^ be said to partake of the melon and pine^apple. 
Season, January," TVan^., 2. p. 65. Bonne Chr^tiennefondante; .oneofth^ 
most melting of autumn pears. Apples^ Brabant belle6eur. Figured 'in Mori, 
Trant^ second ser. vol. i. .p, 295. 

JSMAUhm at the -Garden dofing the enttdng Summer, It was announced 
that there are to be threes one on May 14„ one on June 11,, and the other .on 
July 9. ; and that 'tickets are now ready for delivery. 

March \^.-^ExhibUed. Specimens of garden -engines from J&t, Reacl. 
Prdtoa longtfldra, speoi^sa rdsea ; jlcacia longissima, pub^seens, effinisr-stricta ; 
Azalea iedif<51ia, and Cyclamen p^rsicum, from Mrs, Marryat, A collection of 
various 'flowers from the <Hon. W. P. Strangways. Cut flowers and camel- 
lias of the following kinds, seedling, AUnutt's seedling, sup^rba, Colvflln, and 
^onemonefidra 61ba, from J. Allnutt, Esq. 

From the Garden of the Society. — The following varieties of Camellia ja- 
pdnica, ^legans, cordllina, pHnceps, Dorsetti, Parks's striped :rose, -votious- 
flowered, double-white, doubl&-striped, Colvlllu, and waratah ; CHnum am^ile. 

Cuttingtfor DittrilnUion of the following kinds of fruit, JSmerald pear : this 
is a new Flemish kind of pear, received, without a name, from Dr. van Mons : 
it resembles the glout morceau, and keeps as late. Thompson's pear : also 
received without a name : it resembles the passe-Colniar in form and flavour, 
and keeps well. Downton nonpareil apple : the fruit of this is a handsome 
middle-sized, roundish-oblate apple, and retains its briskness late. in the spring, 
either fortable or kitchen use. Hunt's Duke of Gloucester apple : this is an 
excellent' dessert kind for winter and spring. Nanny apple, from the Rev. F. 
Beadon. 



THE 

GARDENERS MAGAZINE, 

MAY, 1836. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 



Art. I. Gardening Notices suggested by a Tour in France^ in August 
and September^ 1835. By T. Rivers, Jun. 

Forcing the Rose, — At Lisle, in one of the numerous small 
nursery gardens, I was interested with what might be called a 
most eligible mode of forcing the rose. In this instance, a small 
span'-roofed house was used. A border on each side of the 
central path was planted with roses budded on dog rose stems 
of different heights; the shortest stems being put next the 
path, so as to make their heads form a sloping bank. The sur- 
face of these borders was covered with manure, to keep them in 
a constantly moist state. The common smoke flues were used 
for heating this house; and the owner informed me that, by 
beginning to force in December, roses were gathered from it 
plentifully for the market in March and April. 

After the crop of flowers was gathered, the lights were taken 
off in May, and the plants exposed till the period for forcing 
again arrived. This method appeared so simple and economical, 
that I took a memorandum merely for the purpose of suggesting 
it to your readers ; and, for growing moss and other roses for 
bouquets near London, it might, I think, with some little modifi- 
cation, be carried extensively and profitably into practice. In 
this way, also, with but very little trouble, a rose garden in full 
bloom and luxuriiance might be created as early as the end of 
February ; and, by selecting some of the ever-blooming varieties, 
continued nearly through the whole* year. And what a delight- 
ful sheltered promenade might thus be formed by those who, 
regardless of expense, would build an elegant span-roofed house, 
with movable lights, so as to form an agreeable resort, not only 
in early spring, but also at the end of summer and autumn ! for 
in September and October, and even in November, the Noisette, 
China, and perpetual roses, regardless of having been forced, 

would bloom again as luxuriantly as ever. 
V0L.XII. — No. 74. s 



222 Notices suggested by a Tour in France^ 

Mode of cultivating Pear Trees in Pots, uohere the Object is 
Ecofwmy of Space. — A Frenchman's town garden is often a 
model of economy of space. You will find a choice collection 
of roses, budded on short stems ; a collection of valuable rhodo- 
dendrons, azaleas, and camellias, in pots ; and perhaps thirty or 
forty varieties of pears, all growing in so small a space, that an 
English gardener can scarcely believe what he sees. In the 
garden of M. Smedt, a distinguished amateur at Lisle, the pear 
trees were literally pyramids of fruit. The summer foreright 
shoots were tied in so as not to shade the pears, and the follow- 
ing winter they were removed. I suspect, also, that the roots of 
the trees are annually shortened, to reduce the luxuriant growth 
which pear trees are so liable to; but this I could not ascertain. 
The soil was a loose black sand, and the trees models of pro- 
ductiveness. Many of their stems, being too weak to support 
the weight of fruit, were tied to green painted stakes. Much of 
this extraordinary fruitfulness in such confined limits was owing, 
no doubt, to a more genial climate than we have here; as the 
summers and autumns are warmer, and the wood is always well 
ripened : but many of the best Flemish pears might be grown in 
our town gardens with quite as much economy of space as in 
France, if any regard were paid to culture. This culture is 
simply to keep them from growing too fast, by confining or 
reducing their roots ; blossom buds will then be formed in abun*« 
dance. It seems almost impossible to kilF^a pear tree; for, 
though I have opened a circular trench round a pear tree, and 
cut off every root to within 15 in. from the stem, yet it has not 
suffered, but, the following season, has been covered with blos- 
som. In some of our rich London gardens, cutting the roots 
annually would have little or no effect ; but I think that, if pots 
were manufactured expressly for the purpose, of large dimen- 
sions, we will say 2 ft. deep, and 1 ^ ft. in diameter, and plunged 
to the rim, not deeper, a collection of the new Flemish pears 
might be grown in any small garden. I mention particularly 
that the rim of the pot ought to be above ground, on account of 
the lateral roots, which would otherwise make their way over it, 
and give the luxuriance which it is so necessary to check in 
order to get fine fruit. To keep the trees under control in 
this respect seems to be the grand object of pear tree culture ; 
and I feel assured that this may be attained by growing the trees 
in pots, by keeping the surface well supplied with manure, and, 
in summer, by watering with liquid manure. I hope ere long 
to see as many amateurs of pears as there now are of dahlias 
and roses ; and, in all the principal nurseries, specimen plants of 
every variety in cultivation, growing and bearing abundantly in 
plunged pots. One precaution must be strictly urged. Every 
gardener is aware of the tendency of the pear tree to make what. 



in August and Septembet^, 1835. 223 

is called a taproot This the plants in pots will most assuredly 
do, if not checked, through the hole in the bottom. I therefore 
recommend that, in November or December annually, a trench 
be dug by the side of the pot, which must then be turned on 
one side, and every vestige of a root which may appear through 
the hole cut off with a spade. In the course of a few years, a 
bunch of fibrous roots will be formed, that will require no other 
trouble than being annually disturbed ; that is, the pot turned 
completely on one side, to prevent their giving too much luxuri- 
ance to the tree by spreading into large feeders. 

jit Vet'saiUes are numerous small nurserymen, who principally 
grow plants for the flower-markets of Paris. In these gardens I 
was much struck with the superiority of climate. Grapes were 
ripe, fastened to stakes in the open quarters, Sept. 6. The 
Magnol/a tripetala was ripening its seeds ; and pomegranates 
were blooming in the flower borders. Hundreds of yellow 
China roses, budded on short stems, were covered with flowers, 
and nearly ripe hips. The plants grown were principally 
ISAXvaia latifolia and glauca, common white and pink azaleas, 
rhododendrons, and other showy plants, crowded in beds in 
immense numbers ; but not sold so cheap as in our Surrey nur- 
series for American plants. 

In the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, the inflated and brilliant 
seed-vessels of Kolreuter/a paniculata had a most pleasing effect. 
In England, this tree is very ornamental in July, with its fine 
panicles of yellow flowers ; and, in fine seasons, it bears seed 
abundantly in the neighbourhood of London, particularly at 
Syon, Kew, Ham House, and in the Fulham Nursery, where the 
trees are old and of a large size. S!o/?Ao;'a japonica, of which there 
are many large trees, was covered with its pale straw-coloured 
flowers. Sophbra jap6nica pendula, that most pendulous of all 
trees, was originated from seed in 1816. Cydonia sinensis was 
in fruit, which was exceedingly curious, but not edible. I should 
think, from memory, it was from 6 in. to 8 in. long, conical, and 
of a vivid green. Macliira aurantiaca was also bearing fruit, 
but not yet ripe ; in its gi'een state, it was much like a middle- 
sized green orange with a very rough rind. Virgilia lutea is 
here in fine perfection, forming a large tree of 3 ft. in girt, and 
full of seed-pods : it blooms abundantly every summer, and 
bears spikes of pale sulphur or yellowish white flowers. 

The original plant of -^'sculus rubicunda raised here from 
seed by Mtchaux, in 1812, is now a fine specimen; and, as the 
plants from its seeds do not vary in the least from the parent 
plant, M. Camuset, the pepinieriste en chef^ thinks it a distinct 
species. I saw young plants with every character of the 
original. The double-blossomed sloe (Prunus spin6sa flore 
pl^no) was raised from seed here by M. Camuset, in 1817. 

s 2 



224 Notices suggested by a Tour in France^ 

3felia Jzedar&ch^ which, in our climate, will scarcely endure a 
slight frost, was forming fine trees. That beautiful and graceful 
plant, Acacia Julibrtssin^ was flourishing, and making fine stand- 
ards, with stems as thick as a man's arm. An avenue of catalpas, 
of sixty years' growth, the plants now covered with seed, with 
the before- mentioned instances, told a tale of a better clime than 
we can boast of in old England. Very few new or rare plants 
are, however, to be seen here, though the garden altogether is 
very interesting, owing to its fine specimens of hardy American 
trees, museums of natural history, anatomy, &c. The two new 
iron palm-houses now erecting are, perhaps, the most magnificent 
structures of the kind ever yet built, and are the boast of the 
Parisians. The tanks for aquatics, heated, as the houses are, 
by steam, are very extensive and superb. The iron rods and 
curtains attached to most of the green-houses in France, to pro- 
tect them from hail storms, shows a prevalence of those (to gar- 
deners) horrible visitations, from which we are, with some few 
partial exceptions, nearly exempt. Fitex -^'gnus castus, and its 
varieties, were now in full bloom, and formed a beautiful mass, 
covered with racemes of lavender-coloured flowers. One of 
those anomalies, so striking to a foreigner, here caught my 
attention ; fences made of slight sticks, not larger than a man's 
thumb, stuck in the ground at an angle of 45°, crossing each 
other so as to form a kind of trellis-work with, diamond-shaped 
openings. These fences, which are bound together with osiers, 
look very light and pretty, but are not calculated to last more 
than one year, in places where a fence must constantly be kept; 
and form incongruous accompaniments to the immensely heavy 
unwieldy copper watering-pots, with uncouth spouts, that would 
last half a century; the fences and .the watering-pots both con- 
trasting strongly with our own usages in such matters. 

The purple laburnutn, of which so much has been said lately, 
was growing here in great perfection. It came accidentally from 
seed among some common laburnums, in 1828, in the nursery of 
M. Adam, whence its name of C^tisus Adam/V in some cata- 
logues. A fine plant was shown me by M. Camuset, which 
appeared to be half C^tisus purpiireus, and the remainder purple 
laburnum. On examination, the curious fact was ascertained, 
that the purple laburnum, which is evidently a hybrid between 
C purpflreus and C. Zaburnum, had partially returned to the 
habits of one of its parents, the C. purpureus. This is surely a 
most unusual occurrence. Here was no trickery of grafting 
practised ; for I saw nearly a similar effect produced, in July of 
the present year (1836), on a tree which I had sent to the Hon. 
C. Herbert of Ickleton, Cambridgeshire, in 1834, which pre- 
sented precisely the same appearance. At the extreme end of 
one of its shoots there came forth a branch of the pure C^tisus 



in August afid September J 1835. 225 

purpdreuS) with its small leaves and peculiar habit, appearing as 
if budded on the purple laburnum. Have you, in your long 
experience, ever seen any fact approaching to this, viz. of a tree 
returning from hybridisation to the state of one of its parents? 

I observed one sound gardening practice in this garden ; that 
of surface manuring every shrub or plant worth cultivation, and 
more particularly roses. During this last dry summer, when 
they constantly required water, without this, the surface of the 
ground would have been regularly baked and impervious ; with it, 
the water poured down did not rapidly evaporate, but carried to the 
fibres a constant supply of nutriment from the manure. What 
an excellent hint does this give to planters on poor, stony, sandy, 
or chalky districts in this country ! On such soils all the manure 
should be put on the surface, and left for the worms and the rain 
to force it in. In the private garden attached to the Luxem- 
bourg Palace, and open to members of the French Chambers 
only, are some of the finest rose trees in the world, apparently 
of great age. (I regret not ascertaining this more correctly), and 
in vigorous health. Many of the stems of the standard roses in 
this garden are as thick as a stout man's leg. They are not 
budded on tall stems, their average height being, perhaps, from 
4 ft to 5 ft. ; and they support themselves without stakes. Though 
so old and so large, they have regular annual culture, their 
heads being pruned every season, and the surface of the ground 
constantly manured. In this we have yet much to learn from 
our neighbours. With us, the general mode is, to plant a tree, 
and leave its after-growth to chance. Of course, I now allude to 
amateurs, and those gentlemen who amuse themselves by being 
their own gardeners ; and, perhaps, this hint may induce them to 
give all their trees and shrubs some little annual notice. 

Here, again, was shown a great superiority of climate in the 
numerous beds of seedling China roses (/?6sa indica), and tea- 
scented China roses (/?6sa indica odor ata), in full luxuriance of 
bloom on Sept. 10. Some most superb varieties were among 
them ; but M. Hardy is rather chary of his roses, and does not 
like them to be distributed hastily, patronising the old-fashioned 
idea of possessing what his neighbours have not. It is amusing 
to find very prevalent here the little jealousies and envyings 
that at one time were so common among our florists. If a rose 
that has been raised from seed by M. Hardy is praised in the 
presence of another celebrated amateur near Paris, it is always 
responded to with " Bah ! " and a shrug of contempt. Reverse 
this, by praising the amateur's rose to another, and you will find 
the same effect produced. It is therefore most prudent, if you 
wish to remain in the sunshine of favour, to limit all your ad- 
miration to the roses present, forgetting that there are any other 
roses or rose amateurs in the world. 

8 3 



226 Notices suggested by a Tour in France^ 

Among the seedling roses in this garden were some most 
curious hybrids between iZosa or L6wea berberif6\\SL and other 
roses : they had not yet bloomed, but really looked very inter- 
esting, owing to their peculiar habit. A custom in France 
among rose-growers gives rise to many (to us) very uninterest- 
ing names. An amateur who raises roses from seed is regularly 
besieged by his lady friends to name one after them. He there- 
fore keeps a book in which applications are duly registered, 
and this is only deviated from under very peculiar circumstances ; 
hence we have Madame Desprez, Madame Hardy, &c. I often 
think that some of the fair applicants have not been in high 
favour when I find very bad roses honoured with their names, 
which are soon consigned to oblivion. On the contrary, if you 
iind a cultivator names one after his wife, it is generally a very 
fine flower, as is the case with those above mentioned. I think 
this is generally a very safe criterion for judging of the goodness 
of the flower merely by the name ; for, if the unfortunate grower 
has a termagant wife, I am. quite sure (from the active part 
French women take in business) that she would not allow her 
name to be attached to a bad rose ; and, if an afiectionate part- 
ner, his feelings will prompt him to honour her name with a 
fine flower. 

The Yellow Bose in Italy, — I remember, in one of your 
early Magazines, a correspondent enquiring the name of a yel- 
low rose that blooms and grows freely in Italy. I received a 
letter from a friend at Como, a short time since, in which he 
says that nothing can be more superb than the yellow roses in 
that neighbourhood. At Genoa, Florence, and other places, 
there are also large trees of i?6sa sulphdrea (the common 
double yellow rose) covered with their brilliant yellow flowers, 
hanging like golden balls from the branches, in shape like our 
cabbage roses, and perfectly formed. How much it is to be 
regretted that our climate will not allow us to grow this rose in 
such perfection ! I also ascertained from my friend in Italy 
the curious fact, that the yellow and copper Austrian roses (iZbsa 
liitea and var.), though both growing wild in the mountains near 
Como, never bear a single seed-vessel. 

The Vitry Nmseiies. — At Vitry, near Paris, is one of the 
largest communities of pepinieristes^ or nurserymen, perhaps, in 
the world. A friend (also a nurseryman) with whom I took 
breakfast {a la Fran^aise) of mutton chops, eggs, peaches, 
grapes, wine, brandy, and coffee, served up with true country 
abundance and hospitality, amused me much with his descrip- 
tion of the village, in which he said 100 nurserymen resided. 
On a little eminence in the road, I should think 400 or 500 
acres of nursery grounds could be embraced in one view, all 
unenclosed, and varying from a slip of ground of half an acre, 



in August and September^ 18S5. 227 

to squares of eight or ten acres. Forest trees of large growth, 
for avenues, and fruit trees, with some standard roses, were the 
principal objects of culture. I had supposed that from this 
neighbourhood a great part of Germany and Italy must be sup-^ 
plied, but was informed by one of the principal men of business 
that but few trees were sent out of France. 

T^he soil here is a soapy, tender, reddish loam, on a rocky 
substratum, in which most trees grow well. Dwarf peaches are 
raised very expeditiously. Almonds (a peculiar variety, with a 
very hard and close shell, and sweet kernel,) are sown in March, 
in rows, and budded the following August, making fine plants 
the following season. From the peculiar growth of this stock, I 
thought it was the bitter almond, but was assured it was not. 
I had also been previously informed that the bitter almond was 
the only proper stock, but found that this was wrong also ; and 
I have this spring imported some of the almonds used in Paris, 
which are as above described. 

In many of the nurseries here the trees were managed well, 
and the pears particularly so : they were all tied to stakes, and 
trained en quenouille. This is an admirable method for small 
gardens, if the trees can be kept from over-luxuriance. I hope 
to see pyramidal pear trees in large pots in every small garden 
in England, as this is the only method, in our moist climate, to 
check their growth, and make them put forth short well-ripened 
shoots, covered with blossom buds, so as to give abundance of 
fruit in a small space. 

77ie Paris Nurseries. — ' There is not one respectable plant 
nursery at Paris. That of Cels is much reduced, and is now at 
a very low ebb. Noisette has retired. Fion's Nursery is ex- 
cessively neat, and in good taste; but it is very small, and 
orange trees are almost exclusively cultivated in it. It is said 
that new or rare plants are not patronised, and it is only flowers 
and flowering plants for the market that are worth cultivating. 
Another cause for the slovenly and bad state of the French nur- 
series is, that the instant, by plodding, the proprietor accumu- 
lates 8000 or 10,000 francs, he considers himself a man of for- 
tune ; and, instead of investing it in improvements in business, as 
we do, he lives on the interest, and feels proud in being called 
a gentleman : for, however respectable we think a man in large 
business, the French do not ; but consider an idle man of 30/. 
per annum as much his superior. I have found this from ex- 
perience : as an amateur, you may command anything ; but if 
you avow yourself un commerfant^ ten to one but the tone is 
changed. When an Englishman is told the amount of property 
that some of these " men of fortune " possess, it is impossible to 
repress a smile at the extraordinary smallness of the sum whicji^. 
contents them : but then soupe aux choux (cabbage soup with- 

8 4 



228 Notices suggested by a Tour in France* 

out meat) five days out of seven is cheap living, and coffee is 
also cheap ; and these are all a Frenchman cares about at home ; 
though, if you take him to a restaurateur's, and treat him with a 
good dinner, it is amazing how he will enjoy the good things of 
this life. 

Commercial Rose Nurseries in Paris, — Nothing can be more 
insignificant, both as to size and stock, than the nurseries of the 
commercial rose-growers near Paris : they seldom exceed one 
acre, and more frequently contain but half that quantity of 
ground ; in which standard roses of all heights, and dwarfs of all 
sorts, are grown in the same rows ; presenting to a stranger an 
inextricable mass of confusion. It would be difficult to execute 
an order for a general good collection from any one of these 
nurseries ; but they are so numerous, that twenty may be visited, 
for twenty sorts of roses, with but little difficulty. I had con- 
cluded that M. LafTay, and one or two others, whom I knew to 
have been in our English nurseries, M'ould have adopted, in 
some degree, our orderly arrangement ; but they had not in the 
least deviated from the custom of their neighbours ; and M. 
Lafiay's little garden, of half or three quarters of an acre, was as 
full of roses and confusion as any that I saw. 

The Cemetery of Pere la Chaise. — I was much disappointed 
with the entrance to Pere la Chaise : it seemed an overgrown 
nursery of Chinese arbor vitaes ; and, till you make your way to 
the upper part, where the larger tombs show themselves, the 
crowd of naked-stemmed evergreens has a miserable effect. 
This has arisen from the injudicious mode of planting; for it 
appears that every person may plant as many trees as he pleases 
around the graves of his friends : consequently, four Chinese 
arbor vitaes thus : :, or six thus : : :, are planted to hundreds 
of tombs, forming a dreary and unpicturesque mass. Many of 
the tombs in the upper part are decorated in much better taste : 
a few pots of flowers are placed on them', and kept in order by 
persons paid for that purpose* Standard plants of Robin/a 
inermis are very numerous ; but they are not pendulous and 
graceful enough. . The cypress, that appropriate tree, is not 
very abundant; and the weeping willow is still less so. The 
most pleasing tombs are those with one weeping willow at the 
head, and flowers, or a cypress, at the foot. In a public cemetery 
like this, planting ought to be restricted to one or. two trees for 
each grave, with flowers at liberty ; for, if planted capriciously, 
as this has been, the light and air must be soon, excluded, and 
the tombs sought for as in a wood. I had imagined P^re la 
Chaise to be a large picturesque expanse of turf with magnificent 
tombs, graced by the light shadows of the weeping willow in 
contrast with the funereal cypress. You may, then, guess ray 
disappointment in finding a wood of arbor vitass, intersected by 



-» 
y 



On ike Excreicry Functions qflHanis. M9 

rugged slovenly paths, such as would dbgrace oar common 
farmer's gardens. Nothing, however, can be more beaatiful than 
the view of Paris and its environs from the higher parts of P^re la 
Chaise; and some of the tombs individually are exceedingly im- 
posing and grand. How much it is to be regretted that a finish 
is not given to this interesting place by removing and thinning 
the overgrown and crowded trees, and planting others more 
appropriate; filling up the hollow paths, and giving some of 
them a fresh direction i In short, it ought to be under the 
management of a committee of taste, rather than left to indivi- 
dual caprice. 

Calverfs Nurseiy at Rouen. — From Paris I returned by 
Rouen to Dieppe. This makes a pleasant variation; for the 
roads from the coast to Paris are all dull and uninteresting. 
My object in visiting Rouen was to look at the nurseries of the 
rose-growers there, more particularly at that of Calvert, about 
which some little controversy took place some months since in 
your Magazine. Mr. Calvert was not to be found ; but one of 
his workmen walked round with me — not to show me roses, how- 
ever, for there were none to show, and a bill was up at the gate, 
** To be let; *' indeed, the place seemed to want a fresh tenant, 
for it looked desolate enough. Mr. Calvert, jun., who speaks 
broken English with great volubility, said that his father was 
going to leave for England, and that he intended commencing a 
nursery near London. I believe that he is now agent for the 
purchase of carriages in England for Louis*Philippe and the 
royal family of France ; but has met with a great misfortune in 
the transit of one, which, for a time, has clouded his prospects. 
Savobridgeworth Nursery^ April 4. 18S6. 



Art. II. On the Excretory Functions of Plants. By Judge Duel. 

I HAVE read with much interest an account of some experiments 
relative to the excretory habits of plants, and can readily believe 
that they throw off those portions of their sap, or those matters 
that are taken up by their roots, which are not suited to their 
wants ; yet I cannot subscribe to the deductions which have been 
drawn from this discovery in reference to agriculture ; though 
these opinions are sanctioned by De Candolle, and seemingly 
adopted by Roget, in his Btndgewater Treatise. The deduction 
is, that plants of the same species cannot be grown successively, 
and successfully, in the same soil, on account of the fioxious or 
poisonous excrementitious matters which are deposited there by the 
first crop. I think this an error, and that we have abundant 
facts in the New World to disprove the hypothesis. 



230 Designs for laying out 

The ejected matters, on being thrown into that great laboratory 
of vegetable food, the soil, must immediately become again 
blended, through the medium of water, with the vegetable food 
there deposited, and in nearly similar proportions as at first; 
and, consequently, may be as innoxious to the plant the second 
time as they were the first. But I have stronger reasons to offer. 
In the great secondary formation of West New York there are 
hundreds, and, I believe, thousands, of instances, where a wheat 
crop has been taken from the same field, ten, fifteen, and twenty 
years in succession, and in one instance at least twenty-two 
years, without any manifest diminution of product. Upon some 
of the alluvial flats of the Genessee, Sciota, and other western 
rivers, Indian corn has been grown twenty and thirty years in 
succession ; and before their settlement by the whites, it was 
grown time out of mind, it is believed, by the natives. These 
facts are wholly irreconcilable with the proposition of M. Macaire. 
I apprehend it is the matters which plants retain, and which are 
carried from the field, and not those which they throw off, and 
are left in the soil, that unfit it for a repetition of the same 
crop ; that it is the *mant of specific food, which has been dimi- 
nished or exhausted by the first crop, and not the presence of 
noxious matters, that renders a resort to alternation expedient 
and beneficial ; and that it is the presence of the specific food 
of the wheat and Indian corn in the districts I have named, in 
yet unexhausted quantities, which has allowed these crops to be 
taken during so many successive years. If any entire crop is 
left to decay undisturbed where it grows, and its substance is 
permitted to become again blended with the soil, fertility will be 
increased, and the same species may be grown every year, with 
increasing luxuriance. This is demonstrated in our prairies, 
and in our forests, where the same perennials and annuals are 
found constantly occupying the soil. It is proved, also, by the 
annual growth of the same weeds, upon some of our badly 
managed farms, where annuals are permitted to occupy patches 
undisturbed, and to return again to the soil from which they 
have sprung. 

Albany^ New York^ Jan. 26. 1836. 



Art. III. A Series of Designs for laying out Suburban Gardens and 
Grounds^ from One Perch to several Acres in Extent, By Mr. T. 
RuTGER. Design 9. For laying out a Place of Twenty Perches {an 
Eighth of an Acre) in Extent. Design 10. For laying out a Place 
containing a Quarter of an Acre, 

Having gone through what may be considered as the first part 
of the series of designs for suburban gardens, which consists 



SKlvrbcm Gardens and Grounds. 831 




fe- 0m I 





merely of frontages, I shall now commence the second part, 
whicli will consist of whole places, the first of which is No. 9. of 
the series. This design (>%. 21.) comprises about 20 perches, or 



Designs for Suburban Gardens. 




half a quarter of an acre. In^g. 21, a is the house, with the 
stable and yard attached, placed on the right, with an entrance 
from the road ; and the kitchen and offices on the left, with the 
court in front. The structure d, at the extremity of the gai'den, 
is intended for a tea-room. There is a flowei^border on each 
side of the central walk (c), with espaliers at the back, to shut 
out from view the culinary departments (rf d). 



Trees of Switzerland. 233 

The design No. 10. is comprised in a quarter of an acre of 
ground. In^. 22., the path e^ from the road to the house, is 
supposed to be a covered way. The stable is on the right, with 
a way to it from the main road. The culinary department {/) is 
thrown partly round the flower-garden [g)\ and there is supposed 
to be a wall on the north side, at £, for a few fruit trees. The 
two small ovals on the south of the house, opposite i f, are in- 
tended for flower-baskets, if approved of. 

Portland Place, 1835. 



Art. IV. Notice of the Indigenous and Exotic Trees of Switzerland. 

By M. Alphonse De Candolle. 

Switzerland is a country naturally favourable for the produc- 
tion of ligneous plants. It contains the highest mountains in 
Europe ; and, from the rain which they attract, and the snow 
which is continually melting from their peaks, the whole atmo- 
sphere acquires a degree of humidity that is particularly favour- 
able for the growth of trees. At the same time, there are exposed 
places of the most varied description, which, combining with the 
difierent degrees of elevation above the level of the sea, at which 
they are found, produce a singular diversity of climate. 

If we enquire into the primitive state of this country, there 
seems little reason to doubt that a great part of the soil was once 
covered with an immense forest, uniting on the north-east with 
the celebrated Black Forest, so often spoken of by the Latin writers. 
By degrees the plains and the bottoms of the valleys were culti- 
vated ; but there still remains a considerable portion of the land 
(perhaps a fifth, or even a fourth, of the whole) covered with 
trees of different kinds. On the sides of the mountains, trees 
are found as high as 5000 ft. above the level of the sea ; above 
which is found only a slender pasturage, crowned by eternal 
snows, which rise to the height of 8200 ft. 

According to the most copious and complete Flora of Swit- 
zerland which has been published (Gaudin's Flora Helvetica, 
7 vols.), combined with M. Seuter's Catalogue des Plantes des 
Environs de Geneve, the total number of ligneous species in 
Switzerland amounts to 218, of which 55 rarely exceed the 
height of 2 ft.; 101 are shrubs, varying from 2ft. to 10 ft;.; 24« 
are shrubs and low trees, not exceeding 25 ft. in height ; and 
38 are trees which surpass 25 ft. These calculations must not 
be considered as exact, on account of the great difference pro- 
duced in different kinds of trees from the soil in which they 
grow : for example, the Cytisus alpinus has been found, in 
some soils, to exceed the heightof 35 ft., though, generally speak- 
ing, it seldom attains a greater height than 18 ft. or 20 ft. 



234* Trees of Switzerland. 

As the Flora of Gaudin comprehends 2313 flowering plants, 
it is evident that the ligneous species constitute one tenth of the 
entire vegetation of the countrv. In this number are compre- 
hended 50 evergreen trees and shrubs, which form about a fourth 
or a fifth of the total number of ligneous plants. It must be 
observed, however, that the proportion of ligneous plants which 
exceed 2 ft. is only about one eighth, and of these not above 
one seventh exceed 25 ft. 

The genus 5alix is that which contains the most species, the 
number being S2. There are also 13 roses, 5 iZhSmni, 7 
IZeli^nthema, 8 G^nistae, 6 C^isi, 5 JS^tuIae, 5 Populi, 5 
i^aphnes, &c. 

The trees which are most common in Switzerland, that is to 
say, those of which there are the largest forests, are, in the lower 
regions, oaks, pines, and firs ; and, in the mountains, beeches, 
larches, pines, and firs. The celebrated naturalist Wahlenberg, 
who has so well compared the vegetation of Switzerland with 
that of Lapland, says that forests of beech are rarely found, on 
the mountains in Switzerland, more than 4000 ft. above the 
level of the sea, though some trees are occasionally found as 
high as 4600 ft. ; the forests of the stone pine rise as high as 
4550 ft. ; and those of Pinus sylvestris and ^^bies exc^lsa, to 
5500 ft. Every person who has travelled in Switzerland must 
be aware of the preponderance of dark fir foliage in the forests, 
particularly in the more elevated regions. The larch is less 
common ; and it grows at different heights, particularly near the 
glaciers, and generally on the sides sloping towards the north. 
The Pinus Cembra grows also at different heights, and forms 
forests; as does the ^Inus viridis, which grows sometimes above 
the level of the firs. ^Inus glutinosa is generally found in low 
damp places ; and JS^tula £lba, in SwitfSerland, is never found 
above the height of 4400 ft., though in the north of Europe it 
rises above the limit of the firs. 

On the borders of the torrents there are a great number of 
willows, and ii/ippophae rhamnbides. The sweet chestjiut grows 
here and there in any soil that is not calcareous, and is found even 
at the considerable elevation of 2400 ft. It is evident that this 
tree requires a peculiar kind of soil, as in the western part of 
Switzerland, where it is common, it is scarcely ever found on 
calcareous soils. If sweet chestnuts ever succeed in soils where 
this earth predominates, it will almost always be found that they 
happen to be planted on a bed of sandstone. On the high 
mountains, above the limit of the trees, there are two species of 
iZhododendron {R. ferrugineum and i2. hirsutum), which are 
only bounded by the regions of eternal snow. Near these elegant 
shrubs are found the Pyrus Chamaem^spilus, and a hybrid be- 
tween that tree and Pyrus -^ria which well merits to be intro- 



Trees of Switzerland. 2S5 

duced into cultivation. Some species of willow {S* reti^sa, 
herbacea, and reticulata) spread over the uneven surfiice of the 
soil ; and, as their branches are often covered with the earth, 
which the heavy rains wash over them, they present the singular 
phenomenon of trees which are more or less subterranean. The 
extremities of these branches form, sometimes, a kind of turf, 
and the astonished traveller finds himself, as we may say, walking 
on the top of a tree. The 5^IiK herbacea is the tree that most 
frequently presents this remarkable appearance, because it gene- 
rally grows on steep slopes of loose soil, particularly among the 
fragments of schistus, that are easily penetrated by the melting 
snow and the rain. 

At the foot of the mountains, on the gentle eminences, the 
^rctost^phylos ITva-ursi, remarkable for its pink flowers and red 
fruit, grows freely, and covers large spaces of ground. 

The forests and brushwood of the less elevated regions present 
a great diversity of ligneous plants. Here and there are found 
beautiful specimens of ^cer Pseiido-Pl&tanus, i^rus^Via, jS6r- 
bus domestica and aucuparia, several species of rose, Cotone- 
^ter vulgaris and toment6sa, Daphne alpina, C^tisus ZAburnum 
and alpinus, &c. This last species of C^isus, notwithstanding 
its specific name, is found much more frequently on the Jura 
than on the Alps. Near Geneva, for example, it is never found 
on the Alps, though it is found on the south side of the Jura. 
It is cultivated in preference to the C. Z^abiirnum, because its 
flowers are of a brighter yellow, its leaves are greener, and it is 
less liable to be attacked by insects. In German Switzerland, 
it is in great demand for the manufacturers of musical instru- 
ments. 

Switzerland derives great benefit from her forests. She ex- 
ports, both to France and Italy, a great proportion of the timber 
used in those countries for building, &c.~; particularly the timber 
of the fir and of the larch. The fir and the beech are also used 
for fire wood ; but the oak and the larch are more particularly 
the woods employed for construction. The larch is in especial de- 
mand, on account of its durability when covered with water, or in 
damp places. Its bark, according to Kasthofier, is excellent for 
tanning. The shepherds of central Switzerland make a number 
of vases, cups, spoons, &c., of the wood of the ^cer Pseudo- 
Platanus, which they sell to travellers, as the fruits of the labour 
of their winter evenings. The leaves of this tree are used as 
forage. In the canton of Glaris is prepared most of the wood 
used for inlaid work in England, Belgium, &c. £uxus semper- 
virens, S6rbus domestica, Sorbus aucuparia, and C<6rasus avium 
also produce ornamental woods, which are used by cabinet- 
makers and upholsterers. 

In a country naturally so well wooded as Switzerland, there 



336 Trees of Switzerland. 

is little occasion for planting trees and shrubs, either exotic or 
indigenous. However, near Berne, large plant^ions of the 
Pinus 5tr6bus have been raised from seed ; and it is said that this 
wood, at 25 years old, is much more advantageous to the planter 
than the common pine of the country. Forests of larch and 
fir are also sown, and for this purpose there are seedsmen for 
selling indigenous seeds. One of these, M. Thomas, at Bex 
(canton de Vaud), sells tree seeds by wholesale ; and strangers 
may apply confidently to him for excellent seeds, especially of 
the larch, of which ne sells a great quantity annually. This is 
particularly important for English planters, as it appears from 
the correspondence between Mr. Stephens and M. De Candolle, 
in the Bibl. Univ. de Geneve^ Feb. 1835, and^ the Quart. Joum. 
of Agric. for 1835 (vol. v. p. 403.), that the larch seeds grown 
in Switzerland are much better for sowing in British plantations 
than seeds ripened in Britain. 

Some trees are in general cultivation in Switzerland both for 
tlieir fruits and for their wood. Of these the common walnut 
(Jiiglans r^gia) grows in the valleys, and in sheltered situations 
about 2000 ft. up the mountains. It attains the height of the 
largest trees, and is much admired for its beauty and its ma- 
jestic habit of growth. Unfortunately, the introduction of the 
colza (the rapeseed plant), for making oil, has driven the 
V^alnut trees grown for that purpose from the plains ; and there 
are already many parts of western Switzerland where much 
fewer trees are planted than are cut down. It is, however, 
consoling to reflect that, though the value of walnut oil has di- 
minished, that of the timber of the walnut tree has increased ; 
and it is evident that this wood, from its beauty, will be always 
valuably for cabinet-niiakers, &c. Cherry trees are cultivated to, 
a great extent for their fruit, which is used in making kirsch- 
wasser, a liquor which becomes excellent when it gets old. The 
mulberry is cultivated only on the southern side of the Alps ; 
for example, in the canton of Tessin, of which the agriculture, 
the people, and the geographical situation are all alike Italian. 
Throughout the whole extent of Switzerland, up to about 3800 ft. 
above the level oT the sea, we find pear and apple orchards, 
from which a great quantity of cider is made, though it is of an 
inferior quality. The proportion of harsh and sweet fruits is 
not properly calculated, and the best mode of making the liquid 
is not properly attended to. It is true that the common drink 
of the country is wine, which forms an important article in Swiss 
agriculture, particularly in low and sheltered regions. 

The best vineyards, as to quality, are those of Valais and 
Tessin : they produce a sweet wine, often with a muscat flavour, 
analogous to some of the wines of Italy, the fault of which is, 
that Uiey do not keep well. The vineyards which border the 



On Lawenc^t Plan for forming Plantations. 237 

lakes of Zurich and Thun produce a great quantity of wine, 
but it is of rather inferior quality ; and those on the borders of 
the lakes of Neufchfitel and Geneva produce a wine very superior 
to it. The wines of Cortaillod at NeufchAtel, and those of 
Ivome, of Lataux, and of la Cote, in the canton de Vaud, are 
most esteemed : they resemble the inferior Rhenish wines, and 
sell readily, on account of the proximity of the country in which 
they are made to those mountainous parts of Switzerland where 
the vine does not Sourish. The vineyards of the canton de 
Vaud are remarkable for the enormous quantity of wine which 
tbey produce from a given surface, inconsequence of the manure 
which is lavished upon the land, and the care which is bestowed 
upon the vineyards by the vine-dressers. A produce of 800 or 
IQOO francs the hectare [about two acres and a quarter] is very 
frequent ; but the expense of cultivation absorbs two thirds of 
this produce. 

Cherry trees, apple trees, and pear trees are seldom grown in 
Switzerland at more than S800 ft. above the level of the sea ; but 
the vine is not grown higher than 1700 ft., or, at most, 1900 ft. 



Art. V. Remarks on Mr. La'a)rence*s Plan for '^forming Plantations^ 
tioith a Vieiv to facilitating their after Management.^ By Mr. Archi- 
bald GoRRiE, F.H.S. M.C.H.S., &c. 

Perhaps there is no branch of rural improvement so much 
neglected as that of thinning young plantations ; and, though it 
cannot be said that the evil consequences of such neglect have 
not been frequently pointed out by writers on arboriculture, yet 
a slight glance at the generality of young plantations is sufficient 
to convince any one acquainted with the subject, that judicious 
thinning is, in the forest, a desideratum. Your respectable corre- 
spondent, Charles Lawrence, Esq., (Vol. X. p. 28.) has given some 
very plain directions as to " forming plantations with a view to fa- 
cilitating their after management," by planting in rows, and sub- 
sequently thinning out by rule ; and, where the operation of mark- 
ing out thinnings depends on land proprietors, some sort of royal 
road may be necessary to relieve them from the " irksome task," 
which, by the method of your ingenious correspondent, may be 
safely committed " to any labourer, without superintendence." 

Although this plan appears to me to be liable to several serious 
drawbacks; such as trees in rows being more exposed to currents 
of wind than when planted in the ordinary irregular way ; the 
thinner being obliged to mark for cutting a given tree, although 
its neighbour might be the better plant to remain for timber ; 
and, ultimately, the trees being left all over the plantation at equal 
distances, for timber^ without respect to variety of soil or vigour 

Vol. XII No. 74. t 



2S8 On Lawrences Plan forformit^ Plantations, 

of growth ; yet, for the henefit of those proprietors who will not, 
or cannot, superintend the thinningoF their own plantations, and 
who may not have it in their power to employ a skiirul forester, 
I submit a few remarks on row planting, with illustrative tables. 
As to the mode of operation, anything like aid irom a gardea 
line, in extensive plantations, is out of the question ; the planter, 
whether in setting or pitting, has only to keep in line with two 
distant poles or objects, the same as a land surveyor does, who 
holds the back end of a surveying chain. The mode was much 
practised in Scotland about the middle of last century ; and some 




plantations still standmg show the accuracy with which trees were 
then planted in row% on an extensive scale 

In planting in rows, it should be kept in view, as far as pos- 
sible, to accommodate the plants to the soil most suitable for their 
growth , and this may be done by retaining the same lines, and 
varying the hard wood plants according to the nature of the soil 
and subsoil over which the lines may pass , still preserving the 
same distance with hard wood and nurses For these nurses, I 
would prefer larch in general, as affording ample shelter in 
summer and autumn, while the plants are in a growing state; 
and, from their comparatively open natuie, as well as being 
deciduous, they admit a sufficient quantity of air, at all times, to 
produce what Sir Henry Steuart would call " protecting pro- 
perties" in the reserves: nor are their roots understood to be 
hurtful to the growth of any of the hard-wood trees. Although 
I would, in ordinary circumstances, not recornmend planting 
closer than from 4 ft. or 6 ft., yet, as on some poor soils, and ex- 



with a Viem tojaeiliiatitig their t^ter MMUtgement. SS9 

posed situations, closer planting may be advisable) I )atne, for the 
sake of illustration, commenced the plantation represented in 
J^. 2S., at Sfl. plant from piant, in squares ; introducing hard- 
wood plants (say oak) at 12 ft. apart, interlined as marked by the 
darkest spots. Supposing this a plantation ultimately to stand 
either as oak coppice, larch, or Scotch pine, the first thinning 
might be necessary some time between the 6th and 9th years, 
according to soil and locality. The first thinnings may be useful 
for tops of dike fences, short hurdles, and rustic Fancy work; and, 
by takmg every other plant, as marked (^. 24.), tbe plants re- 




maining wdl be interlined without the trouble of conspicuous 
"knots ' on a garden line in planting. If hard wood is inter- 
mixed as indicated by the dark marks, the iarch nurses may 
be "Billingtoned" [have their side branches foreshortened] where 
they interfere with the reserves, before the second rtiinning, which 
should take place between the 15th and 20th years, according to 
circumstances ; when the thinnings will be useful for palings, 
bosses [hollow cone^ in the centre of corn ricks, to admit the air], 
and other rural purposes. In this thinning, it will be observed, 
that all the nurses in the line of reserves, whether these reserves 
are of soft or hard wood, are removed ; and the entire rows next 
to them, with the half of those left at the previous thinning in the 
middle row. This will leave the mass rather irregular, as ap- 
pears from ^. 25. The nurses left should be finally removed 
some time between the 20th and 2Sth years fiom planting, leaving 
the reserves, whether larch, Scotch pine, or oak coppice, at 1 2 ft. 
apart, and regularly interlined, or quincunxed, as some call it, as 



240 On Lawrences Plan for forming Plantations. 



f' 


e> 


i- 




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■;i*; ' 




1 


lie 


r 


* 


rp"- 




:^- 


J-!. ^ 


^ i^<^ 


8k 


^r 


C; 














1 


l^r 




f! 


^. 


■:S 


f^-- 


©f} 


S- 


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■if 




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represented in j^. 26. For oak coppice, the stools may stand 
ratherwide at 12ft., unless the soil is very favourable. Oa high 









r 


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■' 4 


tfteK 


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jariia 



and poor Unds, tlie distince may be sufficient for the ultimate 
crop of larch or Scotch pine On lower and iicher soilsj this 



Treatment of Green-house Plants in Summer. 241 

distance is too little ; and, in such cases, the original distance 
at planting should be wider (say 4 ft., 5 ft., or 6 ft.) ; which, by 
following out the principle offered, would afford a proportionally 
large space at the first, intermediate, and final thinnings : a fourth, 
or even a fifth, thinning, on the same principle, would place the 
reserves regularly at any required distance. 

To those who may feel inclined to adopt and act upon this 
system of row planting, the above remarks are submitteid : but, 
from the general tenor of the communication by Mr. Lawrence, 
I doubt not but that gentleman will agree with me in saying 
that, when plantations are under skilful and judicious manage- 
ment, planting regularly irregular possesses many advantages, 
which cannot be obtained where the fate of every tree in the 
wood is fixed at the moment of putting it into the ground. 

Annat Gardens^ Jan. 16. 1836. 



Art. VI. On the Treatment of Green-house Plants in the Summer 

Season, By An Observer. 

Gardeners generally allow their young men a few days during 
summer to visit the neighbouring gardens ; and, having lately- 
had a perambulation of a few days, I have been induced to note 
down the following remarks on what I saw. I have not unfre- 
quently observed Cape heaths, acacias, and other green-house 
plants, while out of doors during the summer months, huddled 
together close to garden walls, or under the drip of trees, one 
hanging east, another west by the neck over the pot; some 
peeping through Marchantm polymorpha, and some climbing, 
interwoven one with another : in fact, looking as if they belonged 
to nobody. Some of your readers may think I am exaggeratie^ ; 
but I can assure them that what I have stated is a fact. I could 
mention several places where the green-house plants are treated 
as above ; but I forbear doing so, lest I should give offence : but 
I have no doubt many readers have seen it frequently both in 
England and Scotland. After the plants are removed into the 
green-house, supposing them to have been treated in the above 
manner, a great many may be expected to die ; and then who 
is in fault? Why, the foreman. When he (the foreman) has in- 
formed his master of a sickly or dead plant, of course he will ex- 
amine it ; and then he will say, " Why, you have drowned it : " 
or make some equivalent remark ; though, in all probability, the 
plant was virtually dead before it was brought into the house, 
owing to having been so long soaked with heavy rains, without 
the enjoyment of a free current of air. Now, if the plants were 
treated in a proper manner while out of doors, many of these 

T 3 



242 Mode of grafting Rhododendron dlta-clerense. 

Hnpleasant meetings between masters and their men would be 
avoided ; and not only that, but both the master gardeners and 
their employers would have the pleasure of looking at healthy 
and vigorous-growing plants. I by no means wish to insinuate 
that no plants would die under good treatment ; but it must be 
allowed, that it would give them a fairer chance to live. The 
mode of treatment that I would advise is, that, when the plants 
are turned out in summer, let them enjoy a partial shade (but 
by no means place them close under a garden wall), and let 
them have a free current of air ; attend to watering, tying them 
up, &c. I would also recommend syringing morning and even- 
ing, while the weather continues hot ; and, by attending to the 
above, I have no doubt the plants will do well. 
November 14. 1835. 



Art. VIL Notice of a successful Mode of grafting the RhododSndron 
dlta-clerSnse^ By Mr. Joseph Walker. 

Having been successful in propagating JShodod^ndron &lta- 
clerense in a way that I have not before seen practised, I make 
it known to you, hoping that my doing so may induce others 
to practise it ; and trusting it may be the means of making this 
scarce species of this beautiful genus of plants more abundant. 
Calling at Chatsworth last ^ring, I observed that they had a 
fine plant of it beautifully in bloom ; and I begged the favour of 
Mr. Paxton to allow me to take a small sprig, which he kindly 
permitted me to do. I then inserted the end of the sprig into 
a potato, and brought it home with me a distance of eight or 
nine miles. Happening to have a small plant of JRhodod^ndron 
ponticum in a pot, I cut it down to about 5 in« above the pot, 
and grafted it in the whip manner with the small sprig thus pro- 
cured, letting the end still remain inserted in the potato. I 
then clayed it, and put it under a hand-glass in a cool vinery, 
where it united to the stock, and is now a healthy plant, standing 
put under a south wall. 

Banner Cross^ near Sheffield^ Nao. 10. 1835- 



Art. VIIL Remarks on cropping Fruit-tree Borders. 

By Mr. T. Rutger. 

The articles which have occasionally appeared in your Maga« 
zine, upon the injury that wall-fruit trees sustain by cropping the 
borders, seem to leave no doubt that the system has an injurious 
effect; and, therefore, whatever may be advanced towards reme- 



On cropping Fruit'ti-ee Borders. 24 S 

dying the evil is, I think, worthy oF regard. Every practical 
gardener cannot help appreciating the value of a south border 
for early crops of peas, beans, kidneybeans» &c« ; and^ in spite 
of the regard he may have for his fruit trees, and the desire h« 
may feel to see them in a prosperous condition, still, he will very 
reluctantly give up that portion of the garden which is so ad- 
vantageous for the purposes of an early crop of the more delicate 
kinds of vegetables; and, although such a crop, whether of peas, 
or any other, may, according to Mr. Errington's hints (p. 129.), 
be obtained within a week of that on a wall border, still this 
will not sufficiently gratify those who pride themselves on being 
the first in their neighbourhood to succeed in bringing an early 
crop to perfection, and with whom the priority of a single day 
may be considered a triumph. 

In order, therefore, to secure the advantages necessary for wall- 
fruit trees, and for obtaining early crops of vegetables at the 
same time, a totally different system from that which heretofore 
has been generally pursued seems to be necessary. I would 
therefore suggest that, in the laying out of a new garden of con- 
siderable extent, a compartment should be appropriated expressly 
for the purpose of growing early crops of vegetables ; and that 
in this compartment there should be erected screens of some 
material or other, running east and west, say at about 20 ft. 
distant from each other, and about 6 ft. high, between which 
borders and walks might be formed .r With regard to the ma- 
terials to be used for the erection of such screens, it may be left 
to the judgment of those who may be favourably disposed to the 
plan here hinted at ; taking into consideration the most efficient, 
and, at the same time, the cheapest mode of carrying the plan 
into effect. In old gardens, where it may be inconvenient to 
have a new compartment attached, I should recofnmend one, or 
part of one, of the quarters to be appropriated for it ; and, 
whether in a new or an old garden, the most sheltered spot 
might be selected for the above purpose. These screens, if 
constructed of solid materials, and which would be best for the 
refraction of light and heat, might be also convenient for train- 
ing young fruit trees, growing tomatoes, &c. ; and, if not wanted 
for such purposes, a row of peas or kidneybeans may be sown 
close to the screen, the former of which might be confined to 
it with strands of bast, or any other material ; and in this posi- 
tion they could easily be protected from early cutting winds and 
sharp frosts, and thus enable the cultivator to sow earlier, with 
a prospect of almost certain success. 

If objections arise against the allotment of a compartment for 

permanent screening, I should recommend something of the 

kind that might be portable, constructed in about 10 ft. lengths, 

to be fixed in any part of the garden that might be considered 

T 4 



244 Observations on the Cultivation 

best for the intended crop ; and, on the removal of the crop, the 
screening might be taken away, and laid by against another 
season. 

All, I think, will agree with Mr. Errington, that, where fruit 
trees of any description, whether for standards, espaliers, or for 
Dutch training, are planted on the margin of the quarters, the 
borders on which they stand should never be digged; but the 
misfortune is, that, in general, gardens are found to be too small 
for carrying everything into operation that the gardener may wish, 
and, in many instances, it is necessary that every inch of ground 
be made available for some purpose or other. 

63. Portland Places Marchy 1836. 



Art. IX. Observations on the Cultivation of the Vine under Glass. 
Bv Jasper Wallace, Gardener to William Forsyth, Esq., of 
Clayton. {This Essay gained the Jirst Prize at the St, Andrews 
Horticultural Meetings in September ^ 1835, as mentioned in Vol. XI. 
p. 714.) 

Before making any observations on the culture of the vine, it 
will be necessary for me to make a few remarks on what I con- 
sider the best method of constructing the vinery. Instead of the 
common practice of building the front wall of the house on pil- 
lars, I would advise it to be made a solid wall from the founda- 
tion, as I consider an inside border to be more injurious than 
beneficial to the roots of the vines. The principal cause of the 
shrinking of early-forced grapes is, indeed, in my opinion, owing 
to the roots being over-heated, and not having sufficient mois- 
ture, which, when they extend far in the interior of the house, it 
is impossible for the most experienced to be aware of at all times, 
without too often disturbing the roots of the vines. Having given 
my objections to an inside border, and explained why I would, as 
before mentioned, make the front wall solid from the foundation, 
I may add, that it will be found a saving of expense. I consider 
upright sashes of no use, which, also, would be a considerable 
saving ; and I would recommend the back wall to be made much 
higher than it commonly is, as the vines always fruit best at 
their extremities. I would also advise the house not to be made 
so wide as is usual, which will give less strain upon the rafters ; 
and, instead of wooden walks, I would have the floor of the house 
paved with stones, which would look much better, and be no 
more expense in the end. I consider 2 ft. sufficient height for 
the front wall, as the lower it is, the less strain there will be on 
the root and the less height will be required for a back wall. 
I think that the raflers should be thinner and deeper than usual ; 
and, instead of the trellis being hung by bolts at a considerable dis- 



t^ihe Vine under Glass. 245 

tance from the rafters, I would have it fastened to the lower 
edge of them, in order to keep the young wood and fruit as near 
the glass as possible. Where there is only one house to be 
erected, it would certainly be much better to make it circular in 
front, as it would be more exposed to the sun's rays. With re- 
gard to the construction of the flues, if the house is to be warmed 
by fire heat, I would recommend them to be made lower and 
much wider than they commonly are, as the greatest heat always 
proceeds from the top of them. I would have the furnace or fire- 
place made much larger than usual ; as, by having plenty of room 
to make up a large slow-burning fire, the operator has it more 
in his power to keep a steady heat in the house, than when the 
fireplace is small, and he has to stir it often to keep up the re- 
quired heat in cold weather. 

I now come to the preparation of the border. The situation, if 
not naturally dry, must, of course, be rendered so by draining. 
The best bottom, in my opinion, is one formed of large flat stones, 
got from the top of a lime rock, which is of a nature that would 
assist the growth of the vines when they reached it. The border 
ought not to be deeper than from 2 ft. to 3 ft. ; as, if it is more, the 
roots of the vines will get away from the action of the summer 
weather, and the goocTof the manure that may be put on the 
surface. Instead of having the border almost composed of a 
stifi*clay, as is often the case, I would have it formed of decom- 
posed turf and good black earth, with a sufficient quantity of 
decomposed cow-dung, vegetable mould, and cold [slaked] lime, 
well mixed by frequently turning it, and which should be allowed 
to lie for two years if convenient. Having the border filled in 
and subsided, I would plant the vines in rather poor soil, as the 
roots will run farther in such soil, the first year, than in a strong 
rich soil. I would have good strong plants planted close to the 
wall on the outside, and introduced through holes made in the 
building, from 4 in. to 6 in. in diameter, projecting upwards to- 
wards the inside, and proceeding from a few inches above the 
surface of the border on the outside. 

I would not plant more than one plant for every two sashes 
in the house, as the less the roots are interwoven with one an- 
other the better ; and there is no difficulty in filling any house 
in this way. I would train up only two shoots the first year, 
keeping the sashes of the house on all the first season, until all 
the leaves have fallep ofi*; at which time I would cut down both 
shoots to three buds. The second season, I would put on the 
sashes on the first of March, giving plenty of air through the 
day, and shutting up at night. It will be observed, that I have 
allowed three buas to remain on each shoot of last year's growth, 
which will produce three for every sash this year, which I would 
train up to their full length. There should be a little fire put on 



246 Observations an the Cultivation 

this season, about the latter end of August, at night, or when 
the nights turn cold ; and this fire should be continued until 
eveiy leaf falls ofi. The third season, I would allow the shoot 
in the middle of the sash to remain, nearly to the top of the 
house, cutting down the other two to two buds, or eyes, which 
will produce two shoots on each side of the fruiting one, and 
which are to be trained up to their full length. The house may 
be shut up about the 1st of March, and the fire lighted about 
the middle of that month, the heat being raised gradually to 75°, 
at which it may be kept until the fruit is ripe ; when it should be 
allowed to fall ofi^ by degrees, but not entirely discontinued until 
the whole of the leaves have fallen off. 

I now come to the winter pruning for the fourth season. It 
will be observed, that I had one fruiting shoot, and four young 
shoots, for every sash last year : the old one I would allow to 
remain, with spurs of three buds, and one of the young shoots 
on each side of it, nearly to the top of the house ; the other two 
I cut down to two buds, which will produce two young shoots 
on each side of the three fruiting ones, to be trained up to their 
full length. If the vines have been all along treated as above, 
they will now be very strong, and will be able to stand forcing 
nearly a month earlier, if required ; and also more heat than when 
they were younger : indeed, I consider that vines, after they 
have attained to the age of standing forcing, should have much 
more heat than is commonly given to them. 

I will now describe my method of winter pruning for the fifth 
year, which will show how I would continue it. It will be ob- 
. served, that I had three fruiting shoots, and four young ones, for 
every sash last year ; the spurred one I cut away altogether, and 
spur the two which had only fruited one year, with two of the 
young shoots, which will leave two for cutting down, to produce 
four young shoots again. Now, it will be seen that I have always 
two spurred shoots, and two young shoots fruiting, and two to 
Cut down ; which is not only a regular method of pruning, but 
one which will keep the vines in a far more growing state, than 
the common methods of having so much old wood upon them. 
It will be seen by this regular method of winter pruning, that the 
summer pruning can be done in much less time, which is also an 
advantage, by my method of performing ; which is, to pinch off all 
the laterals which may appear below the fruit, and one bud above 
it; continuing to pinch off all above the next bud, as the plants 
grow, for the whole season. With regard to the number of 
bunches which I would allow to grow on each fruiting spur, it 
should be all that set well, as the vines will be able to bring to 
maturity almost all the fruit they show, if treated in the manner 
I have endeavoured to describe. 

I have said that vines, in my opinion, should have more heat 
than is usually given to them. I have forced vines at 76® of fire 



ofihe Vine under Glass. 2i7 

heat, and I am convinced they never should have less, from the 
flowering season until the fruit is at maturity. With regard to 
watering, I commence, as soon as the fires are begun, with syring- 
ing the vines with water which has been kept in the house for a 
night, and continue so to do every night until the vines show 
flower ; at which time I give all the steam possible by pouring 
water on the flues when the fire is made up for the night; a 
practice which cannot be overdone except when air is required, 
if there is no fro$ty weather to be apprehended. I consider the 
middle of the day by far the best time for watering, giving 
plenty of air at the time ; as the flues require to be warmed too 
hurriedly to keep up the heat if the watering is done at night, as 
is the usual practice. As to giving air, I consider there should 
be a little admitted as soon as the thermometer rises a very few 
degrees above the medium heat of the fire ; and that it should 
never be allowed to rise much more than 5° above it ; at which 
heat the house should be shut, when the sun gets low, and the 
fire stinted up ; but the heat should not be raised too hastily. The 
thining of the grapes, in my opinion, should be done very care- 
fully, as soon as they are fairly set, too much should not be done 
at once ; and they should be gone over a second time shortly ailer 
the first. 

With regard to the surface manuring of the border, as soon 
as the wood of the vines is fully ripe, it should be forked over 
about 2 in. deep, with a blunt dung-fork, and 6 in. of the best 
cow-dung should be put on. To supply liquid manure for the 
border of one house, get one bushel of common salt, as much 
black soap, and a quantity of the drainings of stable-yard dung, 
all put into a large cask, and allow it to stand for a week ; after 
which, mix it with a large quantity of rain water, and put it re- 
gularly over the border ; then put on as much common earth 
as will completely cover the dung, but no more. In this state 
the border should remain until the month of April, when there 
should be none of this covering taken ofi^; instead of nearly taking 
off the whole, as is the general custom, and often digging the 
border nearly a full spade deep, and cropping it with potatoes or 
cauliflowers, which is, certainly,'a very wrong practice. All that 
should be done to the border in the spring is, to break the sur- 
fece well with a rake, and sow the whole with dwarf annual flower 
seeds. It will be allowed by every one, the least conversant with 
the nature of vegetation, that the nearer to the action of the sum- 
mer weather the roots of any plant are the better ; and, as the 
vine is a plant which requires a great deal of food, its roots run 
in search of it wherever it can be found : so this very rich surface 
which I have directed to be made will be found,* on examination, 
to be full of the roots of the vines, and it is the very life of them, 
to have sufficient nourishment so near to the surface. 
September^ 1835. 



248 Suspended Treliises in early Forcing-houses. 



Art. X. Description and Result of suspended Trellises in early 
Forcing'houseSi as a Method Jor more readily forwarding Vines^ 
Sfc. By Mr. Charles Pullar^ Gardener to J. L. Goldsmid, Esq., 
Champion Hill, CamberwelL 

I HAVE under my charge a hot-house, of the curvilinear con- 
struction, 40 ft long, heated by hot water, with vines planted 
outside, and introduced througn the front wall ; there are also 
vines planted inside on the back wall, trained on the spur system r 
and there is a pine-pit in the centre, containing pines in a fruit- 
ing state. ' The command of artificial heat is sufficient, and there 
is no obstruction of light ; but, when the sun shines bright, the 
internal air is heated to excess, as the means of admitting the 
external air are limited; consequently the vines are exposed to 
extremes in sunny weather ; and, if not carefully attended to, they 
would receive a severe check in cloudy weather and in cold 
nights, being near the glass. 

To give, in some measure, more uniformity to the heat, I 
lowered the vines by tying them to iron rods belonging to another 
house not in use ; fixing their lower ends, and suspending the 
upper ends at pleasure. One half of the vines in the house were 
thus let down from the glass about S ft. or 4 ft. The other vines 
were trained in the usual manner to the fixed trellises, 12 in. from 
the glass. 

Tne comparative results, even in the same house, after two 
months' trial, were in favour of the lowered vines, which were more 
than two weeks in advance ; they being in a state to be thinned 
in their bunches, while the vines kept near the glass were only 
in flower. Another advantage was in productiveness ; as, though 
those nearest the glass showed bunches of grapes generally, yet, 
owing to the variableness of the season, and their being so near 
to the wet, many of the bunches failed in perfecting their fruit, 
and were consequently useless. 

The above remarks give a proof favourable to the experiment 
of suspended trellises, upon the conditions mentioned, at the first 
stages of the course of forcing ; and, also, after the fruit has been 
gathered, it will be of beneficial effect in preventing the vine 
leaves from being dried up ; and they will be better preserved to 
perfect their fruit buds for the after-season, likewise affording 
succession of fruit in the same house. The mode I had recourse 
to was only temporary ; but the trellis might be constructed in 
such a manner as to be lowered or raised at ease, and in little 
time ; so that, if it were found necessary to give air to the back 
of a hot-house in case of several successive sunny days, the vines 
might be let down, and at night raised to any distance that might 
be deemed proper. 

I have thus given but general ideas; however, at the end of 



Potatoes and Dahlias on the same Qround. 249 

the season, if an opportunity offers, I will detail more minutely 
the full result of the fruit ripening, and all the sorts of grapes 
in the house, if you deem it necessary, and will forward them 
for observation. 
March 26. 1836. 

[We shall be happy to receive the details to which our cor- 
respondent alludes; and, in the meantime, we hope he will 
favour us with his method for destroying the white scale (see 
p. 160.), to which he refers in his postscript.] 



Art. XL A Plan for growing Potatoes and Dahlias on the same 
Ground, and in the same Season. By J. H. R. 

I AM fearful that I shall be thought troublesome, if I give you 
my plan of growing potatoes and dahlias ; yet some of your 
numerous readers, who are fond of profitable and ornamental 
gardening, may like to follow it. In the autumn, when the leaves 
have nearly all fallen from the trees and shrubs, and the seedling 
weeds are near coming to seed, I fork over all the spare ground 
where crops have been growing, which leaves it in a neat state 
during the winter. In February, I plant my potatoes (the early 
Shaws), which I generally put into the ground whole; but, if the 
potato is large, I divide it by drawing the knife through the 
middle of the cluster of eyes at the end of the potato. I begin 
planting the large beds, having the first row a convenient distance 
from the edge ; after setting down the line, I dig a trench with- 
out treading upon the spade, and, as I come back, clean out the 
trench to about 4 in. deep. I put in the sets, then remove the 
line 3 ft. or 3^ ft., and dig another trench in the same manner, 
having a wooden rake by me to pull in the earth over the sets, 
and rake the ground even as the work of planting goes on. I 
next remove the line 2 ft., and dig another trench, which leaves 
but sufficient space for the moulding up of the potatoes. I next 
remove the line 3 ft. or 3^ ft., and so on. As soon as the 
potatoes are grown a sufficient height to be seen, I fork the 
ground one fork wide on each side of the row, by thrusting in 
the fork and pressing it down, so as to raise the earth, and thus 
leaViB it, not to throw it out When the plants are sufficiently 
high, I mould them up, observing to mould them highest on 
the wide side, so as to give the stalks an inclination to fall be- 
tween the narrow rows, where they are to be kept, so that one 
side of each row may have the full benefit of- light and air. 
About the middle of May, I put on between the wide rows a 
slight coat of dung, and dig it in close to the moulding of the 



.T" 



250 Culture of the Chicory^ 

potatoes. By this plan the potatoes do not get at the dung, 
until they are in a fit state to bear it without injuring their 
flavour. I plant the dahlias 5 ft. asunder between ^the wide 
rows of potatoes, placing a stake about 2 ft. high to each plant, 
for the purpose of supporting it, and marking the place where 
a taller stake is afterwards to be placed. In July and August, 
the potatoes are taken up, and the ground cleared. If the 
weather should be dry, and the dahlias likely to require water, 
I then make basins round the plants before levelling the soil. 
Since I have adopted this plan, I have had a more abundant 
crop of potatoes, and of better flavour ; and, instead of the 
ground appearing as if lying waste after they are gathered, I 
have something to look at. As my garden rises on each side 
from the centre walk, I can assure you the dahlias, when the 
colours are well mixed, make a very pretty appearance. 
Saffron JValden, March 9. 1836. 



Art. XII. On the Culture of the Chicory as a Salad Plants as 
practised in Belgium, By Dr. LippolDi Author of the '^ Taschen- 
buch der verstandigen G&rtners." 

During my journey through Belgium, in the months of Ja- 
nuary and February of the year 1834', I was struck with seeing 
a winter salad on the landlord's table, and another in the vege- 
table market, which recommended themselves as much to the eye 
by their beautifully yellow and red speckled leaves, as to the taste 
by their agreeable bitter. I enquired the name of this salad, and 
was informed that it was called the Chicoree de Bruges all 
over Belgium. It is grown in a cellar, like the wild chicory 
(Cichorium i'ntybus i.), which the Parisian vegetable-growers 
bring in such quantities to market, and which is called, jocosely, 
Barbe de Capucin. There is, however, one difierence : the thick 
roots of the Chicor6e de Bruges produce broad leaves, and lux- 
uriant young shoots ; whilst the roots of the Barbe de Capucin^ 
or wild chicory, have such small leaves, that a bundle of fifty 
roots scarcely produces a moderately sized plateful of salad ; while 
from one dozen of roots of the other a good-sized dish of salad 
can be obtained. My predilection for garden culture induced 
me to procure seeds of this vegetable, and the following inform- 
ation for its cultivation. 

The seed is sown about midsummer, in deeply dug garden soil, 
well manured with rotten dung: it should be but thinly sown, so 
that the plants may have sufiicient space to grow. When the 
young plants produce leaves, they should be thinned, so that each 
plant may stand at least 1ft. apart from the others* Those that 



as practised in Belgium* 25 1 

are taken out may be replanted in another place. It is to be 
understood that the ground must be kept free of weeds, and well 
watered from time to time. About the end of October, or the 
beginning of November, forcing begins, when the roots that are 
too long should be cut off, and all the leaves also, except those in 
the very centre. The roots are then planted in a bed of earth, in a 
cellar that is of a moderate warmth and completely dark ; the bed 
should be broad, and consist of light garden mould, neither too 
damp nor too dry ; and the plants should be either one foot, or 
two thirds of a foot, from each other, and watered moderately. 
In the course of a month, the produce may with certainty be ob- 
tained. The largest outer leaves should only be taken, and those 
in the centre left to grow. It may easily be seen from these di- 
rections that the cultivation of the chicory is very simple ; and I 
will only add a few words on the subject from my own experi- 
ence. On my arrival in London, I gave some of the seeds to my 
esteemed friend and patron, William Christy, Esq., Clapham 
Road, who permitted his gardener to sow them. Although the 
seed was sown tolerably thick, on the outer edge of a bed, the 
plants grew so luxuriantly without any attention or care, that their 
dark green thick bushes of leaves covered the whole border 2 ft. 
broad. I think the chicory in this state might be cooked as spinach ; 
but I have not yet tried it, though it is well worth the trouble. 
The plants, however, would not do so well for producing winter 
salad if they were to be forced, after having been deprived of their 
leaves in summer for spinach. I found, to my astonishment, in 
the autumn, that the roots, notwithstanding. the plants had been 
suffered to remain too close together, had grown as thick as the 
finger, and were from l^ft. to 2 ft. long. I observed two va- 
rieties amongst the plants ; one had curly leaves, very much cut^ 
and of a uniform green colour ; the other had varied green and 
brown speckled leaves, quite smooth round the edges. Both 
kinds equalled my highest expectations. Agreeably to the di- 
rections, I took off all the outer leaves, and planted the roots in 
Mr. Christy's cellar. They were sixty in number ; and I planted 
them half a foot apart: in the course of a month they produced 
fine strong leaves. The first variety had beautiful pale yellow 
curly leaves ; but the second was much more splendid, with red 
and yellow mottled leaves, of a very agreeable bitter taste, and 
very tender. This salad is not only very wholesome, like all the 
chicories, but is a true ornament to the table, and has the ad- 
vantage of being grown very clean. During the space of two 
months, I never saw a decayed leaf in the cellar, a snail, or any 
vermin whatever. As I have two plants keeping for seed, if it 
ripen, I shall be able to give you and other friends of gardening 
some next year. I only wonder that this chicory is not so weU 
known in France and England as it deserves. I have only to 



252 Floriculiural and Botanical Nciica^ 

remark, in the last place, that these plants differ as much from the 
coffee chicory, as from the wild chicory and the common 
chicory, while they, perhaps, are only a variety of the latter. 
10. Commerce Place^ North Brixton Road, Dec. 1835. 



Art. XIII. Floricultural and Botanical Notices on Kinds of Plants 
nevoly introduced into our Gardens^ and that have originated in them^ 
and on Kinds of Interest previoush/ extant in them ; supplementartf 
to the latest Editions of the *' Encyclopedia of Plants^** and of 
the " Hortus Britannicus** 

Curtis*s Botanical Magazine ; in monthly numbers, each containing 
eight plates ; Ss. 6a. coloured, Ss. plain. Edited by Dr. Hooker, 
King's Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow. 

Edwards's Botanical Register ; in monthly numbers, each containing 
eight plates; 4& coloured, 3^. plain. Edited by Dr. Lindley, 
Professor of Botany in the London University. 

Sweet* s British Flower-Garden ; in monthly numbers, each containing 
four plates ; 3^. coloured, 2«. 3^. plain. Edited by David Don, 
Esq., Professor of Botany in King's College, and Librarian to the 
Linnaean Society. 

Mounds Botanic Garden^ or Magazine of Hardy Flower Plants cuU 
tivated in Great Britain ; in monthly numbers, each containing 
four coloured figures in one page; large paper \s.6d.f small 1^. 
Edited by B. Maund, F.L.S. 

^ Liindcea, 

921. LrNUM. 

•Berendidri Hook. Berendier*8 O ? \ or ?2 au TO Bejar 1835 S &1 Bot mag. SiSO 

agmm^me: F16tstt' Hook. MSS. 

An exceedingly beautiful and new species of Zlnum, dis- 
covered by Mr. Drummond at Rio Brazos and San Felipe, and 
introduced by him into our gardens in 1835. In the Glasgow 
garden, it has been kept in a cool frame, where it flowered in 
August; but there is reason to think it may prove a hardy 
annual, and, if so, it will be a valuable acquisition to our gardens. 
{Bat. Mag., April.) 

Legumindcea, or Yabdcece Lindl. 

SlU. KENNBTDYyl. 
•19881a SfcirUng* LindL Stirling's i. lJ or ?S ap S Swan River 1834 ?C 8.p Bot reg. 1815 

^^ A graceful green-house trailing plant, native of the Swan 
River. It was raised by Robert Mangles, Esq., of Whitmore 
Lodge, from seed? given to him by Sir James Stirling, the 
governor of the colony, in compliment to whom it has been 
named. It has thin, broad, pale green leaves, fringed with 
long weak hairs ; and its twin scarlet flowers sufficiently charac- 
terise this species, which, moreover, is botanically remarkable 



supplementmy to Encyc. of Plants and Hort. Brit. 263 

for having its bracts collected into a whorl, or even grown toge- 
ther into a little involucre." 
'Rosdce€e. 

15S8. POTENTFLLA L. Cfard. 543 

*ia613a moUlMima Lekm. •ofte^Ueaoed ^ A or 1| jLs Y Europe 1832 8 co Mannd's bot 

A free-flowerinff and showy sort of Potentilla, raised from 
seeds sent from the Berlin Botanic Garden. Mr. Maund has 
some doubt whether it is a distinct species : he says, *' It 
approaches near to Potentilla ThomasiV of Tenore, and, pro- 
bably, may be the identical plant." It ripens seeds, and requires 
no peculiarity of management. {Bot. Gard.y April.) 

fUOflL CRATJE\}US 1S908 microcllrpa Lindl Bot. Reg. 1846. ; C. spathuUta Eliioi, FL a Carol i. p^ 525. ; 
Arb. brit t 31. k. ; not of Michaux nor of Furth. 

Spec. Char. Subspinose ; leaves in fascicles, oblong-cuneated, 
3-cleft, lobed and crenated, smooth, shining; corymbs many- 
flowered; calyx smooth; segments ovate, quite entire; fruit 
ovate subrotund, smooth, 5-celled; stone thin. {Lindl.) 

** Few hardy plants are more deserving of general admiration, for the neat 
ness of their fohaee, the diversity of their manner of growing, the beauty of 
their flowers in the spring, or the gay appearance of their numerous richly 
coloured haws in the autumn than the various species of the genus CVatae^gus ; 
and yet they are little known, except to the curious collector. They are not 
very frequently seen in gardens, if we except a few varieties of the common 
hawthorn ; and botanists themselves have paid them but little attention. I 
therefore propose to avail myself of the circulation of this work for the pur- 
pose of bnnging the subject into more notice, and of showing how very well 
deserving the species of CVatae^gus are of general cultivation ; but, as they are 
very much alike in flower, and as their strongest claims to be considered orna- 
mental plants arise from the beauty of their leaves and fruit, it is in the latter 
state that they will generally be represented. C. microc^rpa is, according to 
Elliot, a native of the upper districts of Georgia and Carolina ; in Colombia 
county, Georgia, common, growing to a small tree, from 12 ft. to 15 ft. high. 
It was also collected in an unusually spiny state by Mr. Drummond, in the 
province of Texas. Ellliot confounds it with C. spathulata, which, as described 
by Michaux and Pursh, must be a different species in the way of C, parvifblia, 
and allied to C. virginiana of the English nurseries. In this country, C micro- 
carpa is a small tree, with slender, smooth, drooping branches, and something 
of the habit of the white thorn. Its leaves have a very handsome appearance, 
and are remarkably shining and deep green ; they usually grow in clusters ; have 
a long stalk, tapering upwards into a blade, which is sometimes nearly entire, 
with only a tooth or two at the end ; sometimes they are 3-Iobed with cre« 
nated segments; and occasionally they are deeply 3-parted; their form is 
always more or less spathulate. The stipules of the more vigorous branches- 
are large and leafy. The flowers are white, and appear in May, or the begin- 
ning of June, at the same time with those of C. cordata, and later than most 
others. The fruit is rather abundant, but small ; and, although bright red, 
does not make much show upon the branches. The sides of the stones of the 
fruit are unusually thin for a Cratae^gus." (^Bot, Beg,, April.) 

18923 heteropbtlU Bot reg. 1. 1161. and 1. 1847 

Spec. Char. Leaves bright, falling off late, lanceolate- cu- 
neate, toothed at the apex, 3-cleft, pinnatifid, segments serrated; 
tube of calyx fusiform ; cymes many-flowered ; flowers 1 -styled; 
fruit ovate, including one nut, with a hard bony shell, and one 
seed ; stipules large, pinnatifid. (Lindl.) 

Vol. XII. — No. 74. v 



254 FhricuUural and Botanical Notices^ 

** The tree/' Dr. Lindley obsenres, from which the drawing in the Register 
was taken, ** is one of the handsomest in that very extensive collection of 
hardy trees and shnihs. It forms a dense pyramidal head, leafs among the 
first of the genus, and is soon covered with a mantle of snow-white blossoms. 
After the latter have fallen away, the leaves become fully developed, and, from 
their shining surface, neat figure, and firmness of texture, render the tree still 
a beautiful object. Finally, the rich crimson of the numerous haws, which 
adorn the branches in the last days of autumn, harmonises beautifully with the 
fiidio^ verduae of the leaves." (Bot, Beg,, April.) 

We have quoted the specific characters of this and the pre- 
ceding species, and Dr. Lindley's remarks on them, at length, 
in order to lend our aid in attracting attention to this very in- 
teresting genus of hardy trees and shrubs. We are much gra- 
tified to find that Dr. Lindley proposes to bring them into more 
notice, and to show, as quoted above, " how very well deserving 
they are of general cultivation." We have been endeavouring 
to impress this on the readers of this Magazine for the last three 
years, and, we hope, not without some effect We have already 
figured thirty-five sorts in the Arboretum Britannicum^ the entire 
trees drawn from nature, from specimens in the Horticultural 
Society's Garden, or in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, to a 
scale of 11 in. to 4 ft. ; and the botanical specimens, all from the 
same sources, and all drawn by Mr. Sowerby on wood, to a scale 
of 2 in. to 1 ft. We have more species and varieties to figure 
before our monograph of this genus in the Arboretum will be 
complete; and, besides these, we mean to give, in the same 
work, figures of one leaf of each species and variety, the exact 
size of nature, traced from the real leaves, in the same manner 
as we have done figures of the leaves of the species and varieties 
of the genus A'cer in the number of the Arboretum for April. 
We rely much more on figures of this genus, as, indeed, of 
most others, than on descriptions, however elaborate ; for thorns 
vary so much in the size and shape of their leaves, and in the 
absence or presence of spines and bractess, that we do not see 
how it is possible to frame a specific character in such a manner 
as to embrace only those points which are common to all the 
forms of the species, and, at the same time, enable any one to 
make out the species in any one of its forms. In fact, this may 
be said of specific characters and botanical descriptions gene- 
rally ; and hence the necessity of dried specimens and drawings 
or engravings. Even specific characters, drawn from dried 
specimens, drawings, or engravings, cannot, in many cases, be 
altogether depended on : and, in proof of this, we may refer to 
any genus of which there are more than a dozen species which 
are not all natives of the same country, or which have not been 
seen together in the same garden, for several years, by some 
botanist who has described them. Nothing, in our opinion, 
will ever enable botanists to bring their characters and descrip- 



supplemetUary to Ena/c. of Plants and Hort, Brit. 255 

lions to perfection, but seeing all the species of a genus growing 
together in the same garden, and studying them there for several 
years. Things, however, must go on as they are for a lonff 
time ; but, however impracticable the possibility of studying all 
the species of a genus in the same garden may seem at present, 
it is an object that, with the progress of civilisation and science, 
will certainly be ultimately attained. When there shall be bo- 
tanists and botanic gardens established in almost every country, 
and a universal intercourse among botanists, it will then be a 
comparatively easy matter to assign to each garden the genus or 
genera which it ought more particularly to contain. 

To return to the figures in the Botanical Register : they are 
most beautifully executed ; and, being of the natural size, and 
coloured, and of species more absolute and limited in their forms 
than most others of the genus, they cannot fail to enable any one 
instantlv to recognise the species they represent. 

Ona^dcea. ' 

1188a. OODE^/if Spach. (See OartLMag., xiL 136.; unexplained, but, doublesa, a Latinised proper oama) 
«l§pida LindL pretty O pr Ik au.s Fk California 18S5 S Itl Bot. reg. 1849 

*^ A pretty new annual, found in California by Mr. Douglas, 
and raised in the garden of the Horticultural Society, in July, 
183.5. In some respects, especially in the spots on its petals, 
it resembles Godetm ((E'noth^ra) quadrivulnera, but is more 
handsome than that species : in reality, it is more nearly allied 
to Godetia (6Enothera) decdmbens ; but that species, independ-^ 
ently of its glaucous leaves, decumbent habit, and whole- 
coloured flowers, has less shaggy and more linear fruit." {Bot. 
Iteg.j April.) 

The genus Godetm has been formed from certain species of 
6Enothera, by M. Spach, a German botanist resident in Paris, 
who has published several monographs of both herbaceous and 
ligneous genera, in the Annates des Sciences Naturelles. Copies 
of several of the latter M. Spach has been kind enough to send 
us, together with dried specimens illustrative of his names, and 
for which mark of attention and kindness • we take this oppor- 
tunity of returning M. Spach our best thanks. We shall notice 
M. Spach's arrangement of the hardy ligneous genera, to which 
he has directed our attention, in the Arboretum Britannicum. 

Melastomdcea. 

3345. CHJETOGA'STRA. 

*gT&cilis Hook, slender IZD pr 1 jn R Li Brazil 1834 S p.l Bot mag. 3481 

An extremely beautiful melastomaceous plant, raised in the 
Glasgow Botanic Garden, from seeds received from the col- 
lector, Mr. Tweedie, who sent them from South Brazil. It 
requires the heat of a stove, and blossoms in June. {Bot. Mag., 

April.) 

u 2 



£56 FioticuUural and Botanical Notices^ 

€!omp6nUej $ TidndifU^a^ $$ Senecionidea^ $$$ H^/mi^as, $$$§ G£^- 

linsogeaSi j§§§§ Madi^ae. 

•OXYITRA 2kr. (It to nippoMd that thto word to from onu, sharp, and oura, a tail ; but its 

appHeatloa to not obvioua.) [Bot reg. 1850 

•dUTsaDtbemOIdes Dec. Cbryaantbemum-like O or 1| au.8 T California ? 1834 S Itl 

A new genus of Comp6sitae» placed by M. De Candolle, in 
his catalogue of the genera of that order, in the second edition 
of Dr. Lindley's Natural System of Botany^ in the subdivision 
Madiea. 

A hardy annual, found by Douglas in California, and sent by 
him to the Horticultural Society. Dr. Lindley remarks that, 
though it has ** very much the aspecr. of Chrysanthemum coro- 
narium, except that it is not half so tall, it agrees very nearly in 
structure with the widely different genus Madia^ It flowers in 
August and September, *' ripening seeds in abundance." (Bot. 
Beg.y April.) 

Scropkulartdcea:, 

45. FBRaNXCA h. 
•M3» cultiU C?ffor«.] lofty ^ A or 4 JUu B Siberia 1816 D Itl Maund's bot gard. f. 543 

" A well-marked and distinct species, which is far from being 
the case with many of this extensive genus. It is a plant of 
elegant growth ; and its handsome spikes of blue flowers are 
very ornamental, equal, if not superior, to any Verdnica with 
which we are acquainted." 

It does not increase very freely, but may be divided every 
autumn ; and, doubtless, might be propagated by cuttings of the 
stems, planted in sand, and covered with a glass. {^Bot, Gard.^ 
April.) 

'Etricdcece, 

CSd series, t 35a 
tll04t ZENO^BIif specibsa D. Don^ in Edin. PbiL Journ., Julv, 1384, p. 152. ; Swt B. FL Oard. 
^ftKM^ftne : Andr6nieda specidsa Mich. ; Hort Brit Na 11041. 

The genus Zenobia has been formed by Professor Don from 
a part of the species previously included in Andr6meda. It is 
** dedicated to the illustrious Queen of Palmyra, alike celebrated 
for her virtue, learning, and misfortunes." {Brit. Mow^-Gard., 
April.) 

1SS9. AHODODE'NDRON 4343 fldvum D. Don, Spn. : AkMea p6ntica [Sw. fl. gard. S. s. t. 331 

▼ar. •eoronirium 2>. Don ^xUmd-flowered dl or 7 myjn rich Y HoIL 1832 ? L a.pkl 

This is one of the new Ghent azaleas, as they are commonly 
called in the nurseries ; a number of the species of that genus 
being now united with jKhodod^ndron. This variety may be 
considered as an improvement of the commonest kind of azalea 
sold in the nurseries ; its flowers are of a rich yellow, and are 
produced in large compact clusters. Professor Don remarks 
that it <*may be regarded as the handsomest of the yellow- 
flowered kinds." {Brit* Mow.* Gard.^ April.) 

"Eaipi^iorbikcess. 

*P<rins6ttia (Gra.) *pulch6rrima Gra., £uph6rbia Poinsettia 



supplementary to Encyc. qfPlmiis and HorL Brtt. 251 

Buist MS., mentioned by Mr. Peter Mackenzie of Philadelphia, 
in p. 209., as a splendid plant, is recorded in Jameson's Journal 
for April, vol. xx. p. 412., as having been introduced to the 
Edinburgh Botanic Garden, by Mr. James Macnab, in Nov., 
1834<, and as having flowered twice there in 18S5 ; subsequently, 
with Dr. Neill, at Canonmills; and again in the Edinburgh 
Botanic Garden, in Feb., 1836. From the information com- 
municated by Mr. Macnab, it has been imported into several 
British collections from Mr. Buist's garden* ^* Nothing can be 
more ornamental," Dr. Graham observes, " in the stove. The 
rose-like whorls of bracteae which terminate the branches have 
been seen, on the large plants cultivated at Philadelphia, as much 
as 20 in. across, and equal in colour to the finest tints of /^fi- 
biscus 226sa-sin6nsis. There can be no doubt that it forms a 
new generic type, though, in several species of ^uph6rbm, espe- 
cially E. spl6ndens, there are the rudiments of the remarkable 
septa found in the involucre here. I have dedicated it, if not 
to its original discoverer, at least to one who has first brought it 
into cultivation, and into general notice among botanists, and 
from whose exertions many additions to our collections of plants 
from Mexico are expected. At Philadelphia the plant is ex- 
posed in open air during summer; but is placed in the stove 
during winter, at which season, or early in spring, there, as 
here, it seems to have its period of flowering." [Edin> New 
Phil, Joum^i April.) 
Orchidiceas, 

fi66B. ANGRJE'CUM. Tr,m Bot kk 18i4 

•cau<ULtum Xmdi: iaSitAJabemmed jfQS] cu 1)? au WYO Sierra Leon* 1834? , 

*' A most remarkable new species of Angrce'cumy imported from Sierra 
Leone by the Messrs. Loddiges, in whose collection the accompanying draw* 
ing was made in August last. At present it is exceedingly rare, and is likely 
to remain so ; for it seems to be one of the most difBcult of the tribe to 
manage successfully. In the nursery at Hackney, it is attached to a piace of 
wood suspended from the roof of the stove for epiphytes. The most curious 
point of structure in this species is the unusual length of its spur, which mea- 
sures 9 in. from its base to its two-lobed apex. The only parallels to this, 
among all the orchideous plants I am acquainted with, are those of Habe- 
naria longicauda, figured in the Botanical Magazine^ t. 2957., and of Angrai^' 
cum sesquipedale of Du Petit Thouars's Orchide<By t. QQ. and t. 67. For what 
wise purposes these extraordinary appendages mav have been destined by 
nature, we may well be unable to imagine. It would seem that they must be 
added to the vast list of objects which, to our confined apprehension, appear 
merely intended to exhibit the endless diversity of power of the Creator/* 
(J?of. Reg,y April.) 

25S7. MAXILLA'RIA. [reg. IStf 

ixvitkKexinLindL brownish i$ QS ctt | d Tsfa spot THnidad ?16S4 D p.r.w M. 
Sifnonyme: M. fUsckta H^r/. 

Described in our Vol. XL p. 588. Imported by Mr. Low of 
Clapton. It flowered at Chatswortfa in I8S49 and is now gene- 
ral in collections; in some, under the name of M. fuscata. ^^ By 

no means one of the prettiest of the getius ; nevertheless, its 

u 3 



258 Transactions of the London Horticultural Society^ 

yellow labellum, richly spotted with crimson, is a beautiful 
object, when closely examined." {Bot. Beg,,, April.) 

S47a PERISTETRIA Hook. C9479 

«p6ndula irooit. praduloua /[ (2S or 1 Ja Oih W Demerara ?18a5 D p.r.w Bot mag. 

*^ This fine plant unquestionably belongs to the curious genus 
Perist^ria, of which only one species (P. elata Bot, Mag.^ 
t. 3116.) was hitherto known, and that was a native of Panama. 
The present one was imported, with many other varieties, from 
Demerara, by John Allcard, Esq., in whose stove, at Stratford 
Green, it flowered in January of the present year, and who 
kindly sent us the drawing here engraved, from the pencil of 
V. Bartholomew, Esq., Associate of Painters in Water Colours." 
{Bot. Mag.i April.) 

Amatyllkc^sd. 

* Sceptrdnthes Graham (from sJceptron^ a sceptre, and anthos, 
a flower; in allusion to the length of the perianth, which is 2 in. 
long, and 1^ in. across) f Drummond/V. This is a new name, pro- 
posed by Dr. Graham to be given to the Zephyranthes Drum- 
m6nd/V of Don, in Sweet's Brit. Flaw.-Gard.^ 328., and our 
No. *8022a, p. 184. The reason given is as follows: — " The 
length of tube, and especially the adhering filaments, seem to 
me to remove the plant from the genus Zephyranthes; the 
greater shortness of the tube, the less flattened limb, and the 
stipitate germen prevent me from uniting it to the genus 
Coop^rw." {Edin. New Phil. Journ.^ April.) 



REVIEWS. 

Art. I. Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London* Second 
Series. Vol. I. Part V. 4to. London, 1833. 

(^Continued from p. 85.) 

43. Journal of Meteorological Observations made in the Garden of 
the Horticultural Society^ at Chiswick^ during the Year 1831. By 
Mr. Robert Thomson, Under Gardener in the Fruit Department. 

44. A Report upon the Varieties of the Bean cultivated in the Garden 
of the Horticultural Society. By Mr. George Gordon, Under Gar- 
dener in the Kitchen-Garden Department. 

This Report and one on Peas, by the same experienced author, 
which we shall give in next Number, *^are intended to reduce the 
discordant nomenclature of the seed-shops to something like order ; 
to enable the gardener to know the quality of the sorts he is 
unaccustomed to cultivate ; and, above all, to prevent his buying 
the same kind . under different names. The results which have 
been arrived at are taken from the observations of several suo- 



Transactions qfthe London Horticultural Society. 259 

cessive years, and the comparison of many thousand samples ; 
from which it appears that only eleven kinds of beans can be dis- 
tinguished among forty-three reputed varieties. 



c« 



1. Dwarf Fan. French Synonyme : Feve naine k chassis. Engiish Sy^ 
nonymes : Fan or bog, dwarf cluster or bog, broad. — Steins about 2| ft. high. 
Blossoms white. Pods short and nearly round, seldom containing mor^than 
three beans, which are white, small, and nearly oblong. A very abundant bearer^ 
rather late and oi good quality. 

** 2. Early Mazagan. French Synonyme : Feve de Mazacan. EngKih Sy^ 
nonymes: Mazagan, Stidolph's new early. — Stems about 4^ tl. high, but some- 
times more, if the seeds are sown early. Blossoms white. Pods rather short, 
seldom containing more than four beans, which are small, oblong, and thick, of 
a white colour. This is the best bean in the collection for early sowing, as it ii 
hardy, a good bearer, and early. 

** 3. Red-blossomed. French Synonyme : Feve a fleurs pourpres. EngBtk 
Synonymes : Early asper, scarlet-blossomed, purple-blossomed. — Stems about 
4^ fl. high. Blossoms varying, sometimes of a light red, at others of a dark 
crimson colour. Pods short and much pointed, seldom containing more than 
three beans, which are small, short and thick, of a rusty white colour when 
ripe. This is only fit for ornament ; it is but a moderate bearer, aad will not 
keep long after gathering, as it soon turns black. 

** 4. White-blossomed. ' English Synonyme : White-blossomed long pod. — 
Stems about 4 ft. high. Blossoms pure white. Pods rather long and nearly 
round, mostly containing four beans, which are small and nearly oblong, of a 
rusty white colour when ripe. This, like the preceding one, is of very little 
value, as it bears but moderately. 

** 5. Violette. French Synonyme : F^ve verte de la Chine. — Stems about 
4^ ft. high. Blossoms white, with the vexillum striped with brown, and two 
dark brown spots on the alae. Pods long and broad, mostly containing three, but 
sometimes four beans, which are large and broad, white stained with purple 
when young, but when ripe, of a dark red colour. This is a tolerably good bean, 
and worth growing as it is somewhat later than the Mazagan in coming into 
use. 

" 6. Long Pod. French Synonyme : Feve a longues cosses. English Sy^ 
nonymes : Common long pod, hang down long pod, early long pod, large long 
pod, sword long pod, Windsor long pod, moon, Wrench's early moon, Lisbon, 
early Lisbon, Sandwich. — Stems about 4^ ft. high. Blossoms white, with the 
vexillum striped with brown, and two brown spots on the alae. Pods long 
but not very broad, mostly containing four, but sometimes five beans, which 
are large> broad, thin, and white. This is a good bean, and of excellent 
quality. 

'' 7. Dutch Long Pod. — Stems about 5 ft. high. Blossoms white, with the 
vexillum striped with brown, and two brown spots on the alae. Pods long 
and broad, containing five or six beans, which are large, broad, and white. 
This is the best bean in the collection for general cultivation, a good bearer, of 
good quality, and rather late. 

" 8. Green Long Pod, French Synonymes : Feve verte, F^ve toujours verte. 
English Synonymes : Green nonpareil, green Genoa. — Stems about 4| ft; high. 
Blossoms white, with the vexillum striped with brown, and two dark brown 
spots on the alse. Pods long, and not very broad, mostly containing four beans, 
which are small, oblong, and rather thick, of a green colour, both when young 
and when ripe. This is one of the best bearers, and a good bean for summer 
use, as it is rather late and looks well even if a little old. 

" 9. Windsor. French Synonyme : Feve de Windsor. English Synonymes : 
Kentish Windsor, Taylor's Windsor, broad Windsor, Mumford, small Spa- 
nish. — Stems about 4j^ ft. high. Blossoms white, with the vexillum striped 
with a dark brown, ana two brown spots on the alae. Pods short and very 

u 4 



260 Catalogues of Roses. 

broady seldom containing more than two beans, which are very lar^ and 
nearly round, of a white colour. This is the best bean in the collection for 
summer use, as it remains longer in perfection than any other, except the green 
Windsor. The Mumford is only the smaller seed of the common Windsor 
bean separated by sifting. 

''10. Green Windsor, Engliih Svnonyme: Toker. — Stems about 5 ft 
high. Blossoms white, with the vexillum striped with brown, and two brown 
spots on the alse. Pods short and broad, seldom containing more than two 
beans, which are large and rery broad, and, like the green long pod, retaining 
their green colour alter being ripe. 

*' 11. Dark Red. EngUth Si/nonyme: Red Windsor. — Stems about 4 ft. 
high. Blossoms white, with the vexillum striped with brown, and two dark 
brown spots on the alse. Pods short and broad, mostly containing two beans 
(but sometimes three), which are large and broad, of a light red colour when 

{^oung, and of a very dark red when ripe. This is a ^od kind, but is not 
iked by the cooks on account of its red colour ; it is of good quality, and 
rather late. 

'' The following are the best sorts for spring or earl^ sowing : — Early Ma* 
zagan and green long pod. For summer or late sowing : — Windsor, Dutch 
long pod, and green Windsor.*' 



Art. II. Catalogue* of Roses* 1. A descriptive Catalogue of Roses^ 
cultivated and sold by T. Rivers and Son, for 1835-6. 2. A 
Catalogue of Roses, cultivated by Mr. Hooker, at his Nursery Gar^ 
dens, Brenchley, near Lamberhurst, Kent. 

In both these catalogues the different sorts of roses are classed, 
and shortly described and priced ; on which account they both 
well deserve the patronage of the public. In Vol. X. p. 509., we 
have noticed the very excellent observations on rose culture con- 
tained in the first edition of Mr. Rivers's catalogue; and these 
are repeated in the present edition, with several additions. In 
order that our readers may judge of both the Sawbridgeworth 
and Brenchley collections, we shall give the following summary 
of each. 

Mr. Rivers's catalogue contains: Moss Roses, 24* sorts; 
Provence, or Cabbage, Roses, 25 ; Perpetual, or Autumnal, 
Roses, 49 ; Hybrid China Roses, 90 ; Varieties of ^sa ^Iba, 
24; Damask Roses, 19; /?. gallica, 100; Select Roses of un- 
certain origin, 25 ; Climbing Roses, 52 ; China Roses {R. 
indica), 70; Tea-scented China Roses, 51 ; Miniature, or Dwarf, 
China Roses (iZ. Lawrencea/za), 16; Noisette Roses, 65 \ Plsle 
de Bourbon Roses, 38 ; Musk Roses, 10; Macartney Roses, and 
2?. microph^lla, 10; Sweet Briars, 17; Scotch Roses, 27; 
Miscellaneous Roses, 101 ; Variegated Roses, 42. 

Mr. Hooker's catalogue contains : of JSosa bracte^ta, 2 sorts, 
and 22 Hybrids ; R. alpina. Hybrids, 6 ; R. sulphurea, 2 ; 
R. spinosissima, ^. pimpinellaefblia, 15; Hybrids of ditto, 2; 
R. centifoUa, 1 7 ; Hybrids of ditto, 7 ; Pompone Roses, 5 ; R. 
;ffusc6sa, 18; JB. damasc^na, 14; £ portl^ndica^ 32; R* gal- 



Works Ofi Gardenings AgriculiAire^ Sfc, 26 1 

lica, 89; 72. 61ba, 20; Hybrids of ditto, 3; B. riibiginosa, 6; 
Hybrids of ditto, 5; R. lAtea, 2; R. indica odorata, 18; Hy- 
brids of ditto, 2 ; 22. bengal^nsis, 32 ; R. Lawrenceamz, 7 ; 
R, Noisettfa/ta, 25; i2. Bourbonmna, 11, Hybrids of ditto, 6; 
Hybrids of Bengal and China Roses, which flower only once in 
the year, 64 ; R. arvensis, Hybrids of, 3 ; R. senipervirens, and 
Hybrids, 9 ; R. moschata, 4 ; R. Banksi^, 2 ; R. niultifl6ra, 
and Hybrids, 6. 



Art. III. Catalogue of Works on Gardening, Agriculture^ Botany ^ 
Rural Architecture^ Sfc, lately published^ with some Account of those 
considered the more interesting. 

Lm Cvltivateur^ Journal Beige (PEconomie Rurale ; Recueil 
de Connaissances Pratiques et Raisonnees d* Agrictdture. 8vo. 
Nos. 1, 2, and 3., for July, August, and September, 1835. 
Brnxelles. Price 6 francs a year for Belgians, and 8 francs for 
ioreigners. 

This periodical is more agricultural than horticultural; but 
it contains some good articles in both departments; and, being 
circulated at so very low a price as 5s. a year in Belgium, can- 
not fail to do much good among the reading cultivators of that 
country. An article by M. Van Mons recommends raising po- 
tatoes from seed, not so much for the sake of obtaining new 
varieties, as such, but because the old varieties are continually 
degenerating. 

Annales des Jardiniers Amateurs^ Suite aux Annales de la Societe 
d^Ag;roTunnie Pratique* In monthly numbers, 8vo. Paris. 
Price, yearly, 10 francs in Paris, and 14 francs if sent toother 
countries. 

We have received two or three numbers of this work, which 
appears to be a sort of Florist's Magazine, being chiefly occu- 
pied with descriptions of dahlias, roses, &c. 

Histoire NatureUe des lies Canaries. Par MM. P. Barker 
Webb, and S. Berthelot, Membres de plusieurs Academies et 
Soci^t^s savantes: ouvrage publie sous les auspices de M. 
Guizot, Ministre de I'Instruction Publique. Fol. and 4to. 
Paris, 1836. 

Of this splendid work, published under the immediate pa- 
tronage of the French government, 5 numbers have appeared. 
The publisher and the authors spare no expense or trouble to 
render it worthy of the advanced state of art in the capital of 
France, and a model for similar publications. The authors, 
both of whom have been long accustomed to such studies, and 



262 Worts on Gardenings AgricuUure^ 8fc. 

who are not unknown in the scientific world, after a residence 
of several years in the Fortunate Islands, returned to Europe 
with immense collections in all the departments of natural 
history, accompanied by numerous gbservations, manuscripts, 
and drawings. The greatest part of these materials they will 
elaborate themselves; but other parts they have confided to 
those who more especially dedicate themselves to the particular 
branches of science to which they relate. M. Valenciennes, the 
celebrated collaborator of Cuvier, in his great work on ichthy- 
ology, has undertaken the fish. M. Brulle, Aide-Naturaliste at 
the Museum (PHistoire Naturelle, a young entomologist of the 
highest merit, will describe the insects; Col. Bory de St. Vincent 
has arranged the ferns ; Dr. Montague has classified the acoty- 
ledonous plants; and Messrs. Brongniart, Cordier, Geoffioy St. 
Hilaire, De Jussieu, and other distinguised professors of the 
Jardiu du Roi lend their advice and cooperation. 

The first artists in each line are employed ; and lithography, 
according to the new method of engraving on stone, or copper- 
plate, is employed, as either method best suits the subject in hand. 

The work will be composed of 50 numbers, appearing twice 
a month. Each number contains 12 or 16 pages of text, with 
5 or 6 plates; and the publisher, desirous of seconding the dis- 
interested views of the authors, has offered them at the moderate 
price of 6 francs the plain, and 1 2 francs the coloured, copies. 

The whole will form three volumes in imperial 4to, with an 
atlas of from 25 to 30 plates of large dimensions ; and will con- 
tain altogether upwards of 300 lithographic engravings and 
copperplates besides, vignettes, cul'de^lampes^ &c. 

The first volume, which may be subscribed for separately, will 
be dedicated to the conquest, the history, and the statistics of 
the Canaries ; together with the relation of the journey, the 
costumes of the country, and whatever is strictly picturesque. 

The second volume will comprehend the geography, geology, 
and zoology of the country ; under which latter head the mol- 
lusca, insects, reptiles, fish and birds will be separately considered. 

The third volume will contain the flora, or an enumeration 
and phytographical description of the vegetation ; and the bo- 
tanical geography, or a comparison of the vegetable produc- 
tions with those of other countries, and their local distribution 
as to situation and altitude. 

Mr. Webb is the proprietor of the arboretum at Milford, and of 
Messrs. Young and Penny's Nursery ; and, as he has kindly sent 
to that nursery seeds of many of the plants that will be described 
in the above-announced work, we have given this lengthened 
notice of it, thinking that some of our readers, purchasers of 
these fine plants, might like to become subscribers, in order to 
know something about their natural habits and habitats. The 
agent in London is Mr. Hunneman, Queen Street, Soho. 



General Notices. 86S 



Art. IV. Literary Notices. 

The Flora Domestical or History of Medicinal Plants indige^ 
nous to Great Britain, illustrated by numerous coloured plates, 
by Benjamin H. Barton, F.L.S., will be published in parts. 
Part I. to appear on May 2. The work will contain a correct 
description of all the medicinal plants growing wild in the woods 
and fields of this country, and such as are cultivated, and easy 
of access in our gardens. The history of each plant will com- 
prise its botanical and popular character ; its poisonous qualities, 
if any ; the uses to which it has been applied in medicine, the 
arts, and in rural and domestic economy ; the mode of appro- 
priating its active principle, with the proper doses, &c. 

lUustrationSy mth a Top(^aphical and Descriptive Account ^ of 
Cassiobury Parlc^ Hertfordshire^ the seat of the Earl of Essex, by 
John Britton, F.S.A. &c., is about to be published by subscrip- 
tion. Cassiobury is interesting in an antiquarian point of view ; 
and also on account of its noble Gothic mansion, its beautiful 
garden scenery, and its very picturesque lodges and cottages; 
erected, for the most part, from the designs of the present earl. 
Mr. Britton's work will consist of about 40 pages of letterpress 
in folio; and, at least, 30 embellishments by Turner, Alex- 
ander, Hearne, EIridge, and Pugin. The publication will be 
limited to 150 copies ; 20 of which will have the plates coloured, 
price 6 guineas each ; and the others will be 3 guineas each. 



MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE. 

Art. I. General Notices. 

Method of preserving Plants during a long Voyage, — The following letter 
was communicated to Messrs. 6. C. and R. W. Fox, and Co., by Capt. R. 
GOlies, of the ship Hibernia : — 

In accordance with your wishes, I have much pleasure in describing to you 
the mode in which the plants brought by me from Calcutta were put up. 
The plants were all intended for the green-house in England, and, I presume, 
were of a delicate kind. Each plant was in a box, 6 in. square, by I ft. in 
depth, filled to the top with a kmd of clay ; and, no doubt, well saturated 
with water, previously to being put into the large outer box, which contained 
eight of these small ones. 

The large box was constructed in the usual way ; that is, a glazed roof 
about 2 ft. high, the glass strong enough to resist the fall of a small rope, or 
other light body. It was hermetically closed with the common Chunam * of 
the country, and was never opened during a voyage of five months. When 
we arrived in England, the plants were all in beautiful health, and had grown 
to the full height of the case, the leaves pressing against the glass. 

In dry weather, I always observed moisture within the glass, which was 

* A sort of lime^ used in India as a cement for plastering houses, &c. 



264 General Notices. 

caused, no doubt, by the evaporation of the earth, and was again absorbed by 
the pUmts. 

It is difficult to account for the perfect health of the plants, without the full 
admission of the atmosphere ; but oxygen sufficient was probably admitted, 
either through the pores of the wood, or otherwise. It is, however, a fact, 
that no water was given to them during the voyage, and that they were landed 
in excellent order. — Robert Gilliet. Hibemia, Falmouth Harbour, October 2. 
1835. (The Third Annual Report of the Royal Cornwall Pofytechnic Societi/^ 
Falmouth, 1835. 8vo. 2t.6d.) 

The House Fly, — At the Entomological Societv, on Monday, a paper by 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes was read, on excluding the house ny. The mode adopted was 
a net made of difierent-coloured meshes, of about three quarters oi an inch 
square, and which, when placed against a window, was found <}uite effectual in 
excluding the visits of these troublesome insects from the outside of the room. 
The same experiment was tried with meshes made of the finest black thread, 
l^in. square, which proved to be equally effectual. The approach of wasps 
was also prevented by the above mode, very few finding their way within the 
boundary. This was accounted for by an optical illusion in the eyes of the in- 
sect, of the highly magnifying power of vision, and the small focal length. 

Now that netting can be procured at the low price of 2/.U. 3</. for thirty-three 
square vards, gardeners might try whether, by covering a hot-house with such 
a net, they coiSd not exclude both birds and wasps. Thev might also apply it 
over stanciard cherry trees, and over various kinas of newly sown seeds ; and, 
lastly, they might place it before the windows of their own cottages, to exclude 
the common house fly. 

A cheap and durable Netting for Garden Purposes has lately been brought 
into notice by Messrs. Howden, who manufacture the article on a new princi- 
ple by steam. This principle consists in making the knot of the mesh move- 
able, by which means it expands when the cord swells with wet. The expansive 
power possessed by this netting renders it much stronger than any other, as it is 
well known that all nets manufactured in the ordinary' manner fail first at the 
knots, from the wet swelling the cord immediately above and below them, and 
thus tearing asunder at the point where the tightness of the knot prevents 
the cord from expanding. Messrs. Howden's nets are manufactured in pieces 
of thirty-three yards long by ten yards wide, when the meshes are not strained 
tight ; but, when they are thus strained, the length and width of the piece are 
considerably increased. A piece of this netting containing thirty-three square 
yards, will cover a wall ninety-nine yards long and 12 ft. high ; and the cost of 
such a piece is only 2/. Is. 3d. Thus, if this netting were put three times 
over the trees, it would not be so expensive as bunting (whicn, when new, is 
8d. per yard), or any other covering now in use for garden purposes. Pieces 
of this netting may be manufactured of any size and shape. It would form 
excellent netting for covering a cherry orchard, such as that described, and 
accompanied by an engraving, in Vol. III. p. 396. 

Rowland's Metallic Wire and MetcdUc Nails. — In order that these articles 
may have a fair chance of extensive trial, we have figured specimens of seven 
different sorts, which Mr. Rowland has sent us, viz. : Nos. 8. to 20. in Jig. 27. ; 
and also the two metallic nails, Nos. 21. and 22. in the figure. The utility of 
the wire is thus described by Mr. Rowland : — 

** First, in securing wall trees : from its preventing any vermin or insects from 
harbouring on them (as they do on list) ; and from its durability, which is far 
superior to that of either listing or matting, while its softness and pliability far 
surpass copper or brass wire, and it does not canker, cut, or verdigrise the 
trees. 

** Secondly, in securing vines : it will not cut or injure the young branches, 
as it is of a very elastic nature; and, in point of cheapness, it is much less ex- 
pensive than any other wire, listing, or even string ; it also occasions a sa^g 
of time in securing or tying, as it is fastened by only one turn of the wire. 

** Thirdly, in flowers the same as vines, labeling trees, &c." 



General Notices* 



iss 



12O (T 



140 d 



16 O C! 



27 





ISO (E 



so 



o c 





As the fitness of this wire for general purposes must depend much on its 
cost, relatively to that of other materials, we give the following scale of prices 
of the metallic wire : — 

No. 8. is 6^. i)er lb., measuring two yards in length ; No. 10. is 8(/., and five 
yards ; No. 12. is 10(/., and seven yards ; No. 14>. is l#.,and twelve yards ; No. 
16. is \t,2d,y and eighteen yards; No. 18. is 1#.4(/., and thirty yards; and No. 
20. is 1#. 6(/., and sixty yards. 

The prices of the metallic nails have not been stated to us by Mr. Rowland 
The circumstance of these nails being made round, alone, renders them much 
better adapted for having the shoots of trees tied to them, than the square- 
shanked cast-iron nails in common use. Every gardener knows that it fs the 
sharp angles of these cast-iron nails that chiefly wound the shoots. We would 
strongly recommend that all cast-iron nails, intended to be used for training 
purposes in gardening, should, in future, be cast like the metallic nails of Mr. 
Kowland, both with round shanks, and with round heads. They would then 
be less likely to do mischief than they are at present, though they would still 
be liable to rust. If Mr. Rowland's nails be any thing like as cheap as the 
cast-iron ones, they are certainly greatly to be preferred to them. — Cond, 

Waierproof Sirands of Bast for tying Trees y and Waterproof Bast Matt, — In 
our Second Volume, p. 192., a mode of rendering ties of bast waterproof is[men- 
tioned by Dr. Van Mons ; and, while recommending a trial of metallic tie?, 
it is but fair that we should remind our readers of this very simple mode of 
increasing the durability of bast. To make bast ties waterproof, it is only ne- 
cessary to wet them first with a solution of soap, and next with a solution of 
alum. A neutral compound is formed from the soap and the alum, joined to 
the albumen of the wood of which the bast is composed, which is insoluble 
in water. It has oflen occurred to us, that, if common matting could be woven 
in Russia, with the weft of pack-thread, and the woof of strands of bast, mats 
would then throw off the ram nearly as well as canvass ; and the whole might 
be tanned, or rendered waterproof by Dr. Van Mons's process. Perhaps our 
friend at Cronstadt might be able to induce some of the Russian mat manu- 
facturers to try this process. — Cond, 



266 Foreign Notices : — Frame, Belgium. 

Art. II. Foreign Notices. 

FRANCE. 

Paris, 5. Eue des Vignesy March 6. 1836. — I was pleased and surprised to 
see, by an article from M. Alpbonse De Candolle, p. 381., that his father bad 
discovered, fifteen or eighteen years ago, in a garden at Bourdigny, near 
Geneva, a tree of the female Salisburia ; but, when he adds that all the female 
saiisburias in Europe are from that tree, I imagine, he is wrong. It was at 
Bourdigny where I resided in 1775, when I was collecting plants upon the Alps, 
and I deposited them in the garden of M. Gaussin, the proprietor of Bourdi£;ny, 
until I could send them to England, which I did, to Drs. Pitcaim and Fother- 
gill, the same year. When I returned to France in 1776, 1 continued in cor- 
respondence with M. Gaussin ; and, when employed in fonning the gardens at 
Bagatelle and Monceau, I always sent to M. Gaussin some of all the new 
plants that I got; and these were numerous, as I was then forming a collection 
of trees and plants at Monceau for the late Duke of Orleans. The last 
packet of trees that I sent to M. Gaussin was in 1790 ; and amongst them 
was a plant of the Ginkgo blloba (Salisburia), which I reared at Monceau. 
I have M. Gaussin's letter, wherein he writes to me from Geneva, " I have re- 
ceived a parcel of plants, twenty-nine species, by M. Merlin, for which I beg 
your acceptance of my sincere thanks," &c. ; dated, " Geneva the 11th Xbre., 
1790;" and signed, " Gaussin de Chapeaurouge,** Now, this tree, when M. 
De Candolle observed it, as he says, must have been nearly twenty-nine years 
planted. This is what I can certify ; but, whether the trees at Monceau were 
male or female, I cannot say, as the revolution in France began about this 
time, and I was forced to leave Paris, and all the plantations that I had made. 
Part of these plantations were afterwards destroyed, but some were saved. 
For this reason, I think it cannot be from Bourdigny that all the female 
saiisburias have sprung. There was cut down, about two years ago, to build a 
house in the garden of Marboeuf, a fine salisburia, above 40 h, high. This tree 
was planted about fifty years ago, by Mr. Jansen, an English gentleman, who 
laid out the garden, and who was very curious in plants. The garden is cut up 
for building all round; and many fine trees that were in it have been destroyed. 
A beautiful sophora was cut down near the same place where they cut down 
the salisburia. The gardens at Bagatelle have been sold, and purchased by 
Lord Yarmouth, who, they say, is going to restore the house and gardens, but 
how I do not know. 

The winter here has been long, but not severe': we have had no very hard 
frost to kill the plants; sp that now many evergreens, which formerly could not 
be purchased, can easily be had in the nurseries about Paris, and may oma^- 
ment the gardens. I have been executing some works lately at Mortefontaine, 
the seat of the Baronne De Feuchere. This place, I dare say, you saw when you 
went to Ermenonville. A great part of it was laid out when it belonged to 
Joseph Bonaparte, when there were many things badly placed, which cannot 
now be changed. There was a long and narrow dark passage from one park 
to another, which I proposed to enlarge, so that the two parks might join. 
This the lady saw the propriety of; but former arrangements rendered it im«> 
practicable. I would nave sent you grafts of the early-flowering horsechest- 
nut; but Mr. Gordon, the ambassador's gardener, who was bred up at Kew, 
told me they had an early-flowering horsechestnut there. I asked him if the 
ailantus bore seed in England. He said he never had seen the flower. However, 
you may. If you have not, and would wish any seed, I could send you 
plenty, as there are several trees here loaded with seeds. — Thomas Blakie, 

We have seen flowers of the ailantus frequently, and also seeds, at Whit« 
Knights; but the latter, when we saw them, were not quite ripe. — Cond. 

BELGIUM. 

Ghent, March 1. 1836. — I have been expecting plans of gardens from dif- 
ferent gentlemen for your Suburban Gardener, but, as yet, have not received 



Foreign Notices : '— Salt/* 267 

them. I send you a new number of the HorHcuUeur Beige, and recommend 
to you an article, by M. Moren of Liege, on the artificial fecundation of the 
Orchideae tribe, and which I would recommend to you to translate. Our new 
building for the exhibition of plants will be open for the winter exhibition of 
1837 ; and it will be well worth any gardener's coming over to see it. I believe 
there will be a kind of fftte on the occasion, and a large banquet given. Our 
last winter exhibition was very respectable in forced plants, though some 
camellias figured under false names ; a plan which both foreign and English 
gardeners ought to be ashamed of practising. Foreigners are very apt to play 
sad tricks with the names of camellias, dahlias, and roses ; so much so, in- 
deed, that I scarcely ever purchase any of these three classes of plants unless 
in flower. A hint in your Magazine might, perhaps, make the foreigners 
ashamed of these tricks, and would serve as a lesson to the English gardener. 
— j: M, B. 

All my different Varieties of Indian, Bengal, and Noisette Roses, budded upon 
the BdssL canina and Rds& Smithii, or the common blue Noisette, have stood 
the winter, uncovered, very well ; the points only of the branches being a 
little scorched by frost ; whereas those on their own bottoms have, for the 
most part, been killed down to their roots. Ribes speciosum has stood very 
well uncovered. The winter has been very trying for open ground plants, 
not one day being like the other. Eleven degrees and a half below the freezing 
point of Reaumur was the lowest degree of cold, with very little snow ; but 
during the most severe weather the flavour of the Brussels sprouts was much 
improved. Green-house plants here have sufiered severely. Many gardeners, 
being deceived by the mild appearance of the night, have found, to their cost, 
two or three degrees (Reaumur) of cold in their houses before morning. In 
short, I never, in this country, have observed so -changeable a winter as the 
present ; and vegetation is at least three weeks backwarder than it was last 
winter. — Id. 

ITALY. 

Monza, November 25. 1835. — I do not know what pleasure people can 
find in deceiving others, and in propagating falsehoods ; but it is certain that 
there are such beings in existence, and 1 fear your correspondent Mr. ■ 

may be one of them, as he has had the folly to declare that he saw the fruit of 
the salisburia in the Botanic Garden at Pavia, where it has never flowered, 
and where it does not appear that there is even a female plant. I consider 
the contradiction of this false assertion of such importance, that I transmit to 
you, enclosed, an answer which I received from Signor Pratesi, a gardener, and 
good botanist, belonging to that establishment ; and whom your correspondent 
must have seen, if he reallv visited the Botanic Garden at Pavia. 1 do not 
think that there is a female plant in this garden, because, when I was there a 
short time ago, I do not remember it ; and, certainly, if it were there, Signor 
Pratesi must have been aware of it, and would have mentioned the circum- 
stance in his answer. Professor Giuseppi Moretti would also have mentioned 
it in the Return Paper which I sent him from you, begging him earnestly to 
fill it up as soon as possible. 

Now we are on the subject of deception, I must tell you that you have been 
very incorrectly informed respecting this royal garden. In your valuable En^ 
cydopcedia of Gardening, p. 19., 1st edition, you say, that '' Every thing is in 
as good order as the parsimony of the present viceroy permits." This is an 
injustice which this best of princes does not deserve ; and you may suppose 
so, when I assure you that the gardens at Monza are not kept up for himself, but 
for the government ; and that the sum spent annually for their support (I speak 
of the gardens only) is now never under 35,000 Austrian francs ; while under 
the former government only 19,000 Italian firancs were expended. 

For two years past I have had the pleasure of the acquaintance of a coun- 
tryman of yours, who lives near the Lake of Como, Signor Conte George 
Compton, to whom Lombardy is indebted for the introduction of many beau- 



268 Foreign Notices : -— Italy. 

tifiil and useful plants ; and, among others, for a tuber of O&nna AcJurat^ or 
C edidis. From what you say in your Ma^zine, and the testimony of Signor 
Gonte Compton, I wrote a paper, suggesting to the Georgofili Academy at 
Florence to try to cultivate it in the marshes which are occasionally over- 
flowed by the sea. The secretary of that establishment informed me that, 
according to my proposal, they had planted and cultivated the achira in the 
open air ; and that tne result was very successful, as he thus writes : — ** The 
four tubers which I planted have produced more than twenty of a large size. 
I have tasted them, and they are excellent ; the juice being sweet and agree- 
able. I have also extracted the fecula, and find it resembles that of the 
potato, and of the Maranta arundin^cea; and I have calculated that it pro- 
duces at the rate of eight to a hundred." This year I have also grown a 
considerable number of tubers. When the extreme cold was over, I planted 
them in the open air early in the spring, in a rich soil exposed to the sun, not 
failing to water them abundantly every day ; and by these means the stems grew 
to the height of about 9 ft., flowered freely, and produced abundance of seed. 
When the cold set in, which this year was a month earlier than usual, because 
on the 13th of this month the thermometer was at 3° of Reaumur, and on the 
14th and 15th there was a heavy fall of snow, I dug up the ground, and found 
that the tubers of the achira had produced abundantly, and that those of a 
moderate size weighed 4 oz. I had some boiled, and some baked : I found by 
both the methods that they were agreeable to the palate. I had also a little 
of the fecula prepared for the table, and found that it tasted like a mixture of 
the potato and the beet root. I had, also, some tubers fried, and found them 
excellent. This year it will become better known in the country, and I hope 
its usefulness will be proved. The stems and leaves might, probably, serve as 
food for cattle, if prepared by steam. 

(YxaUs crendta and O. Arrac4cha. The former has been introduced here by 
Signor Compton, and succeeds very well with me ; having produced tubers 
weighing more than 16 oz. I have not yet tried them for the table, but shall 
do so when I get a sufficient quantity, and will send you the result. Our august 
viceroy received O. Arracdcha from Vienna. It appears to me to be a variety 
of O. tetraphylla, only differing in having flowers flesh-coloured, instead of 
violet. The tubers resemble the root of the carrot which is called in Italy 
carota corta ; but they contain too much water to be pleasant to the taste. 
They weigh about 2 oz. each. I have never seen tubers of O. tetraphf lla 
of so large a size, although it is cultivated in this neighbourhood. 

I here add a list of the professors to whom you may address your Return 
Papers : — Sr. Burberi, at Montovo ; Sr. Bomato, at Padua ; Sr. Jean, at 
Parma ; Sr. Bertolini, at Bologna ; Sr. Merati, at Bergamo ; Sr. Moretti, at 
Pavia ; Sr. Balsami, at Milan i Sr. ComoUi, at Como ; Sr. Linneo Tagliabue, 
at Lairate, near Milan; Sr. Biasoletto, at Trieste; and Sr. Brambilla, at Cre- 
mona. All my spare time is devoted to translating Dr. Lindley's excellent 
Ladiei Botany. 

My brother Antonio, who is director of the plantations on the military road 
on the banks of the Lake of Como, writes to me that he will soon send me 
a list of the exotic plants that stand the open air on the Lake of Como, from 
Leno to Collico; and as soon as I receive it I will forward it to you. — Giuseppe 
Manetti, 

Monza, December, 1835. — The Acorns ofQ,Bdbur, When I mentioned the 
oaks in the Return Paper, I forgot to state that the acorns of Quercus i?6bur 
and pedunculata are used here as coffee, after being subjected to the action of 
heat ; and that such coffee is chiefly drunk by those who suffer from weakness 
of the stomach. 

TTie O'xalis Arracacha, which I mentioned to you in my last letter, appears to 
be the O. florib^nda which you speak of in Vol. VIIL p. 691. 

Plants which vnU stand in the open Air at Como. — I subjoin the list I pro- 
mised in iny last of the plants which stand the open air on the shores of the 
Lake of Como ; from which you will be able to form an idea of the mildness 



Itetrospective Critidsrh. 269. 

of the climate. i2(cinua commibiis lias lived with me three tucoeastve years. 
Aio^sia citriod6ray Biiddlea globdsa, Ciesalplnia Sdppan, Camellia olelfora, C. 
Sasanqua^ C. iap6iiica, C. j. fl. 41bo» C. j. fl. pieno, and other varieties, Cldthra 
arborea, jElaeagnus aq^tea, Er&nthemum pulch^Uum, Jasmlnum az6ricmn, 
Justida Adhdioda, Xra6ru8 {ndica, L. foe^tensy L, tomentosa, Leptosp^rmmn 

Subescens, Magnolia fosckta, Melaleik^ Aypericifolia, £riob6trya japdnicay 
letrosid^os [Eriostemon] sBligoA, M. [?] 6Iba, M. [£.] lophintha, M. angusti- 
f61ia» iliyrlca ouercifolia, Cerium Olednder, N, spUndeiiSy O^lea fragrans, O. 
americ&na, Pinus longifdliay Pist^da Xrentiscus, Pitt6spormn undulktum, 
Podocarpiis dongatus, i2hus likdda, R. viminklis» Roydim ludda, £d- 
w&rdsta erandifldra, Viburnum rugosum, V, odoratissimwDy Littse^a gemi- 
niflora, ^th^llis B&rba J6vi«. — AnUmo Manettu 

INDIA. 

Seedt of the Prangos Hay Plant were sent by the French general Allard, in 
the service of the Riyah of Lahore, in the spring of 1834, to the Cfdcutta 
Botanic Garden ; but, though they were sown, and every care taken of them, 
none of them came up. A bottle of the same seeds was also sent to Europe, 
to M. Vilmorin of Paris, by the desire of the Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society of India; but they, also, bad lost their vital principle before arrival. 
The same Society, with that liberality which oueht to distinguish every public 
bodj^ that has for its object the improvement of the arts connected witn civi- 
lisation, sent seeds to Britain, to North America, and to Van Yemen's Land. 
The climate of Ladak, of which country the Prangos hay plant is a native, 
resembles that of Canada, Ladak forming part of the vast plateau of Tartary. 
There can be no doubt, therefore, of the hardiness of this plant, if it were once 
introduced into Europe. {Extract of a Letter from H. Peddington, Foreign Se^ 
eretary to the Agricultural and Horticultural SocieU/ of India, to M, Vilmorin of 
Paris, dated Calcutta, May 5. 1834.) In Vol. VlII. p. 13., there is a notice 
of this plant, taken from Wallich's Rarer Asiatic Plants, No. 9., from which it 
appears, that the Prangos hay plant is said to fatten sheep in an incredibly 
short space of time, and to prevent them from being affected with the rot. — 
Cand, 



Art. III. Retrospective Criticism^. 

Errata, — In the communication of Bl Klause, p. 7., for ** Caralate," read 
* Caralath ; " p. 7., for ** Fischals," read « Fischbach j " p. 8., for « Sidel," 
read « Sddel ; *' p. 9., for « Thavant," read « Thurant ; " p. 9., for « Breiten," 
read ** Breiter ; " p. 12., for " Schniteboor," read ** Schnitzban; " p. 12., for 
« Nbar," read « Noack." 

Errata, — - Vol. XL p. 554., 7th line from the bottom, for ** Mr." read 
** Mrs. ; " and p. 556., 4th line from the bottom, for <' I think in L. micro- 
c&rpa," read " I think it L. microc^a. — G. M, ElUot. Ripley Castle, 
March 19. 1836. 

7%f Belfast Horticultural Society, — It is only lately that my attention has 
been drawn to an anonymous article which appeared in your Magazine for 
March, 1835, No. 60. p. 152., under the head of Ireland, and relating to the 
Belfast Horticultural Society; or I should ere this have taken notice of it. I 
now beg to inform you, that this article is one tissue of calumny and misstate- 
ment ; and, through you, to call upon the writer to come forth from his 
ambush, and avow his real name. When I know with whom I have to grapple, 
I pledge myself to prove, if needful, the falsity of the imputations attempted 
to be cast upon the proceedings of the Society, which were only intended to 
bring order out of confusion, and to place the Society on such a footing, that 
its members might meet together in harmony and peace. — Michael Andrews^ 
Secretary B, H, S, Ardoyne, near Belfast, if arch 21. 1836. 

Vol. XII.— No. 74. x 



270 



Qiteries and Answers. 




Art. IV* Queries and Answers. 

A BMMARZABLS Yew Tree, (^fig. 28.) — Mr. Gibson, bookseller in Oxford, 
found, the other day, 
among some old books 
which he had recently 
purchased, and which 
were formerly the pro- 

Sirty of (the Re?.^ Mr. 
enry Bright^ who, I 
think, was author of a 
small work on the virtues 
of British plants, an old 
copperplate print of a 
very large and curious 
yew tree (fig. 28.), said 
to have been growing, 
about 1729, in the village 
of Arlington, Middlesex. 
This print is headed, 
"Poet John Saxy upon 
hisYew Tree, Nov. 1 729;" 
and it is accompanied by 
a copy of verses, from 
which it appears that it 
must have been as much 
as 50 ft. or 60 ft. in height. 
It was surrounded at the 
bottom of its trunk by a 
wooden 8eat,above which, 
at 10ft. from the ground, vras a large circular canopy, formed by the tree 
itself, which was, according to Poet Saxy, — 

** So thick, so fine, so full, so wide, 
A troop of guards might under it ride." 

Ten feet above this canopy was another, of much smaller dimensions ; and above 
that a pyramid, about 20 ft. high, surmounted by a globe 10 ft. in diameter; and 
this globe was crowned by — 

" A weathercock, who gaped to crow it 
This world is mine, and all below it.** 

In the rhymes, this tree, it is said,— 

** Yields to Arlington a fame 
Much louder than its Earldom's name ; *' 

from which it may be inferred, that it grew in some churchyard in the parish 
of Arlington, though the paper is indorsed, ** The Yew Tree at Harlington, 
Middlesex." 

I find no notice of such a tree as this ever having been growing at Arlington, 
either in Brewer's Description of London and Middlesex (1816>, Middleton's 
Agrictdtural Survey of Middlesex (1807), Miller's Gardener* s Dictionary ^ Eve- 
lyn's Sylva, or any other work in my library. As you are living not far fi*om 
the place, perhaps you may know more about it, and whether tne tree is still 
growinff there. — W. Baxter. Bot, Gard. Oxjbrd, Dec, 16. 1835. 

We have been unable to procure any information respecting this tree ; and 
should be much obliged to any of our readers who have it in their power, to 
send us an account of its present state. — Cond, 

Loudon* s [Robert of Carstairs] Seedling Grape is mentioned (Vol. X. p. 397.) 
as an excellent grape, which *' readily produces a second crop, especially when 
grown in a pinenstove." A correspondent in the same volume, p. 577., asks 



Queries and Afiswers. 



271 





frdm what part of the vine the second crop is produced. 91r. Bamet has not 
answered the question directly; but he has sent us a plant, and some cuttings, 
from the letter accompanying which we make the following quotation :— -^ Lou* 
don's seedling grape is a very excellent variety, producing a second crop from the 
fourth or fifth eye beyond the joint at which it has been pinched off in summer. 
In cases where it is grown in stove heat, the plant is seldom without clusters 
of fruit. I am not acquainted with any variety of the vine that seems to have 
this property.*' — J. B, Experimental Garden, Edinburgh, April 1. 1836. 

The Gama Chats. — Messrs. Jacob Wrench and Sons, seedsmen, London 
Bridge, having received a bag of the seeds of this grass, and having requested 
us to give them some account of it, we think it may be useful, more especially as 

this grass is at present mdiing a consider- 30 

able noise in the United States, to lay 
some particulars respecting it before our 
readers. The Gama grass was so named in 
honour of the Spanish gentleman who 
first introduced its culture into Mexico. 
Its scientific name is Trlpsacum (/acty- 
loldes L, (Jig. 30.) ; and there is a variety 
of it, T. monostkchyon W. {'fig. 29.;, 
which by some is considered as a speeies. 
T.<factvloides was introduced into England 
from Virginia in 1640; and T. monosta- 
chyon was brought to this country from North Ame-- 
rica in 1825 ; though we have not been able to ascertain 
where a plant of the latter species is to be founds 
There are plants of ^* T. (factvloides in the grass 
collection at Kew, which have been there a number or years. It is there a 
robust perennial grass, requiring no looking after as regards its cultivation, 
because neither heat nor cold, wet nor dryness, appear to affect it. It is late 
in beginning to shoot ; and its flower stems do not show till late in the summer. 
They are spreading, and from 3 ft. to 4 ft. in length. They continue green 
till destroyed by the cold nights in autumn. It does not appear that the seeds 
are sufficiently ripened to vegetate ; at any rate, no plants nave been raised at 
Kew from seeds ripened there. — J. S. Kew, April 12. 1836." 

In the Gard. Ma^., vol. x. p. 570., a New. York correspondent states that the 
Gama grass is considered the best of all grasses for soiling, in the neighbourhood 
of that city. It is also strongly recommended for this purpose in the Genettee 
Farmer, vol. iv., for J834'. It is there stated, that Dr. Hardiman of Missouri 
appears to have been the first cultivator of this grass in the United States ; 
but that whether he found the seed there, or procured it fi'om the Spaniards, 
is uncertain. It is said to be a native of various parts of the Union, and to 
be found on the sea coast as far north as Connecticut ; and in the interior, on 
the Schuylkill, 25 miles above Philadelphia. Various accounts are given of the 
produce of this grass. From ** seventy to ninety tons of green hay, and fix)m 
twenty to thirty tons of cured hay, to the acre," are said to have been grown in 
North Carolina. The flower stems attain the height of 7 ft. or 8 ft. ; and the edi- 
tor of the American Farmer says that a blade sent to him in a letter measured 
32^ in. in length. One of his correspondents observes : ^ When all: surrounding 
vegetation was literally burnt up, the Ghima grass was green and flourishing ; 
and during the month of July it grew 43 in. It was cut on the first day of 
every month, ranging firom 3^ ft. to 4^ ft. in height." It is said to grow well 
in both sandy and clayey soils ; to taste like the leaves of Indian corn (a taste 
of all others the most agreeable to animals) ; and, when mixed with a little 
salt, and given to mules, to render the addition of corn for them quite un- 
necessary. (Genessee Farmer, vol. iv. p. 4.) In a subsequent page of the 
same volume, the editor states that the seed requires an unusual length of 
time to vegetate ; in some instances, as much as fourteen months. Some 
seedsy which the editor of the Northern Farmer kept constantly wet with water, 

X 2 



27« 



Cavent Garden Market. 



near m ttore in the kitchen, were two monthi before ibe; b^n i 
From all that we liave read in the American agriculttural Jouroala, 
the haUtB of the plant at Kew, we thinli it very likelj' that the O; 
will prore a Tsluable forage plant in all ctimales suitable for the Ind 
for which reason, we hope Measra. Wrench will send seeds of it t 
morin for France and the south of Europe, to Sydney and Van 
Idmd, and also to India and South America. 






mCMagiTHit. 



Otnwn OiMM, or KsK f* 
BmsoU, v« bond : 



KldncT, pet iHubd - 

Scotch, Mtbuihil 
■niralpi, Wh)H!,pH bunch . 
CarroUfpcv buDdhi 



'TASi.m.T'. 


Whiu Tumlp, fx buncb 


n.a,*»^Tra.. 


■•"""'■{gSSSf'UT. : 




neOuiomTrlbe. 


Oiilou.i>1il,[>nbiiibal 


ft>rp,ckliBe,«rliilfrin. 


i,M^p«d««'i«Ddi« r 


OuUcperpovod . - 


SbiUou, per pound - . 




Salad,, ic 



Covent Garden Market. 



-iEir: 



6' Thftni!. (men, po 
JShm-.grnn,, peril 









Obiervalient. — The supply to the market, until this morning, haa been very 
limited, and the prices of most articles contmued slightly advancing; but they 
hare declined considerably, in consequence of a larger supply coming to hand 
than could have been reasonably expected in bo short a period, with but little 
Influence from improvement in the weather, which has continued to be wet 
sod cold until within a few days. The season may, upon the whole, be con- 
sidered full fourteen days later in every article of natural produce usually sup- 



plied at this SI 



Articles artificially produced arc also materially retarded 



L&ndon Hoiiicultural Society atid Garden. 273 

by the total absence of solar heat, and come to hand rather sparingly. Grapes 
not so plentiful as usual ; strawberries very limited in quantity ; cucumbers 
rather plentiful, but by no means in demand ; asparagus not yery abundant ; 
sea4cale in good supply, owing to the forced and the natural being in market 
together. Of cabbages we have as yet but few, and none of yery good qua* 
lity. Rhubarb, owing to the large breadth in culture, is furnished rather 
liberally, at a very moderate rate ; to-day we have had several waggon-loads. 
Broccolis, of course the very late varieties, are rather plentiful. The new Rus- 
sian, or late dwarf white, is found to be an excellent sort for standing well 
through the severest fi'ost we have experienced this winter. As mentioned in 
my last, potatoes have been rather plentifully supplied ; but, as the season 
advances, and, as yet, with little else to rely on, the stock must be rapidly 
diminishing. As expected, prices have fallen materially, but are now again 
steadily improving. Turnips are now nearly over for the season ; some few 
late sown are still supplied. Carrots continue to be much in demand, and at 
a very good price. All other v^etables much as usual, with some allowance 
for the lateness of the season. Our stock of apples of home growth is getting 
short. We have a few French crabs, gooseberry pippins, winter sourings, 
and other late keeping varieties ; but the commoner sorts come to hand in 
bad condition. Some considerable importations from Ostend have taken 
place, of very indifierent sorts, which have kept the supply and prices equally 
moderate. The dessert varieties, such as nonpareils, golden pippins, court 
pendus, &c., with some reinettes grises, are all getting scarce; and more valu- 
able pears are now reduced to one variety, and that in very small quantities. 
— G. C. 4pn7 16. 1836. 



Art. VI. The London Horticultural Society and Garden. 

April b, 1836. Camellia Show, — Exhibited Jbr Prizet, Chinese camel- 
lias: Camilla jap6nica striped, C.j. fimbriata, C. j. imbricata, from Mr. Chan- 
dler. C. j. double-striped, C. j. fimbrikta, and C. j. althseaeflora, from Mr. G. 
Glenny. English seedling camellias in pots, from Mr. Chandler. Baskets of 
cut flowers of Chinese camellias, from Mr. W. Wells, Mr. Chandler, and Mr. 
Donald ; the latter of which were produced in the open air ; and of English 
seedling camellias, from Mr. Allnutt, Mr. G. Glenny, and Mr. Chandler. 

Extras, Camellia jap6nica double white, C.j. Chdndlers, C. j. concf nna, C. j. 
ulthaeaeflora, from Mr. Chandler ; seven seedling camellias, from Mr. Allnutt ; 
baskets of camellias, from J. C. Palmer, Esq., and W. Wells, Esq. ; J?uph6rbia 
spl^ndens, heartseases, a seedling rhododendron (with somewhat the habit of 
R, azaleoides), from Mr. G. Glenny ; £uph6rbia spl^ndens, Tropse^olum tri- 
colorum, from Mr. Pressley (gardener to Walter Boyde, Esq.) ; Tropae^olum 
tricolorum, a hybrid rhododendron, Phalus Woodf6rdt immacul^ta, ^cada 
verticillata, Ardisia hymen&ndra, from Messrs. Young of Epsom ; Tropae^olum 
tricolorum, from Mr. Lane (gardener to J. C. Palmer, Es(]^.); Solandra grandi- 
flora, from Mrs. Marryatl; Drimia sp., Plumbago rosea, from Mr. Buck; and 
a very remarkable specimen of ivy, which was laid on the table for the inspec- 
tion of the visitors, and which had grown and twined round an ash tree (at 
Chi Grove, Sussex) to such an extent as to completely destroy the tree, from 
C. P. Dimraond, Esq. — Fruits, Maurice pears, from J. Arcedeckne, Esq. At 
this exhibition Mr. T. C. Palmer, Mr. S. E. Henderson, and Mr.D. Munro, 
were the judges, and awarded the prizes in the following manner : — 

A large silver medal to Mr. Chandler, for the best three Chinese camellias 
in pots. A large silver medal to Mr. Chandler, for the best three English 
seedling camellias in pots. A silver Banksian medal to Mr. Wells, for the 
best basket of cut flowers of camellias. A silver Banksian medal to Mr. 
Chandler, for the best basket of cut flowers from English seedling camellias. 
Amongst the extra productions, the following plants being deemed of superior 
merit, Banksian medals were awarded, one, for Ardisia hymenAndra, to Messrs. 
Young of Epsom ; and one for Tropae^olum tricolorum, to Mr. Lane, gardener 
to J. C. Palmer, Esq. 



274 Obituary. 

MedaU as Prizet, we ai^ inclined to think, are not in accordance with the 
spirit of the a^e. Useful articles of an ornamental, an elegant, or of an in- 
tellectual description, would, we should think, be more gratuying to the pos- 
sessor : for example, a microscope, a case of drawing instruments, or a botanical 
work, to a voung gardener ; and a snuff-box, a cup, a teapot, a tea-tray, or 
something of that kind, to a master gardener. What gratification can there 
he in possessing twenty or thirty Banksian medals, pieces of jeweller*s gold 
or silver, about the size of eighteen-penny tokens ? We would suggest the 
idea of giving prize numbers instead of medals, and leaving it to the option of 
the party obtaining the prize number to present it either for a certain sum, or 
for the medal itself, as be might choose. The party taking money instead of 
medals might write, or have engraved, on the book or other article purchased 
with it, '' Purchased with prize numbers, received from the Hor* 

ticultural Society of London, between , 1830, and , 1836, 

as recorded in the Hort Soc, Trans,^ vol. ., p. ." (See Vol. V. p. 618.) 
However, this is but the crude expression of an idea, written on the spur of 
the moment, like many others in this Ma^zine, to be hereafter dilated on by 
ourselves or others, or thrown aside, as circumstances may direct. 



Art. VII. Obituary. 

Farther DeUals respecting the Death of Mr. Douglas. (See Vol. XI. 
p. 271.) — The following particulars of this most terrific occurrence are taken 
from that excellent publication, the Mirror, for March 26. 1836. The editor 
acknowledges having copied it from Ke Kumu HawaU, a mission newspaper, 
published at Honolulu, Oahu, which was kindly lent to him by a subscriber to 
the Mirror. This newspaper is printed at the Mission Press of Oahu, and in 
thie native language of the Sandwich Islands, except the paper relating to Mr. 
Douglas, which is in English. It appears that the lamentable event occurred 
on July 12. 1834, six months sooner than, according to a notice in the MagO" 
zine of Natural History (vol. viii. p. 410.), was supposed to be the case. 

<' The document whence these particulars have been extracted is dated Hilo, 
Hawaii (the principal of the Sandwich Islands), July 15. 1834, and is 
addressed to Richard Charlton, Esq., his Britannic Majesty^s consul there. 

*^ Intelligence of this distressing event reached Hilo on the morning of 
July 14., when a native came up, and, with an expression of countenance 
which indicated but too faithfully that he was the bearer of sad tidings, in- 
quired for a Mr. Goodrich. On seeing him, he stated that the body of Mr. 
Douglas had been found on the mountains in a pit excavated for the purpose 
of taking wild cattle ; and that he was supposed to have been killed by the 
bullock which was in the pit when Mr. Douglas fell in. Never were the feel- 
ings of the writers of this letter so shocked ; nor could they credit the report 
till it was psdnfully confirmed, as they proceeded to the beach, whither the 
body of Mr. Douglas had been conveyed in a canoe by the native who brought 
the news of his death. Upon further enquiry, this person related, in sub- 
stance, as follows : — That on the evening of the 13th instant, the natives who 
brought the body down from the mountain came to his house at Laupahoihoi, 
about 25 or 30 miles distant from Hilo, and employed him to bring it to this 
place in his canoe. The particulars which he learned from them were as 
follows : — Mr. Douglas left Kohala Point during the previous week, in com- 
pany with an Englishman as a guide, and proceeded to cross Moncna Kea on 
the north side. On the 12th instant, Mr. Douglas dismissed his guide, who 
cautioned him, on parting, to be very careful lest he should i^l into some of 
the pits for taking wild cattle; describing them as being near the places to 
which the animals resorted to drink. Soon after Mr. Douglas had dismissed 
his guide, he went back a short distance to get a bundle, which he had for- 
gotten ; and, as he was retracing his steps, in some fatal moment, he fell into 
one of the pits, into which a bullock had previously fallen. He was found 
dead in the pit by these same natives, who, ignorant, at the time, of his pass- 



Obituary^ 275 

ingy were in pursuit of bullocks, and, on coming up to the pit, found a small 
hole in one end of the covering of it. At first, they conjectured that a calf 
had fallen in, but, on further examination, discovered traces of a man's steps, 
and soon afterwards saw his feet in the pit, his body being covered with dirt 
and rubbish. They went immediately in pursuit of the guide, who returned, 
shot the bullock in the pit, took out the body, and hired the natives, at the 
price of four bullocks ([which were killed immediately), to convey the body to 
the sea shore. He himself accompanied them, and procured the native to 
convey the body to Hilo, promising to follow immediately, and bring with him 
the compass, the watch (which was somewhat broken, but still going), some 
money found in Mr. Douglas's pockets, and a little dog, a faithful companion 
of the departed traveller. Thus far the report of the native whq brougnt the 
body in his canoe, and who professed to relate the facts as he learned them 
from the natives who came down from the mountain. 

" What an afiecting spectacle was presented, on removing the bullock's hide, 
in which the body had been conveyed I It appeared to be in the same state 
as when taken from the pit. The face was covered with dirt, the hair filled 
with blood and dirt, and the coat, pantaloons, and shirt were considerably 
torn : the hat was missing. On washing the body, it was found to be in a 
shocking state : there were ten or twelve gashes on the head, a long one over 
the lefl eye ; another, rather deep, just above the left temple ; a deep one 
behind the right ear ; the left cheek-ione appeared to be broken, and also the 
ribs on the left side ; the abdomen was much bruised, as were also the lower 
parts of the legs. 

** After laying out the body, the first thought was to bury it within Mr. Gk>od- 
rich's premises ; but, when a spot had been selected and cleared, doubts were 
suggested, by a person who haid assisted, and who had been much engaged in 
taking wild cattle, whether the wounds on the head could have been inflicted by 
a bullock. The matter did not seem clear : many parts of the story were dark 
and confused ; and the following questions arose among the persons present : — ^ 
How was it that Mr. Douglas was alone, without any guide, whether foreigner 
or native ? Where was John, Mr. Diell's coloured man, who left Honolulu with 
Mr. Diell, and who, on missing a passage with him from Lahaina, embarked with 
Mr. Douglas, as had been ascertained from the captain of the vessel in which 
Mr. Douglas sailed from Lahaina to Kohala Point, and thare left the vessel, with 
Mr. Douglas, on the morning of the 19th instant, in order to accompany him 
across the mountain to Hilo ? How was it that Mr. Douglas should faU into 
a pit when retracing his steps, after he had once passed it in safety ? And, if 
a bullock had already fallen into the pit, how was it that he did not see the 
hole necessarily made in the covering? It was, therefore, thought due to the 
friends of Mr. Douglas, and to the public, whom he had so zealously and use- 
fully served, that an examination should be made of his body by medical men. 
The only way to have this effected was by preserving the body, and either 
sending it to Oahu, or keeping it until it could be examined at Hilo. The 
former plan seemed most desirable. Accordingly, the contents of the abdo- 
men were removed, the body was filled with salt, and placed in a coffin, which 
was filled up with salt; and the whole was enclosed in a box filled with brine. 
After the body was laid in the coffin, the members of the mission family and 
several foreigners assembled to pay their tribute of respect to the mortail 
remains of the deceased : prayers were offered up, and a brief address was 
made. These services being concluded, the body was removed to a cool 
native house, where it was enclosed in the box. 

** As neither the guides nor any natives had arrived by the 16th instant, two 
foreigners were despatched to the place where the body was received on the 
sea shore, with directions to search out the natives who discovered the body« 
to go with them to the pit, and, after making as fidl enquiries as possible, to 
report to Hilo immediately. So far as could be ascertained, the guide was an 
Englishman, a convict from Botany Bay, who left a vessel at the Sandwich 
Islfuids some years previously : he had a wife and one child with him, to which 
circui^stance was attributed his delay. In the meantime, it was feared that 



276 Obituary. 

the ca(>tain could not convey the remains of Mr. Douglas to Honolulu, as his 
vessel ¥ras filled with wood, canoes, food, &c« 

** In the afternoon, however, Edward Gumey, the English guide, arrived. 
He stated that, on the 12th instant, about ten minutes before six o'clock in 
the morning, Mr. Douglas arrived at his house on the mountain, and wished 
him to point out the road to Hilo, and to accompany him a short distance. 
Mr. Douglas was then alone, but said that his man had g^ven out the day 
before; referring, probably, to John, Mr. Diell's coloured man. Having 
taken breikfast, Kdward accompanied Mr. Douglas about three quarters of a 
mile ; and, after directing him m the path, and warning him of the traps, pro* 
ceeded about half a mile further with him. Mr. Douglas then dismissed the 
guide, after expressing his anxiety to reach Hilo by evenine, thinking that he 
could find out the way himself. Just before Edward left him, he warned him 
particularly of three buUock-traps, about two miles and a half a head ; two of 
them directly on the road, the other on one side. 

^'.Edward now returned home to skin some bullocks which he had previously 
killed. About eleven o'clock, two natives came in pursuit of him, saying that 
the European was dead, and that they had found him in the pit in which the 
bullock was. They stated that, as they were coming up to this pit, one of 
them, observing some of the clothing on the side, excbimed *' Lole 7 " and, in a 
moment afterwards, discovered Mr. Douglas within the pit, trampled under 
the feet of the bullock. Edward accordingly ran to the nouse for a musket 
and ball. On reaching the pit, he found Mr. Douslas lying upon his right 
side, and the bullock standing upon his body. He shot the animal, descended 
into the pit, drew the carcass to the other end of it, and got out the body of 
the poor traveller. His cane was with him, but the bundle and dog were 
missmg. Edward, knowing that he had a bundle, asked for it. After a few 
moments' search, a loud barking was heard at a short distance ahead, on the 
road leading to Hilo ; and, on reaching the spot, the dog was found with the 
bundle. On fiirther examination, it appeared that Mr. Douelas had stopped 
for a moment and looked into an empty pit, and also into that wherein the 
bullock was taken ; that, after passing on up the hill some fifteen fathoms, he 
Uud down his bundle, and returned to the fatal pit; and that, while looking 
in, by making a misstep, or by some other means, he fell into the power of 
the infuriated animal, who speedily executed the woric of death. 

^ llie body was covered m part with stones; which circumstance is thought 
to have prevented its being entu^ly crushed. After removing it, Edward took 
charge of the dog and bundle, and of Mr. Douglas's chronometer, his pocket 
compass, keys, and money, found upon him ; and, having hired the natives to 
carry the body to the shore (a distance of about twenty-seven miles), accom- 
pamed Uiem, and came thence to Hilo. The letter adds ; * This narrative 
clears up many of the difficulties which rested upon the whole matter ; and, 

ferhaps, it will afford a pretty satisfactory^ account of the manner in which Mr. 
>ougras met his awful death.' The writers then propose to the consul to 
send the body to Hilolu, should the captain consent to convey it; if he should 
not, the corpse was to be interred. ^ We are not aware which course was 
adopted. Tne black man mentioned in the letter probably lost his way, and 
penshed in the mountains, as he has not since been heard of." 

Dr. Hosack of Hyde Park, near Albany, U. S., a great patron of gardening, 
died on the 22d of Dec. last, at New York, aged 66. He had, we understand, 
been visiting the ruins of the great fire that so lately desolated that city, 
and droppea in a fit of apoplexy in the streets. 

That venerable agriculturist and most excellent man. Sir John Sinclair^ 
Bart., died, Dec. 22., in Edinburgh, aged 82. Excellent biographical notices 
of Sir John Sinclair will be found in the Quarterly Journal of Agriculture^ and 
in the Gentleman* t Magazine for April, 1836 ; and we trust Dr. Mease, or 
some other American correspondent, will send us some particulars of the life 
of Dr. Hosack, of whom there is a short, but interesting, notice in SilUmanU 
Journal for January, 1836. 






THE 

GARDENER'S MAGAZINE, 

JUNE, 1836. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 



Art. I. Notes made during a Tour to Cashiobury Park, Ashridge 
Parky Woburti Abbey ^ and Hatjield House, in October y 1825. By 
the Conductor. 

Our esteemed friend Mr. Britten, who is about to publish A 
Topographical and Descriptive Account of Cashiobury^ having 
asked us if we could supply any information respecting the gar- 
dens, we are induced to print the present article, which was pre- 
pared exactly as it is in Nov., 1825; with the exception of the 
additions contained within brackets and the engravings. These 
additions are made entirely from the Return Paper filled 
up for us by the gardener at Cashiobury, Mr. Anderson. The 
whole is very far from being a correct idea of the gardens at 
Cashiobury ; but, not having time to revisit it at present, we con- 
sider it our duty to supply what we have to Mr. Britton, leaving 
him to choose any part of it, or reject the whole, as he may think 
proper. Mr. Britton's work, as will be seen by the literary no- 
tice of it, p. 263., will be unique in its kind ; and it would afford 
us very great pleasure to be able to give any information worthy 
of insertion in such a work. 



Oct., IS. 1835. London to Watford and Berkhampstead. — 
Proceeding along the Edgware Road, we found it had undergone 
great improvement within the last three or four years. This 
road needed no alteration in the direction, being nearly a straight 
line from Paddington to Edgware ; but it was very irregular in 
regard to breadth ; and some hills required lowering, and hollow 
places and trifling watercourses filling up, or being crossed by 
substantial bridges. All these improvements, and others, have 
been accomplished in a very effectual and satisfactory manner, 
under the direction of the local trustees. At Edgware there is 
one of the handsomest toll-houses in the neighbourhood of Lon- 
don. (^. 31.) On the summit of the tower is a reflecting lamp 

VoL.XII.— No. 75. Y 



Notes of a Tour in Oct. 1825. 




with three burners ; two looking along tlie road before and be- 
hind, and one looking across for the purpose of illuminating the 
gate and gate-posts. [The tower on this totl-house has been since 
taken down, the lamp at night having been foand to frighten 
horses, when brilliandy illuminated. Such, at least, was the 
excuse made to us, in 1634, for its disappearance.] 

Camions Park. — Near the middle of Edgware is the principal 
entrance to Cannons, a place of extraordinary interest, boih in a 
moral and gardeiiingpoint of view, though it can nowoulybe consi- 
dered as the wreck of what it once was. {SeeErujfc^Gaid., Sdeil. 
§ 7520.) It is impossible not to reflect on the wonderfully sump- 
tuous and yet regulated magnificence of theDuke of Cbandos. The 
circumstance of his employing, at first, calculators, to ascertain 
exactly to what extent he might carry his expenditure ; and then 
adjusting his daily expenses accordingly ,- the magnificence of his 
bouse, the principal staircase of which consisted of blocks of 
Italian marble, 20 ft. long, and the handrailing of silver ; his 
painted chapel at Little Stanmnre ; and the complete band kept 
on purpose for it; the vault underneath, where his remains and 
those of his family lie in cofflns, which, in 181*, were in a dilapi- 
dated state, and liable to have pieces of their rich coverings torn 
off as memoranda, by strangers ; his horiie patrol, which day and 
night perambulated the park ; his body guard ; and, above alt, his 
grand idea [which he had in great part carried into execution 
and which, it is said, if he had lived, he would have been able to 
accomplish], of making purchases of land from Little Stanmore to 
Chandos House, in London, (then surrounded by fields, but now 
forming part of Cavendish Square,) so as to have an uninterrupted 
private avenue in a direct line, and which would have bfeen nine 
miles in length, from his country to his town residence. 

That the establishment at Cannons should have been broken up 
at his death is generally looked upon, by the vulgar, as a visitation 



Cannonsy Dr. Hooper's Cottage^ Priory Grounds. 279 

for some supposed irregularities in the mode by which he acquired 
his immense fortune. That he did acquire both his wealth and 
his title, as a government contractor, is a matter of notoriety ; but 
we know of nothing upon record that indicates him to have been 
less honest than other men of his time ; and it appears to us proba- 
ble, that the chief difference between him and other men of modern 
times, who have made large fortunes as government contractors, 
consists in the greater liberality and public spirit he displayed in 
spending the sums he had acquired. The park of Cannons has 
the advantages of possessing a rich soil, and of being near Lon- 
don ; but the situation is low, the grounds little varied, and there 
is scarcely any distant prospect. In looking at the park from the 
road, we observed some round clumps of newly planted trees, 
placed in the midst of hirge open spaces, which we could not 
but consider as deformities, destroying the breadth of the land- 
scape. It surely could never be the intention of the planter, 
that these formal and unconnected masses should grow up and 
remain. 

Dr. Hooper's Cottage at Stanmore. — On Stanmore Hill great 
efforts have been making in the cottage Gothic style, by Dr. 
Hooper. The proprietor being from home, we did not enter the 
grounds ; but we could observe the outline of the cottage pic- 
turesquely varied by enriched clusters of chimney tops, and the 
pointed roofs of projections and dormer windows. From what 
we could see of the exterior offices and garden walls, they seemed 
to be all finished in the same style, and in enrichments kept duly 
subordinate to the principal mass. We have since heard that 
the place, in the interior, is unique in its kind. 

The Grounds of the Priory. — Farther on are certain plantations 
of spruce firs, apparently meant to conceal the grounds of the 
Priory from the public road. They have been thickly planted, 
and never thinned; and, like other woods of the same kind which 
have been similarly treated, they are now beginning to defeat the 
purpose for which they were intended. Had two thirds of the 
plants been hollies, there would now have been a phalanx of vege- 
tation, impenetrable, both as a fence and as a screen. A few 
hollies, indeed, appear to have been planted among the spruce 
firs ; but, from inattention to thinning out the latter, the former 
have never come to any size. 

Watford deserves to be mentioned for its gravel, which is equal 
to the best of that at Kensington. Mr. Snare, the nurseryman 
here, has attracted notice, for many years past, by his dwarf 
apple trees. It was formerly, it seems, quite new here, to graft 
apples on paradise stocks, and thus produce bushes not larger, and 
not less prolific, than the gooseberry. 

Cashiohury Park^ the Seat of the Earl of Essex^ has been cele- 
brated for upwards of a century and a half, for its plantations and 

Y 2 



Notes of a Tour in Oct, 182. 




gardens. Tlie latter are said to have been laid out by Le Notre; 
and an inteiesting tsometrtcal view of them is given in Kip's 
Viewi of the Seats of the Nohilify and Genlty, from which 
J%. 32. has been reduced. Of Cashiobury, Evelyn observes: 
" No man has been more industrious than this noble lord (Essex), 
in planting about his seat, adorned with walks, ponds, and other 

rural elegances The gardens are very rare, and cannot be 

otherwise, having so skilful an artist to govern them as Cooke, 
who is, as to the mechanical part, not ignorant in mathematics, 
and pretends to astrology. There is an excellent collection of 
the choicest fruit. My lord is not illiterate beyond the rate of 
most noblemen of this nge." [Bray's Memoirs.) 

" My lord," Evelyn informs us, " assisted in pruning the trees 
himself:" and the gardener he alluded to (Moses Cooke) was the 
author of The Manner of Raising, Ordering, and Improving Forest 
Trees, published in 1675; who afterwards became a partner in the 
famous nursery at Brompton Park. In the dedication of his 
work, Cooke compliments his master on his " honour's great un- 
derstanding in, and love to, the subject of" trees. He adds: "For, to 
your eternal praise be it spoken, there is many a fine tree which 
you have nursed up from seeds sown by your own hands." Suc- 
ceeding proprietors seem to have l>een equally attached to Cashio- 
bury and planting, with the subject of Moses Cooke's praises; so 
that the character of the place Ibr planting and gardening has 
continued to increase rather than to diminish. 

We entered the park through a recently erected Gothic gate- 
way and lodge, buitt, as we were informed, from the proprietor's 
own designs. The style was that sort o( Elizabethan Gothic 



Cashiolmry Park. 281 

which prevails in the house. The execution was most substantial; 
and, to give the appearance of age, it was painted over, and 
splashed in imitation of moss and weather stains. The gates 
were hung with Collinge's patent hinges, which open and shut 
with the least possible firiction, and remain stationary at whatever 
point they may be left. In this last respect, tliey are not so desir- 
able for gates in general as the common hinges, and modeof hing- 
nng; by which the gate falls to, or falls back, of itself, and is only 
at rest when perfectly shut, or opened to the greatest width. With 
such gates as the present, however, and in all cases where a door 
or a gate is likely to be carefully shut by the person who opens it, 
Collinge's hinges are by far the best ; and it is highly gratifying 
to see a nobleman alive to their merits and patronising them. 

Cashiobury House, and the scenery immediately surrounding 
it, excite ideas of grandeur, combined with comfort and beauty, 
such as cannot easily be communicated by words. The buildings 
and garden scenery seem peculiarly well suited to each other: 
both are venerable with age, extensive, rich in design, and gene- 
rally in the highest order and keeping. We entered the pleasure-* 
ground by a small door near a Turkish pavilion, richly lined 
with cloth, and carpeted and furnished with sofa and tables. 
We then passed in front of the house, and entered on the other 
side to a series of different sorts of flower-gardens. After pass-* 
ing through these in succession, the effect left on the mind was 
that of having been carried through a labyrinth of beauty and 
variety. So rapidly were we hurried along, that, after a first visit, 
it is not easy to recall to the memory distinct pictures of what we 
have seen, or the order in which we saw them. We shall merely 
note a few particulars from recollection, promising ourselves, in 
the beginning of next summer, the gratification of seeing this 
place at leisure, when to its many other attractions will be added 
the singing of innumerable birds. 

Much of the gardening and botanical interest of all pleasure- 
grounds consists in the exotic trees and shrubs which they contain. 
There are some fine specimens of this kind in these gardens : one 
of the oldest plants of the Magnolia trip6tala in England [in 
1836, 14* ft. high]; a very large Magn6lm grandifl6ra [one against 
a wall, 50ft. high]; and some of M. conspicua in the open 
air: but the largest plant was in the Chinese conservatory; 
where, however, it has not a tenth part of the room requisite to 
its attaining its full size. There are some magnificent and ve« 
nerable plants of iZhododendron, Azalea, and Andr6meda. The 
American plants, in general, are grouped together in dug masses, 
surrounded by turf; and they have grown to such a size as to- 
tally to cover the margin of the dug space around them, and 
to form a broken picturesque outline on the turf. Roses and 
ornamental flowers are also disposed in masses, much in the 

same way as at Cobham Hall) in Kent. Some are enclosed by 

Y 3 



S82 Notes of a Tour in Oct. ] 825. 

basket-work, others trail over rocks and fantastic stones ; some 
of the rockeries have a margin of curious Derbyshire spar, and 
others are entirety of plum-pudding stone. There are groups 
of large shells (C^itma glgas), corals, corallines, madrepores, 
tuSa, lava, petrifactions, ammonites, and different sorts of scoria, 
all curiously intermixed with flowers and plants. There is a 
picturesque at)uariuni, the sides of which are finely ornamented 
with rockwork and American evergreens. There is a conserva-" 
tory with an opaque roof in the ancient style, with the piers be- 
tween the windows externally clothed with rare exotic creepers, 
and the interior of the house decorated with rustic props, and 
green trellis-work. At one end is a sort of banque ling-room, 
carjwted and furnished with couches, sofas, tables, musical instru- 
ments, books (especially on botany and landscape), mirrors, and 
a variety of other things. 

The plants in the conservatory are chiefly orange trees, which 
are particularly appropriate to this kind of building : they are 
not, generally, in tubs, but planted in the tree soil ; and they 
looked far better than could have been expected from plants 
kept perpetually under an opaque roof. In common with the 
hoHy, the box, and the common laurel, when grown under the 
shade of trees, their leaves, though flaccid, were of a dark shining 
green. Theie are two othei* conservatories, of a modern cha- 
racter, with glass roofs : the plants they <»intain have for many 
years been too large for them, so that they are annually obliged 
to be cut down. When these conservatories were built, the idea 
of such immense glazed structures as are now erected had not 
entered into the minds of either (pirdenersor architects. There 
is a wall on which various half-hardy plants are trained, and, 
among others, that singular New Zealand tree, Edwardsra gran- 
diflfira. (y%. 33.) The Chinese garden here is unique of its kind. 
It is not large, but contains a 
conservatory, a sort of low 
pagoda.and other ornamental 
buildings, and a great quan- 
tity of valuable Chinese por- 
celain, o( Chinese figures, 
monsters, mandarins, the god 
Joss, dragons, &c., and point- 
ings, fountains, gold flsh, jets, 
&c. In the conservatory are 
all the sorts of camellias that 
could be procured when it 
was planted; very large plants 
of green and black tea, be- 
cause at that time it was 
not known that the green 




Cashiobwy Park. 283 

tea is Dearly as hardy as the sweet bay (ZAiirus n6bilis), and will, 
in a few years, be a common evergreen in our shrubberies in the 
south of England. Among the Hardy plants is a fine specimen 
of yi'bies Clanbra- 
sWidna, above 20 
years old, and form- 
ing a tufl not above 
a foot high, and a 
foot in diameter. It 
is now (1836) 2ft. 
3 in. high, the dia- 
meter of the trunk 
2^ in., and that of 
the head 3 ft 6 in. 
Such a dwarf is pe- 
culiarly appropriate 
to a Chinese gar- 
den. We observed 
in other parts of 
the pleasure-ground 
various plants of 
the J^nus Chnbra 
[the largest was 20 
feet high, in 1836] 
{fig. S4.), which is 
the aphernousli tree 
of the Tyrol, so 
much recomm ended 
by Harte for cul- 
tivation in this country, and noticed by Lord Byron as the tree 
found at a greater elevation on the Alps than any other of Uie 
pine and fir tribe. 




It is a very slow-growing tree, but attuns a considerable size, 
and, when full grown, the timber is of excellent quality. The 
height of this tree in England, according to our lietum Papers 
received in 1835, varies from 40 fi, to 50 ft. The largest spe- 
cimens are in the park of Wolcot Hall, in Shropshire. 

[In 1636, there were at Cashiobury, the hemlock spruce 
(^bies canad6nsis}, 28 ft. high ; the cedar of Lebanon, some 
plants of which, only 30 years planted, have attained the height 
of 35 ft. ; tulip trees, 20 years planted, which have attained the 
height of 30 ft. ; Virgitia lutea, 1 9 ft. high ; Gymn6cladus cana- 
densis (an idea of which tree may be formed ^xomjig. 36,, which is 
a portrait of a full-grown tree of that species at Syon) ; Photinia 



S84 Nates of a Toift in Oct. 1825. 




Cashiobuiy Park. 285 

serruUta, 20 ft. high, against a wall ; Catdlpa syringaRAlaj 21 ft. 
high; a purple beech, 15ft. high; an Irish yew, lift, high 
iJ^' ^5.); Juniperus virgini^na, S4 ft. high {J^. 38.); and a fine 
old white mulberry, 25 ft. high, with a trunk S2 in. in dia^ 
meter.] 

We could say a great deal more about these grounds ; but the 
truth is, we were so much charmed with them, that we have not 
a sufficiently definite recollection of what we saw ; and doubt 
not that inaccuracies, and, of course, omissions, will be found in 
what we have said. A fine effect on the mind is produced where, 
in passing from one garden to another, two large granite balls 
attract the eye. A copperplate inscription informs us that they 
were shot from the castle of Abydos, in the Dardanelles, and fell 
on a ship under the command of a brother of Lord Essex, in the 
squadron of Admiral Duckworth, and killed or wounded 1 5 men. 
They weigh 7 cwt each. The unexpected occurrence of objects 
of this sort recall the mind from what it is engaged in, and re- 
lieve it by raising up a new train of ideas, and transporting the 
imagination to distant and very different scenes. Such episodical 
effects are very desirable, when they can be introduced in garden 
scenery without appearing ridiculous or affected. 

The kitchen-garden at Cashiobury is large ; but not more so 
than is required for the family, which resides here all the year, and 
averages at least a hundred persons. As an item of consumption, 
the gardener, Mr. Anderson, informed us, that he had sent in 
last year ten thousand heads of celery. On one of the walls we 
observed two plum trees, which had been killed down to the 
graft by a coup de soleilf one afternoon about 2 o'clock, in July, 
1825. The trees were in their usual state when Anderson passed 
them, about half-past 1 o'clock ; and when he returned, in half an 
hour, he found all their foliage black. In the October following, 
when we saw them, they were shooting from the graft. Accidents 
of this kind are not uncommon in the south of France, and are 
said to be guarded against by wrapping straw round the trunk 
and main branches. It is not likely, however, that this or any 
other precaution can be effectual, unless it b accompanied with 
an abundant supply of moisture to the roots. Trees spread out 
on walls are, undoubtedly, more liable to be so killed than such as 
are standards. A standard tree, with a bushy head, abundantly 
clothed with young shoots and leaves, would be least liable to it, 
because the trunk, branches, and all the interior parts of the tree, 
and the entire half of the exterior surface, would be safe from the 
direct influence of the sun's rays. 

There are some very good pines grown here ; and, on the back 
of one of the stoves, we observed a plant pf Anbna Cherimblia 
trained with a view to its producing fruit. It has not yet bios- 



Notes of a Tour in Oct. 1825. 





Cashiobmy Park. 287 

somed, nor has a Inrgcr plant at Woburn Abbey ; but one plant 
has shown flowers in the garden of the Horticultural Society. 

There Is one part of kitchen-gardening carried to a great 
extent here, which deserves particular attention in every place, 
from the smallest to the most extensive; viz., the raising of winter 
salading. Wherever there is a cucumber-frame this may be 
done to a certain extent; but, even without frames with glazed 
roofs, roofs of wickerwork, covered in severe weather with thatch 
or reeds {_^. S7.), wiH effectually preserve endive and chicory. 
What are called small sa- 
lads may be raised in every 
kitchen ; and blanched chi- 
cory from thepreviousjear's 
roots (as Dr. Lippold has 
shown, p. 250.) may be pro 
duced in every cellar At 
Cashiobury, we found long 
ranges of frames filled with 
endive, brown Cos lettuce, 
and large quantities, also, 
of full-grown endive placed 
in the floors of the vmeries and peach-houses not m a state 
of forcing, but of slow or imperceptible growth amounting 
almost to complete hybernation There was aUo a large plot of 
chicory for the purpose of bemg dug up during winter, and 
forced into leaf in any warm dark shed or cellar, in the Dutch, 
Belgic, German, and Russian manner. Two or three hot-beds 
were already filled with pots of Neapolitan violets, which are 
here regularly forced throughout the whole winter, their blossoms 
being much in demand for perfuming apartments. 

Without viewing the park, we took our leave by an approach 
not far from the kitchen -garden ; to which, as a lodge, there is 
a very picturesque cottage, in the old style of oak framing, filled 
up with brickwork, and plastered. This lodge, like the other, is 
also from the design of the proprietor, and does credit to his taste. 

The head-gardener here had lately been visiting Stowe, and 
other remarkable gardens within a day or two's ride of Cashio- 
bury He mentioned that, in the months of September and 
October, a gardener could better spare time for this purpose 
than at any other season of the year. This practice of gardeners 
visiting one another's gardens ought to be particularly encouraged 
by their employers ; for scarcely any other means will be found 
so effectual in improving them, and enabling them to add to 
the Ktock of plants, and increase the variety and excellence o( 
what is under their care. 

We were sorry not to have leisure to call at Beeckwortk, where 
we should have seen a fine example of agriculture, and the 
improved breeding of live stock : the proprietor, Sir John 



««« S'fites of a TiMi iu Ocl. 1825. 




Asluidge Park. 3»5* 

Sebright, possessing much science and great experience in these 
subjects. 

Oct, 14. Berkhampstead to Wobum. — We went from Berk- 
hampstead to Ashridge Park along an excellent new road which 
leads across the country to Dunstable, and was formed, as we 
were told, chiefly, or entirely, at the expense of the late Earl of 
Bridgewater. Various other roads leading to Ashridge were 
made by the same patriotic individual, who, in this respect, may 
be said to have displayed a similarity of taste with his ancestor, 
the celebrated Duke of Bridgewater, the friend and patron of 
Brindley, the engineer. We entered the park by a very elegant 
Gothic lodge, built of rubbed white stone and black flints. No 
one is allowed to enter or go out by this or any other of the 
gates, without having his name and address put down in a book 
kept by the porter. An excellent approach roaJ, the length of 
which is reckoned by miles, leads over an even surface,and through 
a stately grove, composed chiefly of beech trees, to the house. 
Every variety of effect is produced that can result from a varied 
disposition of the trees ; and groups, thickets, scattered trees and 
bushes, ferns, furze, hollies, thorns, glades, recesses, and natural 
vistas, succeed each other in endless variety. These were inter- 
spersed with abundance of red and fallow deer in some places, and 
horses and cattle in others. No distant prospect, nor any striking 
object, meets the eye till we are within half a furlong of the house. 
This grand and irregular pile is seen to very good advantage 
from this and the Dunstable approach. The two prominent 
features in the outline are, a square tower near one end, and a 
lofty spire with a clock at the other. From the two approaches 
mentioned, these two features fall into perspective in such a way 
as to form one pile, or group ; but when the edifice, or, rather, 
assemblage of edifices, is viewed directly either from the entrance 
or garden front, it oppears thrown into two groups. Though it 
does not, when so viewed, form so good a whole, yet it gives an 
idea of grandeur and magnificence to an ordinary observer, which, 
perhaps, would not be produced by the foreshortening of an 
angular perspective view. 

We first went to see the kitchen-garden, which is upwards of 
a mile from the house. On our way to it, we descended to a 
hollow surface, and passed through scenery of a more open and 
varied description than that of the Berkhampstead approach. The 
timber trees were, if possible, grander than before : both oaks 
and beeches had straight clean trunks, often, we have little doubt, 
50 ft. or 60 ft. high. 

The garden is situated on a steep bank, facing the south-east; 
the walls appear to have been built between forty and fifty years ; 
but the hot-houses and pits seem of more recent construction. 
We found the head kitchen-gardener, Mr. Torbron, advantage- 



290 



Notes of a Tour in Oct. 1825- 



ously known at Kew, and by a paper on forcing cherries in the 
London Horticultural Society's Transactions^ busily occupied in 
making up that day's supply for the kitchen and the dessert. 
A large sheet of paper has a printed column down the left-hand 
margin, enumerating every description of kitchen-garden pro- 
duct, each article having a line ruled across the page ; then there 
is a vertical column for every day in the month, headed as in the 
table below, with the days of the week. Fifty-two of these printed 
sheets are required for the year. The first thing the gardener 
does, is to enter in the table, under the day of the month, and 
day of the week, the articles he is about to send off; noting such 
things as are sent by weight or measure, by inserting their weight 
or measure after them; but simply inserting the number in 
figures when the articles are sent by number : thus : — 



January. 
Sent on - - 


Friday. 


Sd. 

Saturday. 


9d. 
Sunday. 


4th. 
Monday. 


Potatoes - 


2 pecks com- 
mon. 
1 pk. kidneys. 


3 pecks com- 
mon. 


3 pecks com- 
mon. 


2 pecks com- 
mon. 
1 peck kidneys. 


Melons 


2 Cantaloups. 


I green flesh. 
1 black rock. 




2 Tiady Chite's 
green flesh. 


Grapes 


2 lb. black 
Hamburgh. 

^ lb. sweet- 
water. 


2 lb. black 
Hamburgh. 

\ lb. sweet- 
water. 


2 lb. Black 
Prince. 

1 lb. musca- 
dine. 


2 lb. Black 
Prince. 

1 lb. musca- 
dine. 


Small salad 


I pint. 


i pint. 


i pint. 


f pint. 


Cucumbers 


2 brace. 


4 brace. 


6 brace. 


4 brace. 



The items being filled into the table, the next thing is to copy 
off on a slip of paper, the names and quantities of the articles 
sent, which paper is delivered as a bill of parcels by the man 
with the donkey-cart to the clerk of the kitchen. 

A similar plan is pursued in some other great places ; but, 
instead of entering them in a table, they are entered in a journal, 
which is sent to the kitchen along with the articles, and brought 
back again to the gardener. If nothing is said or written by the 
clerk or cook, it is concluded that every thing entered for that 
day has been received safe, and is of a satisfactory quality. 

We found the open garden excellently cropped with large 
supplies of those standard articles of winter consumption, 
broccoli, celery, and endive. In the houses was a large supply 
of retarded black and white grapes, pine-apples that promised 
a succession during the whole winter,Land a fig-house in full 
crop. No attention seemed any where to be paid to neatness or 
orderly keeping ; but every effort to the production of excellent 
crops. 



Ashridge Park, 291 

The pleasure-grounds at Ashridge Park are under a separate 
direction from the kitchen-garden : the gardener was, when 
we visited them, Mr. Poynter, formerly propagator in Messrs. 
ColvilPs nursery. He had every thing in very high order and 
keeping, and especially the plants in two large conservatories. 

The pleasure-grounds here extend in front of the house, 
without being continued either to the right or left of it, as in 
most instances of successful e£Pect in pleasure-ground scenery. 
They contain a good many acres ; but, from their compact round- 
ish form, and their naked obvious outline, the first impression 
which they made upon us was that of being confined. We 
should have preferred less depth in front of the house, and a 
greater extension along the margin of a valley on the north side. 
It is agreeable to have a secure pleasure-ground, where one can 
walk safe and secluded ; but it is, at the same time, grand, where 
one can look from the windows of the house, over the wire fence 
or ha-ha, to an undefined extent of park scenery, where we can 
ride about at pleasure. There is no natural variation of surface, 
and very little of distant prospect ; so that, to create interest in 
this scene, it became necessary to form gardens, or parterres, of 
di£Perent kinds, and rockworks. Rare exotic trees and shrubs 
would also have contributed to the variety ; but very few of these 
have been introduced, either in the open ground or in the con- 
servatory. There is a small spot, surrounded by a hedge of box, 
called the Monk's Garden ; another, called the French Garden ; 
a rosary, rockwork, and some other separate scenes ; the best 
of which is the rockwork, composed of large masses of plum- 
pudding stone, a production which abounds in this county. 
There is no great variety of plants in the conservatories ; but 
such as are there are, in general, of the most showy kinds ; and, 
being brought forward in reserve-houses, are only placed in the 
conservatory when in flower, or in their best state. Very few 
plants, and those chiefly creepers, are fixtures in the soil. There 
is a Pitt6sporum undul^tum, with a round head, 10 ft. or l^ft. 
in diameter. The principal conservatory connects the state- 
rooms with the chapel ; and, we should think, is one of the finest 
Gothic structures for plants in England. [We have since seen 
that at Alton Towers, in StafFonlshire, which is considerably 
larger, and, when we last saw it, in 1831, was in the very best 
possible order.] Both front and roof are glazed with plate glass. 
A plan of the principal floor of the house, conservatories, and 
chapel is given in Brewster's EncycloptBdia (art. Architecture)^ as 
an example of every modern comfort and luxury, combined with 
the ancient style of building. The architect was Mr. Jeffrey 
Wyatt, now Sir Jeffrey Wyattville. 

The park is of great extent, exceedingly well wooded, limiting 
that phrase to bulk and quantity of timber ; but it exhibits very 



«»2 Koies of a Tour in Oct. 1 825. 

little variety of kinds of trees, the prevailing, and, indeed, aimfDSt 
the only, tree being the beech ; and it is well known to the ad- 
mirers of forest scenery, that of all forests one of beech is the 
tamest. Notwithstanding this, there are some beech trees here 
with straight clean trunks of upwards of 100 ft. in height; and 
we hardly think these are to be equalled in the island. Let 
the stranger enquire for the king and queen beech. All the 
trees in the park seem to have been regularly pruned and 
trained for the timber -merchant ; and form, in this respect, a 
singular contrast to the beech trees in Eastwell Park. 

The surface of the park is not without considerable undula- 
tions ; but these are not heightened or brought into effect in a 
picturesque noint of view by the emplacement of the wood. 
There is, also, a total want of water. To make the park what it 
ought to be, in correspondence with the house, water ought to 
be brought by a steam engine and iron pipes from the nearest 
practicable stream, and the valley to the left of the house flooded. 
The approach from Dunstable would then pass over a bridge ; 
and the pleasure-ground might be narrowed opposite the house, 
and extended along the margin of this lake, or river, to any extent, 
and with variations in the distant scenery, which our hasty glance 
did not enable us to determine In short, while the highest 
degree of art and expense has been displayed on the house, 
scarcely anything has been done to the grounds to render them 
8 worthy accompaniment to such a splendid pile. 

Oct. IS, Wobnrn Abbey. — Went round the park with Mr. 
Forbes, the gardener, venerating that fine old drive through 
evergreens, said to have been planted by Miller ; and which is 
commended by Repton in his Enquiry into the Chafiges of Taste 
in Landscapc^Gardening ; 8vo; art. Drive. The large speci- 
mens of the pine and fir tribe, especially the cedars, are gratifying 
to the sight. The dark green hollies, with trunks of timber size, 
with their shining leaves and coral berries, remind us of the 
time of Evelyn, and his fine hedge at Sayes Court, which the Czar 
Peter made gaps in, by having himself wheeled through it by 
his attendants ; of the fine holly hedge in Sir Mathew Decker's 
garden, at Richmond ; of those of Moredun, Collington, and 
Woodhouselee, near Edinburgh; and of the miles of holly 
hedges at Tyningham, in East Lothian. There are few trees or 
shrubs, in our opinion, certainly no natives, that can compare in 
dignity and beauty with the holly. The common and Portugal 
laurels in this drive are remarkably fine ; and there is no want of 
rhododendrons, junipers, and laurustinuses. Among the evergreen 
timber trees, the cedars are most conspicuous. A considerable 
number of silver firs, and Weymouth and other pines, have been 
cut down since we visited the place for the first time in 1806. 

We turned out of the drive to the thornery, a most pictur- 



JVobum Abiey^ j^S 

esque morceau of huge and fantastic oaks, grotesque old thorns, 
hazeis, and dogwoods ; on ground abruptly varied, and appro- 
priated to man and elegant enjoyment, by a highly characteristic 
cottage with a Scotch kitchen and furniture. The parlour of 
the cottage is beautifully painted in body colours by Aiglio ; and 
the speck of kept ground immediately around it is trim and neat 
in the highest degree. 

There are a number of ornamental cottages scattered round the 
mai^in of Woburn Park, of much exterior beauty, with neat gar^ 
dens, kept in good order under the direction of the head gardener. 
In most of them is an apartment for the reception of small parties 
from the Abbey, who wish to amuse themselves by allusions to 
primitive simplicity: for it is one of the enjoyments of those who 
are habituated to live in a style of high art and refinement, to 
take occasional refuge in the contrast produced by comparative 
artlessness and simplicity. 

The farm lands were in beautiful order ; the new-sown wheats 
already above ground, and the drilled turnips luxuriant, con- 
sidering the by-past season. We pointed out to Mr. Forbes a 
defect in the training of the young hedges, which we did not 
expect from a Northumbrian manager ; that of training them up- 
right in the sides, instead of beveling them to the centre, like a 
hogged mane. 

There are a great many fine oak trees in the park : a number 
are of considerable age, and of these some now and then show 
symptoms of decay. When that is the case, it appears to be cus- 
tomary for the forester, Mr. Ireland, to paint a white line round 
the trunk, in order to show the duke that such trees ought to 
be felled. The duke, however, does not always consent to the 
opinion of the forester, but wisely prefers retaining some grand 
and picturesque forms, though in a state of decay, as proofs of 
the antiquity of the scenery, and as contrasts to the youth and 
vigour of more recent growths. 

Oct AS. This, being Monday, is the public day for seeing throuffh 
the house and pleasure-grounds at Woburn Abbey. Of the 
house, and the buildings connected with it, we shall only observe 
that the gallery of statuary is the most extraordinary thing of the 
kind in Britain, out of London. It is gratifying, in another gal- 
lery, in the interior of the Abbey, to observe the models of cattle 
and other domestic animals reared under the direction of the late 
Duke Francis. In one room is a series of miniatures of the heads 
of the Russell family, from the earliest times to the present. A 
biographical account of them has been written bv the late Mr. 
Wififen [whose lamented death we have heard of while passing 
this sheet through the press.]* 

With respect to gardening, Woburn Abbey has never been 
so celebrated, as for its plantations. The kitchen-garden, though 
Vol. XIL — No. 75. z 



29i Hatfield House. 

large, has scarcely any hot-houses, and very few pits or frames. 
One wonders how a duke could live without peaches and grapes, 
not to say pine-apples, forced strawberries, and kidney beans ; 
but, doubtless, these articles are procured from London. [A most 
complete kitchen-garden, and ample ranges of forcing-houses, 
pits, and frames, have been since formed and erected ; and the 
most complete success has attended their management. SeeHorttis 
JVotnoTiensiSf by Mr. Forbes, in which engravings are given of 
title garden and garden structures, and various other objects.] 

The pleasure-ground is a large roundish area behind the 
Abbey. There are a few fine old specimens in it of oaks, pines, 
firs, and cedars, but very few rare trees or shrubs. Since the 
accession of the present duke, it has been very greatly improved 
in one small spot near the house. Some beautiful flower-gardens 
have been formed from the designs of Repton, and the sugges- 
tions of the present duchess ; but the principal features are the 
exotic and hardy heatheries, formed under the particular direc- 
tion of the duke. Plans and a description of these have been 
printed, and distributed by His Grace, accompanied by an enume- 
ration of the heaths they contain, by Mr. George Sinclair. A 
willow-ground is in contemplation, which will be a great addition 
to the interest of the scenery. [This has been since accom- 
plished, and the Saliclum Wobiirtiense printed.] We must not 
forget the grass-garden, the most complete thing of the kind 
which has ever been formed in any country ; and which, from the 
exertions of Sir Humphry Davy, and the patient and assiduous 
labour of Mr. Sinclair, and the publication of them to the world 
in xh^Hofius Gramineus fVolnttfiensis, it may confidently be pre- 
dicted, will, in time, bring to a very high degree of perfection that 
fiELYt of agriculture which consists in the culture of forage grasses. 

Oct 1 7. fVobum to Hatfield. — Hatfield House, the residence 
of the Marquess of Salisbury, is in the Elizabethan style, and de- 
servedly celebrated. The park is extensive, but not remarkably 
interesting ; and the gardens afford little to gratify the amateur. 
There is an antique flower-garden, with walks arched over with 
clipped lime trees, which is separated from the house by a terrace- 
walk of turf. Beyond this garden is another, also devoted to 
flowers, and containing a range of hot-houses, for the culture of 
pine-apples and grapes. The kitchen-garden is in a different 
Qnd distinct part of the grounds. The whole is very well kept ; 
but there are no rare plants, either hardy or exotic ; and there 
is but little evidence of such a love of gardening in the pro- 
prietor, as would be sufficient to stimulate and encourage his 
gardener. [The collection of plants here, we understand, has 
since been considerably increased. The park, according to the 
Return Paper sent us, contains a number of magnificent trees, 
especially oaks.] 



Account of the Berlin Botanic Garden. 295 



Art. IL A Historical and Descriptive Account of ike Botanic Gar* 
den at Berlin^ accompanied by a Plan of the Garden^ a List of the 
Ferns cultivated in it, and a general Account of the Trees contained 
in the Arboretum. By Mr, W. D. Brackenridge, late Head 
Gardener to Dr. Neil), at Canonmills Cottage, near Edinburgh, 
and now in the Berlin Botanic Garden. 

§ i. Hiitary^ 

The Royal Botanic Ghirden at Berlin lies about a mile fVom the town, 
on the great Potsdam road, at the end of the village of New Schoneberg. The 
locality is certainly an}'thing but well adapted for such an establishment, from 
the Iow-l3'ing marshy nature of the soil, and the total want of shelter. It is 
bounded on the east by the turnpike road ; haying on the south the village, 
and on the west and north sandy fields. It has a surface of about twent^'-seven 
German acres, Kurrounded by a wall 9 ft^ high. But, before entering into par- 
ticulars respecting the present state of the garden, the rich collection of plants 
it contains, and the scientific manner it is conducted in, I presume it may not 
prove altogether uninteresting to some of your readers, to have laid before 
them a short account of the origin of the establishment, and its progress, under 
its different sovereigns and directors, up to the present day. 

About the middle of the seventeeuth century, it was afield, surrounded by a 
wooden fence, where hops were cultivated for the royal brewery. After the 
termination of the war in 1679, Frederick William, the great Elector of 
Brandenburgh, and the last who bore that title, a lover of gardening and 
botany, had it converted into a garden for the cultivation of exotic trees and 
ornamental plants, appropriating, at the same time, a part for the raising of 
vegetables of the more uncommon kinds for the kitchen. One Michelman, a 
native of Holstein, was appointed gardener ; and the ambassadors at the dif^ 
ferent courts of Europe, who seem to have had the interests of the garden no 
less at heart than their royal master, sent home plants and seeds for orna- 
menting it. Frederick, the first king of Prussia, who used to spend much of 
his time in this garden with his sisters, at his own private expense sent the son 
of the gardener, Michelman, a journey through France, Holland, and England; 
and, on his return, appointed him successor to his father. The kitchen-garden 
he caused to be turned into a pleasure-garden for the court, and commenced 
erecting forcing and green-houses. These houses were not expressly for the 
cultivation of plants belonging to the garden, but also for the protection, during 
winter, of those used for decorating the roj'al palaces in summer. At this time, 
the garden contained many interesting plants ; as Dracse^na Dr^co, Zaurus 
Cdmphora L. [Cinnamomum Jt. Br. Cdmphora Swt.], Chamae'rops humills, 
Royena lucida, Pistacia Tereblnthus, &c. 

By the liberality and perseverance of Dr. Gundelsheimer, physician in or- 
dinary to His Majesty, who accompanied Tournefort on his travels, many 
valuable additions were made. At his own expense, he introduced seeds, and 
greatly enriched the collection with the many rarities he received from Tourne- 
fort, till a premature death deprived the garden of his valuable services. 

Frederick William I., not possessing so great a taste for gardening as his pre- 
decessors, made a present of the botanic garden to the Royal Society of Berlin ; 
who, not being provided with means necessary to meet the outlay, gave orders 
that only medicinal plants should be cultivated in it, for the royal apothecary. 
Under such circumstances, the gardener, Michelman, was scarcely able to pre- 
serve from ruin that which it had cost so much expense and troul)le to collect, 
far less to make any additions. About this time, Ludolff, the first professor 
of botany here, drew up a catalogue of the plants, showing, at the same tune, 
the state of the establishment. He, with the assistance of Michelman, in- 
creased the collection as far as was practicable, without incurring expense, 

z 2 



296 Histofical and Descriptive Account 

But the successor of the latter, one MUller, who seems to have had little taste 
8S a tx>taiiic cultiyator, neglected the more rare and valuable plants. 

In the year 1744, when Frederick the Great wason the throne, Ludolffdied ; 
and the king appointed Gleditsch director; and afterwards conferred on the 
Society the title of Academy of Sciences, whereby the splendour of the garden 
was again restored. But. the exertions of Gleditsch were in a great measure 
counteracted by the negligent conduct of the acting gardener. During the seven 
years' war, when, it may foe siud, science slept, it received almost a death-blow : 
the enemy not only destroyed the gateway, but extended their ravages to the 
hot-houses ; so that the cultivation of the plants was obliged to be given over 
for a time. About this period, it was flooded in spring with water ; so that 
what plants remained of conseauence were utterly destroyed. At the return 
of peace, the king gave orders tnat the garden should be surrounded by a wall; 
the houses were put into repair, and considerable additions made to them ; and 
these were soon decorated with those plants that had escaped the ravages of 
invaders, and many new ones. Two acres were allotted for the cultivation of 
exotic plants in the open air, and one for trees and shrubs ; the remaining part 
was cropped with vegetables. 

From this time till I7869 in which year Gleditsch died, little mention is made 
of improvement, with the exce;pdon of removing the houses with oblique roofs, 
and in their place erecting otners with high upright fronts, similar to those 
common in Germany|to this day ; and it is not to be wondered at that the loss 
of a great many plants was the result. 

After Gleditscti, Professor Meyer succeeded as director ; and it may be ne- 
cessary here to mention, that, a few years previous to Gleditsch's death, Stiel 
had become gardener; but he, like some of his predecessors, looked upon the 
interests of the ^rden as a secondary consideration ; and Meyer, from his 
medical profession^ and the multiplicity of other business which he had to 
attend to, was prevented from devoting that time and talent to the ^rden 
which the interests of such an establishment required. 

* Such was the state of afiairs in 1801, when the celebrated Willdenow, who 
may be said to be the father and founder of the present flourishing establish- 
ment, undertook the direction of the garden. Willdenow took quite a difler- 
ent view of things from those who had gone before him ; and, with an industry 
only equalled by liis perseverance and love for the science, he soon caused the 
face of the garden to assume a diflerent appearance. In the place of Stiel, he 
appointed one Siedle, from Dresden, as gardener. A green-iiouse was built, 
S2 ft. lone ; the lines of beeches and oaks, which ran in different directions 
through the grounds, were cleared away, and an additional two acres taken in, 
which is now planted as an arboretum. Nor was it at home only that he was 
busy; he took advantage of every opportunity in opening a correspondence 
with botanists and botanical cultivators, both at home and abroad, from whom 
be received large supplies of plants and seeds. For the same purposes, he made 
botanical excursions through Italy, France, and Holland, and considered no- 
thing a toil which tended to advance the interests of the garden. It is well 
known how successful he was in raising ferns from the sweepings of his dried 
specimens ; and I have been told it was not uncommon, in spring, to see him 
busy at the potting board, shifting plants with his own hands. The prc^ess 
which the garden made under his direction can only be fairly ascertained by 
referring to the catalogue, which, in 1801, when he first undertook the manage- 
ment, contained only 1200 specimens, including indigenous plants, but which, 
in the space of seven years, had accumulated to 6350, amon^ which were many 
rare plants belonging to the genera BankstA, i^iper. Cassia [ ? i^cacia] Mi- 
mdsa, Melaleuca, Protea, JE^rica, Strelitzta, ^Vum, Passiflora, Cestrum, &c. 
Those tribes which seem to have been his fietvourites were, mesembryanth^^ 
mums, stapelias, and ferns, of which he drew together large collections. In 
1802, an idteration took place, which assisted him greatly in putting his plans 
into execution. On the resignation of Seidle, he was succeeded by the present 
ladefatig^le and truly scientific director, Otto ; who found a wide field for 



of the Botanic Garden at Berlin. 807 

Hnprovement open before him, especially in the grounds ; the soil* in roost partfl^ 
being poor, and of a marshy nature. This evil he overcame, in a great measure^ 
by the making of ponds, to draw the water together^ there being no declivity 
for draining; Many parts of the garden were afterwards raised and improved, 
by the addition of composts; and the whole was laid out with walks and plots, 
in an elegant manner. The trees and shrubs may be said to have been planted 
what you call geographically ; each species being placed in the situation where 
it was most likely to succeed, whetner moist, dry, shady ,^ or open ; and, ia 
oian^ instances, this system has been found advantageous, particularly in pro- 
motmg the growth of the trees. 

On the 2d of June, 180^, the prosperity of the garden received a severe 
cheek from a violent hail storm^ which teft not a pane of glass in the houses; 
and the tropical plants, which were then in their greatest beauty and vigour, 
were laid prostrate with the ground by the pieces of ice, which are said to have 
been as large as common walnuts. The trees and shrubs in the open garden 
were also considerably injured ; but, through the bounty of the King of Prussia, 
the requisite sum for the repairing of the damage was soon granted; so that, 
by the end of summer, scarcely any traces of the disaster were visible. Nothing 
particular occurred worthy of mentioning till the death of Wllidenow, which 
happened in 1812. Shortly after, Professor Schlechtendahl drew up a Supple^ 
meni ta WiHdenow^t Horttts JBerolineruiSf containing 1350 additional species, 
which, with what the author published himself in 1809, showed that the gar- 
den, at his death, possessed a collection of between 7000 and 8000 plants. 

8kice the learned and well-known Professor Link became connected with 
the garden, considerable and important additions have been made to it, £le« 
gant and commodious houses have been erected, and richly stocked with many 
valuaUe tropical plants, especially from Brazil and Mexico,, received from the 
different botanical collectors sent out for the express purpose, and also from 
private individuak. The different journeys made by Director Otto through 
France, Holland, and England have also been of the highest importance to 
the establishment; not only from the quantity of plants M. Otto brought 
back with him, but from the establishment by him of a correspondence with 
the superitttendants of other botanic gardens ; which, from the liberality with 
which new plants are here given out, must be beneficial to all parties, 

§ ii. Description, 

Concerning the origin and progress of this garden, I think enough has been 
said ; and 1 shall now endeavour to give you a short account of it in its 
present state. Whatever different opinions may be entertained as to the 
garden itself in the neighbourhood of Berlin, I think all must allow that the 
entrance-gates are poor, and the situations badly chosen. To speak plainly, 
the entrance-gate does not seem to be here considered as an object on which 
taste can be displayed ; although, in the instance now before me, the deficiency 
does not appear so glaring as in some gardens which I have lately visited, and 
of which I will send you an account at some future period. The entrance to 
the Berlin Botanic Garden is through a plain cast-iron gate, supported by four 
stone pillars, or columns, forming the carriageway in the middle, with two 
small gates on each side. On passing these, you find yourself in a large court 
or square, formed by the superintendant's house on the one side, and tlie 
dwellings of the gardeners on the other. The last is high, and has a barrack - 
like appearance ; but it is commodiously fitted up inside. On being shown 
through the inner door by the porter, a stranger is astonished to find himself 
all at once in the midst of green-hcuses and stoves : these are arranged in 
three grand ranges of seventeen divisions, running east and west, the whole 
breadth of the garden. On account of the houses having been built at different 
periods, and without any regular plan or arrangement having been attended 
to, they fail in producing an effect as a grand whole ; but this defect is amply 
overcome by the numerous and rich collection which they contain, I shall 
first S]^eak of the tropical plantti and their houses, which consist of ten divt- 

^ 3 



$98 Historical and Descriptive Account 

Mpns : these are constructed on various plans inside, to suit the nature of 
the plants to be cultivated in them ; the dry stoves being fitted up with stages^ 
and most of the others having pits in the centre, filled with dung and old 
leaves, in which the plants are placed, or plunged. This department has been 

Seatly enriched through the combined exertions of the collectors Sellow and 
eyrich, in Brazil ; and Schiede and Deppe in Mexico, who not only imported 
vast quantities of seeds, but living plants also. The number of species in 
many genera is truly astonishinp ; as in Passifldra, 5ida, Malpfghi£7, Oesnera^ 
Hibiscus, Banisteria, i4ristol6chia. Begonia, ITicus, Ardlsia, Bignonta, PothoM, 
Piper, &c. Among these are many new species, or, at least, species that ara 
supposed to be new, which have not yet flowered. The collection of ferns, 
of which I send you a list, is the frnest I have seen, and it is most admirably 
cultivated. Most of these plants have been raised from the shakings of dried 
specimens, and many of them are assuming the habits of trees; as Polypodiun) 
als6philum, which has a stem 4 ft. high, by 6 in. in diameter, with an elegant 
crown of leaves; and Cib6tium Schiedei, from Mexico, which is supposed to be 
of the tree kind. The plant, though young, has pushed fronds 12 ft. long, and ia 
remarkably handsome. Among the other conspicuous fei*ns may be mentioned 
Didymochlas^na sinuosa, Polypddium aureum, Diplazium arborescens, Ma- 
r&ttia lae\is, and M. cicutaefolia : the propagation of the latter is rather in- 
teresting. The root, or tuber, whence the leaves spring, is a large, scaly, corky- 
looking substance, resembling the stem of a Zamia. Each of these scales haa 
at the point of its insertion m the stem an eye, or bud, which, when carefully 
removed, and planted in a small pot placed in heat, roots freely. The more 
rare and tender ferns have a house allotted to them ; but most of them are 
used in decorating the other houses, for which purpose they are admirably 
adapted, from their light green foliage, and from their thriving well in situationa 
which could not be otherwise occupied. The cultivation of tropical Orchi- 
dacese here, as in England, has become a matter of interest. A pit of 60 ft. 
long has lately been built, and it already contains a very neat collection : the 
parasitical kinds are grown in cork boxes and cocoa nut shells suspended by 
brass wire from the rafters ; and, although that degree of humidity and heat 
is not kept up which some late writers on this beautiful tribe i:^commend, the 
jilants are succeeding admirably, and flowering freely. Many specimens have 
flowered this season which have not been, as yet, figured in any work : they are 
mostly from BraziL 

The Berlin Garden has long been celebrated, and justly, for its collection 
of succulents, especially Cactaceae, which certainly do great credit to the 
director; not only from their number and their robust and healthy state, but 
from the scientific manner in which they are named and 39 

arranged. Each species has ihe name and authority 
attached to it, neatly written with black paint on a 
porcelain tally. (Jig. 39.) These tallies are about 
4 inches long^ of a wedge shape rounded at the head, 
which has a Very clean appearance; and the different 
genera are arranged together ; a method indispensably ne- 
cessary in a tribe so difficult to distinguish. An exceed- 
ingly mteresting house is kept up at a heat of 15° of 
Keaumur. Great care is taken in watering at this season, 
especially the inammillarias, which are apt to damp off. 
In summer, the more rare and tender kinds are removed 
into frames, where they receive a gentle bottom heat; 
the bed beitig covered over with a layer of sand, on 
which the plants ai'e placed. They are now more co- 
piously watered, and, in hot weather, syringed and shaded 
from the scorching heat of the sun. The more hardy 
kinds are placed in a sheltered situation in the open air, 
and remain without protection through the whole of 
the summer. The number of species runs about 360. 
Hybrids are not so much sought after here as in Eng- 




qfihe Botanic Gardtn at Berlin, ^99 

land. In the second dry stOTe there is a tolerably complete asftortmeAt 6£ 
species of Mesembry&nthemum, A'loe^ Gast^ria, and Raw6fthia» named and 
arranged in the same way as the Cact^cese. Among the Cape and New Hol- 
land plants, which occupy seven divisions, are some fine old specimens of 
species of ^c^cia, Banksia, and Dry6ndra. The Proteac^cp are cultivated 
in a separate house, and the ^licacese in another. The plants comprised in 
this order, Uiough not so stocky as they are generally to be seen in England, 
are healthy, and flower profusely; but what is more worthy of notice, are the 
fine seedlmg plants of Araucdria imbricata and A, brasilikna, and Alting&x 
GunninghAmt. A new species of pine, Plnus Llavedntf, has been raised 
here from Mexican seeds, which has a very graceful habit of growth. Lf di- 
ms Bungeona [Agrost^mma Bungedna D. Don, in Sweet's Britigh Flower" 
Garden, second Eeries, t. 317. ;' whence some account is quoted in Gard* Mag., 
vol. xii. p. 76.] and Silene laciniata, which flowered here for the first time last 
summer, are very showy plants, and are well worthy of notice. It would 
occupy too much space to enumerate all the varieties which have lately been 
received from different countries, and especially from North and South Ame^ 
rica ; but one thing I must observe, which I think would please ^'^ti, namely, 
the clean and workmanlike manner in which the plants and houses are k^t, 
and the vast number of old species which are cultivated, and, Apparently, are 
as much thought of as their more modem neighbours. 

About the middle of the garden, and in front of a fine group of old trees, 
stands the conservatory (or, as it is called here, the winter house, fi'bm its 
being only in winter protected with glass). It is a square heavy^looking build- 
ing, 80 ft. long, by 26 ft. wide, with an upright front 36 ft. high } and is covered 
with a span roof, which has a rise from the front to the centre of the house 
of about 7 ft. The shrubs, or rather trees, are growing in a large bed, or 
border, which is divided into two by a walk which crosses the house, and 
goes round the front, with other small paths, between the plants for the don- 
venience of watering them. The entrance is ftom behind. Here stands the 
celebrated female plant of ChamsVops hdmilis, on which Dr* Gleditsch, in 
1769, performed the well-known experiment of fertilising the seeds by sus- 
pending a bunch of male flowers over them. (See Encyc, ofGard.^ edit* 1835, 
4 678. ; and TVanMctiona of the Pruman HorticuUural Society, vol. i. p. 32.) 
The stem of this palm is now 16 ft. high ; and it is in a healthy state, bearing 
many bunches of flowers and fruit *, though the latter are, of course, imperfect, 
as the flowers are not now fertilised. According to Dt. Otto's account, it must 
be 181 years old. Leptospermum flexudsum. Eucalyptus longifolia, and £. 
robusta^ Casuarlna toruldsa, and Melaleikca linariaefoliay have reached to the 
top of the house; and, when the sashes are removed iii summer, they send 
forth their luxuriant shoots, 8 ft. and 10ft. above the rafters. Between these 
fine plants, and as underwood, are large specimens of Magndltflr grandifldra, 
Cunninghami/t lanceolata, Oethra arborea, Melalei^ca stypheli^des, Pmdnia 
MoulaUy Quercus Tumen, AckeisL florib6nda, and A. aifi^nis., with many more 
New Holland trees and shrubs. A large plant in a tub of the rarely flowering 
Phdrmium tenax, pushed ten stems, each at least 10 ft. high, last seaison, and 
flowered beautifully. Nothing can be more elegant than the appearance, of 
this house, when laid open in summer, from the walk in front outside, 'fh^ 
graceful habits of the casuarina, the shining green leaves and large white 
flowers of the magnolia, contrasted with the hoary«>looking eucalyptus, have 
a very striking effect, which attracts the attention of all the strangers of taste 
who visit the garden. 

A little farther on, and about 100 yards to the right, i^ the palm-hous^, 
which was built in 1828, on much the same principles as the last, though not 
so hi^h by 8 ft. In the centre of the house, and standing on a pedestal, is a 
magnificent plant of Latdrda borb6nica, which covers a space of ground 29 ft. 
in diameter, and is supposed to be the finest plant of the kind m Germany. 
On both sides of this noble specimen, the' house is divided into three beds, 
with gravel walks between : these beds run lengthwise, and sire^ thickly set 

2 4 



800 Hisicrieal and Descriptive Auotmt 

with pedestals, or cut stems of old trees, on the top of each is placed a slab, or 
table, on which the plants are placed. You will be apt to imagine that these 
will have an unsightly appearance ; but they are almost entirely hidden by the 
plants growing in the borders ; such as species of JFlcus, PothoM, and Jtrum, 
which mingle their tops with those of the dicksonias and polypodiums, which 
hang down from the pots and tubs, and which, in turn, are crowned by the 
leaves of the palms, the number of which, including the Cycad^ese, amounts 
to about 80 species. Among the most rare and fine specimens may be reckoned 
Thrinax eleg^s and argentea, Louddnia exc^lsa, Else^is guineensis, Cocot 
reflex9, Curydtti ikrens, WalUchia raryotoides, Acroo6mia globdsa, Sdgut 
Rumphii, Diplothemium maHtimum, Desmdncua orthacanthus, Laidnia 
glaucoph< 11a, occ. Enceph&rtos Frederict Wilhelmt, and E. Altenstentt, two 
species of a genus nearly allied to Z4mia, have lateXy been imported from the 
Cape, and named in honour of His Majesty the Ring of Prussia, who is a 

freat lover of palms, as mav be seen from the fine collection on the Peacock 
sle (Pfauen Insel), and of one of his ministers. Among the other plants 
of interest are, Furcroe^a longs Va, and A^ave yucagfoim; the latter of which 
is now in flower. This house, though built at so late a date, cannot be con- 
sidered as a proof of the improvement of garden architecture : the bock wail 
is arched over, and shades more than one half of the plant ; while the thick 
columns and stout beams used for its support would give the whole a very 
heavy and unsightly i^pearance, were not the ingenuity of the gardener brought 
in to remedy the defect. The beams and rafters are now covered with diflerent 
kinds of Passifldra and ilristolochia, the gay trusses of flowers produced by 
which tend to lighten the fabric. All the bouses are heated by means of flues, 
with the exception of one small warm-water apparatus, which has been erected, 
but which is almost too trifling to mention : the fuel is wood. ' Outside of this 
house, advantage has been taken of the heat given out by the flues, which run 
along inside close to the wall under the passage; and firames have been sunk, in 
which Cape and South American bulbs are cultivated. The soil is a mixture 
of vegetable earth and sand. Brunsvigia Josephin^r, different sorts of Ama- 
r^Ui^, Zephyranthes, /'xia, Hsemdnthus, and Gladiolus, flower freely; and 
the tall sorts of Alstroemerui are planted near the back of the bed, and trained 
against the glass. I mention this, that others, possessing the same means, may 
take advantage of them. I am well aware that many Cape and South Ame- 
rican bulbs have been grown in England in the open air ; but, where a general 
collection is planted out, as is the case here, the protection of a frame is 
necessary. As many of these bulbs push in winter, the German gardeners 
are very dexterous in protecting the frames and plant-stoves from frost ; the 
frames are covered with boards, one laid over another like the tiles of a house, 
and the stoves the same, with the exception that the boards are there laid 
side by side, parallel with the sashes, the ends resting against a bar ; and the 
upright fronts are protected by shutters pushed into grooves, or sockets. In 
this manner a range of houses 200 ft. long can easily be covered and un- 
covered in the space of ten minutes. For the shading of the houses in sum- 
mer, the stems of the common reed (Phragmites communis) are used: they 
are cut to suit the breadth of two sashes, and are fastened together at the 
ends, till a kind of network, or web, is formed of the required length, which 
is fastened to a roller, and let up and down by means of a rope and pulley. 
The herbaceous plants, which occupy a considerable space, are arranged ac- 
cording to the Lmnsan system, and named with written wooden tallies ; but, 
from the vast devastations committed by the ^ch^ta GryllotSlpa [Fabr., Gk'yl- 
lot^lpa vulgaris Latr,], duplicates of the more tender and uncommon kinds 
require to be kept in pots. 

This insect (fig, 4>0.) is called in English the mole cricket ; a word that is th^ 
literal meaning of Gryllotalpa, from gryUus^ a cricket, and taipoy a mole ; a 
description of which, with a figure, will be found in the Mag, ^ Nat. Hut,^ 
vol. ii. p. 290. There is r.lso some account of this insect in a French work, 
entitled Speetacle de la Nature, which has been translated into English in 
7 volumes It appears about the beginning of summer, in myriads, and in 




of the Baiamc Garden at Berlin. SO^t- 

provided wkh two strong 
elaws, or feet, attached 
to its body near the head, 
by means of which it 
makes its way through 
the ground like a mole, 
and with as much dex» 
terity. Nothing in the 
herfcoceous way is proof 
against its ravages. I 
have seen the stem of a 
dahlia an inch thick cut 
through by it in the 

course of a night, with as much precision as if dene with a knife. From thtf 
circumstance of these insects seldom appearing on the surface, and the n^idit^ 
with which they breed, no method has been fallen upon whereby they are- 
likely to be eradicated, although hundreds of thousands are caught yearly by 
means of flower- pots, plunged with their brims about 2 in. below the level of 
the surface, into which the insects fall during their nightly rambles : nests are 
also sought for and destro3'ed. Do you know any means by which this de-. 
structive insect could be extirpated ? It is the greatest enemy the gardener has 
to contend with at Berlin. 

The collection of alpines is large, and among them are many little gems, 
particularly belonging to the order Primulaceae. The plants are shifted early 
in spring, and placed in a shady situation, every genus being placed by itsdf. 
I would here have made a few remarks on the number of deciduous shrubs and 
trees, their size and general arrangement ; but, from the correct manner in 
which this has already been done by Director Otto, any thing from me on that 
head would be superfluous ; only, I would observe, that about half an acre is 
kept as a nursery, for the raising and propagation o£ the more rare kinds ; so 
that, when improvements are making, or a vacancy occurs, the garden can be 
supplied from resources of its own. 

The arboretum, though rich in trees and shrubs of deciduous kinds, is as far 
in the other extreme with r^;ard to evergreens ; and this may be accounted 
for by the coldness of the climate, and the unsheltered situation of the garden. 
The ^Rhododendron ponticum and azaleas, of which there are several cfroups, 
are covered in winter with dense coverings of pine branches, and, m very 
severe weather, receive an extra layer of leaves. The only evergreens which 
seem to bid defiance to the bitter cold are, T^huja occtdentalis, Junfperus vi)*« 
giniana, and J. iSabina; f inus resinosa, P. [Cembra var.] siblrica, P, [Lkrix] 
luicrocarpa, P, mariana, P, nigrescens, P. rubra, P, inops, P. [f L.] p^ndula, PL 
rigida, P. variabilis, and P. hispanica. Portugal laurels and bays [ ? Ci6rasus- 
Laurocerasus], there are none ; and I have never seen a good specimen of the 
common holly in the country. Owing to the absence of these and similar 
evergreens which stand the open air in Britain, you can easily imagine the' 
bleak aspect which the country assumes in winter. 

The months of February and March are, in general, cold, with sharp easterly 
winds; and, before the beginning of April, vegetation is scarcely perceptible $ 
but the rapidity with which Nature now unfolds her gay productions, spread- 
ing her mantle over field and garden, is truly astonishing, and, in some mea* 
siu>e, may be said to resemble the springs of North America. The activity of 
the gardener is now called into exertion ; the plants are uncovered ; and the 
vines, which have lain buried in the ground all the winter, are taken out, 
pruned, and tied to their trellises. One of the greatest beauties of the garden, 
at this time, is the Cercis canadensis, of which there are several fine specimens, 
covered from bottom to top with flowers. 

The more hardy kinds of house plants are, by degrees, removed to £he open 
air, aud arranged in groups in front of and between the ranges of houses* 
The figures which they form are of diflerent shapes, to suit the sweepa of the- 
walks, or to take advantage of the shade of walls or larea ia'ees.. The larger 



308 Historical and Descripivoe Accofmi 

ones being placed in beds for the convenience of watering, the pots are plunged 
up to within 1 in. of the brim, the tall plants being nia!de fast to light spars, 
and the groups always sloping to the walk. As much regularity as possible 
is observed in selecting the plants for each group, by placine together such as 
require the same treatment, and, where it is practicable, such as belong to the 
same family ; as Proteaev^, iliyrtaceae, Coniferae, &c. This method of culti- 
vating the green-house plants in summer has many advantages : first, a beauti- 
ful effect is produced by the different forms oi the groups themselves ; secondly, 
a contrast is formed by the various shades of colour and forms of the leaves ; 
and, lastly, the plants do not suffer so much from wind and drought as they 
do when huddled together upon gravel, in some out of the way comer, as is 
often enough to be seen in Britain. The only serious objection which can be 
raised against this plan is, that worms will infest the pots, and that the borders 
must be prepared with sand, or some other hard material. Here, for the fine 
and tender kinds, the beds are raised 2 ft. high by means of a platform, which 
is covered with sand. All the species of Canna flower well in the open ground. 
The bed in which they are to be planted is dug out to the depth of 2 ft. ; and a 
quantity of warm dung and leaves is laid in the bottom, which is covered with 
a layer of vegetable mould and peat earth. With this treatment, many grow 
to the height of 10 ft. and 12 ft. in a season ; but, to do this, they must be co- 
piously watered. Many of the ligneous plants of Brazil and Mexico arc also 
removed to the open air in summer. The cultivation of fancy or florist's 
flowers has, of late years, become a matter of interest, especially the dahlias 
and heartsease. Of the first, there is a very fine and select collection, most of 
the plants contained in which are from England, they being considered supe- 
rior to those raised in Prussia. The borders along the edges of the walks are 
ornamented, in summer, with annuals of the more hardy and easy-flowering 
kinds, as the Prussian stocks, larkspurs, &c.; and are succeeded by the rare and 
tender sorts from the frames, as Schizanthus Grahkmt, 8. reti^sus, Ipo- 
mopsis pulchella, Gilia tricolor, and a mass of other plants too numerous to 
mention in detail. As a substitute for box edgings, a very neat one is made of 
O xalis tetraphylla and O. Deppei. The bulbs, or eyes, are planted about the 
beginning of May, in a drill 2 in. deep : the soil is light and sandy, in which they 
^row rapidly, and flower beautifully till cut down by the frost. I do not know 
if you are aware that these plants are used as vegetables. I can assure you that 
the tubers (by which 1 do not mean the bulbs, or knobs, but the spindle^haped 
root underneath them) of both species, when stewed, as they are done here, 
make a very palatable and fine-looking dish. Bushels of them are raised here 
yearly; a result which has never followed the cultivation of the much famed 
O. crenata, at least not in this country, as it has here proved a failure : the 
leaves of O. Deppet are said to be used as spinach j but on this head 1 cannot 
speak. The breadth of the walks are in proportion to the size of the garden, 
and are kept in good order ; the grass, though inferior to that of England, 
may be considered as a fair specimen in this country $ and near its margins figures 
of various forms are cut out ; and groups of salvias, fuchsias, verbenas, Gla- 
diolus psittacinus [natalensis], salpiglossises, dahlias, and erythrinas, are planted 
out in summer. Between the palm-house and conservatory, and rather in 
front of the latter, is a neat little pond, with an island in the centre, planted 
with jS^alix babyl6nica, j^etula pendula, Tuniperus virginiana, and other grace- 
ful-growing trees. The pond is well stocked with aquatic plants, such as 
Th^is dealbata, sorts of Pontederia, Sagittaria, iVymphae a, &c. The banks are 
ornamented, in summer, with Musa, Papyrus antiquorum, Canna, Hedychium, 
&c. The garden contains a collection of between 14,000 and 15,000 species, in- 
cluding those undescribed. There are more than 15,000 according to Professor 
Link's account. The whole of the houses together give a length of 1117 
lineal feet, and have a surface inside of 256*169 square feet; namely, 123*269 
square f^et the hot-houses, and 132*900 square feet the cold-houses. The ground 

Elan of the garden (^. 41.) and the description are annexed. Little alteration 
as been made of late. You will easily see, from the narrowness of the grounds. 



^{he Bctanie Garden at Berlin, ms 




304 



Historical and Descriptive Account 



that the views cannot be fine or extensive : the only one which may foe con- 
sidered as picturesque is seen from the lower end of the garden, where yon 
have the pond witn its island, on the right the conservatory, and on the 
left the palra-house, overtopped with stately trees ; and between these, over 
the green, a perspective view of the other houses, which form the back- 
ground. 

The regulations for carryinp on the work in the garden are admirable : eveiy 
j ourneyman has his allotted division of houses, or other work, with which he is 
intrusted; and, according to the heaviness of his task, he receives a given num- 
ber of apprentices, labourers, or boys, to assist him. This causes a sort of cora^ 
petition, who shaU cultivate and keep his ground in best order; and according 
as any one distinguishes himself, so follows his promotion. The gardeners 
have also formed themselves into a society, which meets once a week, to dis- 
cuss points of gardening; one of the oldest of the members being chosen president. 
They receive a copy of the Prussian Horticultural Societi/*s Transactions^ and 
Gardener's Magazine, gratis. Attached to the establishment is a kitchen, with 
servants for the cooking of victuals, and cleaning of the rooms ; every gardener 
having his own private apartment, which is neatly furnished and fitted up. In 
providing for the comfort of the gardener, much more attention and expense 
are bestowed than in any other establishment which I have yet seen. 

The garden is open to the public on Wednesdays, and is much visited by 
all classes of society, but especially by military men, who seem to be great 
lovers of Flora in this country* Strangers and practical men are admitted at 
all times. 

§ iii. List of Ferns cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden, BerUn, 1836; 
arranged according to Link's Hortus Berolinensis. 



Order I. HYMENOPHV'LLEiE. 

1. Hymenophyilum tunbridgense 



2. 



Smith, 
Wi'lsoni Hooker. 



Order 11. Polypodia^ceje. 

3. Davalb'a canariensis Swartz, 

4. pyxidata Cavan, 

5. divaricata ScklechtendkaL 

6. Cibotium Schiedei Schlechtendahl. 

7. Dickson/rt adiantoides WUld, 

8. rubiginosa Kaulf, 

9. pilosiuscula W%Ud, 

10. aculeata Spreng, 

1 1 . Balantium glauccscens Kunze, 

1 2. iidiantum reniforme Linn, 

13. pedatum Linn, 

14. curvatum Kavlf, 

15. brasiliense Raddi, 

16. fructuosum. 

17. pentadactylum Langsd. et 

Fischer, 

18. trapeziforme Linn, 

19. pubescens Schkuhr, 

20. formosum Link, 

21. Capillus- Veneris Linn. 

22. sethiopicum Linn, 

23. assimile Sivartz, 

24. cuneatura Langsd, et Fischer, 

25. concinnum WUld, 



26. ^diantum glanduHferum Link, 

27. sulphiu'eum Kauif, 

28. Pteris longifblia Ldnn, 

29. costata Bory, 

30. grandifolia Linn, 

31. falcata Brown. 

32. argentea Langsd, et Fischer, 

33. pedata Linn, 

34. cretica Linn, 

35. stenophylla Hook, et Grev, 

36. denticulata Sivarlz, 

37. serrulata Linn, 

38. spinul6sa Link, 

39. crenata Swartz, 

40. atropui'purea Linn, 

41. texm^oWsi Cavanill, 

42. calomelanos Link, 

43. hastata Swartz, 

44. cordata Cavanil/. 

45. nemoralis Willd, 

46. biaurita Linn, 

47. l^ta Kaulf, 

48. sulcata Vr, Meyen, 

49. arguta Vahl, 

50. decurrens Raddi, 

51. i^oWt?^ Link, 

52. defl^xa Link, 

53. allosora Link, 

54. pallida Raddi* 

55. macr^ptera Imk» 



qj the Botanic Qarden at Berlin. 



305 



57. 

58. 
59. 

60. 

61. 

62. 

63, 

64. 

65. 

66. 

67. 

68. 

69. 

70. 

71. 

72. 

73. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 

79. 

80. 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 

90. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 
104. 
105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 
109. 

no. 

111. 
112. 



Pt^ris aquQina Linn, 1 13. 

chrysocarpa Hooker et Gre^ 114. 

vUle. 115. 

iafraniarginalis Kauif. 116. 

Ceratdpteriii /halictroides Lmk 117. 

or Brongn. 118. 

Ailosorus crispus Bemhardi. 119. 

Cbeiianthes auriculata Sufortx. 120. 

profusa Kunze. 121. 

micromera Link, 122. 

microphylla Swartz. 123. 

tenuifolia Swartz. 124. 

ierruginea WUld. 125. 

specti&bilis Kaulf. 126. 

margin^ta Kunth. 127. 

rufescens Link. 128. 

cuneata Link. 129. 

hirsiita Link. 130. 

crenulata Unk. 131. 

odora Swartz. 132, 

hirta Swartz, 133. 

tomentdsa Litde. 134. 

ientigera Swartz. 135. 

viscosa Link, 
Nothochlae^ na lanuginosaDe/vaujr, 1 36. 

sinuata KaiUf. 137. 

Mar&nUs Desvaux. 138. 
Acr6sdchum confdrme Swartz, 139. 

callaefolium Blume. 140. 

xcolopendrifdlium BaddL 141. 

aureum Linn. 142. 

staphyleum Link, 143. 

alcic6rne Swartz. 144. 
Gymnogr^mma palmkta Limu 145. 

pedata Kaiilf, 146. 

rufa Desvatix, 147. 

tomentosa Desvaux, 148. 

Kaddiana Link. 149. 

polypodioides Spreng, 150. 

Tillosa Link, ]5l. 

leptoph^ila Desvaux, 152. 

chaeroph^lla Desvaux, 153. 

calom^lanos JTau^ 154. 

dealbata ZrtViXr. 155. 

peruviana Desvaux, 156. 

distans i^i^ii^, 157. 

chrysoph^'lla Link, 158. 

Ceterach Link. 159. 

cordata Schlecktendahl, 160. 
Acrdpteris septentrionklis X«tii^. 161. 

^splenium Nidus Linn, 162. 

serr^tum Xin;i. 163. 

palmatum Swartz, 164. 

oligoph^Uum iTau^ 165. 

serra Langsd, et Fischer, 166. 

niarlnum Linn, 167. 

obtusifolium Lhm, 168. 

brasiliense Raddi, 169. 

ebeneiim ^i^. ife'ter. 170. 



ilspl^nium Otites Link. 

trlste iTdtt^ 

aurhum Swartz, 

7Yich6n]ane8 Linn. 

viride 5imiM. 

Petr&rch^ Dec. 

melanocaulon WiUd. 

flabeliifolium Cavan, 

fontanum R, Brown, 

pumilum Swartz, 

affine Swartz, 

^helypteroides Fischer, 

pr8em6rsum Swartz. 

^di4ntum nigrum Linn, 

Rdtsi murkria Linn, 

alternifolium Jacq, 

angustifolium. 

decurtatum Kunze, 

rachirhizon. 

i^iiix foe'mina Hooker, 

dissectum Link, 
Camptosorus rhizoph^Uus Link, 
iScolopendrium ixfficinarum 

Swartz, 
Diplkzium acuminatum ReukU, 

Sheph^rdi Link. 

'Rieaeiidnum Fischer. 

rumicifoliiim Fischer, 

diibium Link, 

coarcthtum Link. 

pubescens Link, 

arborescens Swartz, 

obtusum Link, 
Didyroochlae^na sinuosa Desvaux. 
Allantodia umbrosa R, Brown. 
j&l^chnum lanceolatum Raddi^ 

intermedium Link, 

gracile Kauffi 

triangul^re Link. 

glandulosum Kaulf, 

occidentale Linn, 

falcktum Link. 

austral e Linn, 

brasiliense Desvaux, 

stagnum Raddi, 

hastatum Kaulf. 
Lomaria borealis Link. 

minor Spreng. 

densa Kauif, 

attenuata iViild. 

Gilli^st Hooker et Grev. 
Do6dia dspera R, Brown, 

rupestris Link, 
Menfscmm palustre Radd-' 
Woodwardia radicans S''^^'* 

onocleoides Willd 

virglnica Swartz^ 
Polypodium lycopo*^^*^®** 

jteophyilum ^«**' 



506 



Histmical and Descriptive Account 



171. 

172, 
173. 
174. 
175. 
176. 
177. 
178. 
179. 

180. 
181. 
182. 
183. 
184. 
185. 
186. 
187. 
188. 
189. 
190. 
191. 
192. 
193. 
194. 
195. 
196. 
197. 
198. 
199. 
200. 
201. 
202. 
203. 
204. 
205. 
206. 
207. 
208. 
209. 
210. 
211. 
212. 
213. 
214. 
215. 
216. 
17. 
8. 




Polyp6diuiii dim^rpham Unk, 

BrowiuaRttm opreog. 

percdssum Cavan, 

crassif^liiiiii Umn* 

PhylHtidifl Unn, 

brevifoliom Lank. 

ripens Swartz. 

csespitdflum Lhtk, 

t«cciniif61ium Langtd, et 
Pitcher. 

cUi&tum Waid. 

phymatddes Unn. 

alternifolium WUld. 

tenninkle lank. 

lepid6poduni Link. 

peltideum Link. 

vulgare Unn. 

vuls^re var dimbricum. 

mentkrum Lhk. 

l&tipes Langtd. et Fttcher. 

ramdsum lAnk. 

herpeddes lAnk. 

vaciUans Link. 

Ise^tuiD Raddi. 

a6reum lAnn. 

sporadodtrpum Wiiid. 

pulvin^tum Link. 

attenu^tum WiUd. 

proHferum Kauif. 

polystichum Link. 

Preslianum Spreng. 

deciirrens Raddi, 

cren&tum Sivartt. 

Pheg6pteris Linn. 

conclnnum Willd. 

Bubtetragdnum Schkvhr. 

deflexum Kaulf. 

coiDp6situm Link. 

alsdphilum lAnk. 

inaequale Link. 

div^rgens WiUd. 

efiusum Swartz. 

jDry6pteris Linn. 

calc^reum Smith Bqt. 

hexagon6pteruni (-AT. Amer). 
Microsoruni irregulare Link. 
Niph6bolus rupestris Spreng. 

pertusus Spreng. 
Aspidium trifoH^tum Swartz. 

macroph^'llum Swartz. 

/raxinifoliura Spreng. 

Xonchhis Swartz. 

acrosticholdes Swartz. 
^> s^rra Swartz. 

Ntenochlae^num Kunxe. 

tk(/We Link. 

«'i<*^ceum Lmk. 

pitete WUld. 

KaulAasti Link. 



Aspfdium chrysdlobum Link. 

noveboracense Swartz. 

Oredpteris Swartz. 

Tlielypteris Swartz. 

rivulorum Link. 

concfnnum Link. 

cristitum Swartz. 

aculeatum Swartz. 

lobatum Smith Bot. 

angul&re Willd. 

Fnbi mds Swartz. 

marginale Swartz. 

ctenitis Link. 

spinulosum Swartz. 

diiat&tum Swartz. 

rigidum Swartz. 

pungens Katdf. 
Nephrodium pectin^tum WUld. 

tuber6sum Link, 

exaltfitum R. Brown. 
Tectaria corillicea Lank. 
Cyclosorus gongylddes Zonk. 
Cyst6pteris bulbifera Swartz. 

den lata Hooker. 

Meilis Bernhardt. 

alpina Swartz. 

rhaB^tica Swartz, 

montana Swartz. 

'Peiilnidna Link. 
Woddswr hyperbdrea R, Brovm, 

ilvensis R. Jdrown. 
Phys^matum nuSlle Kaulf. 
PoIyb6trya Ruddi^n/z Link. 

acuminata Link, 

incisa Link, 
Struthiopteris germ&nica WUld. 

pennsylv6nica Willd, 
Onoclea sensibilis Linn. 

Order III. OsMUNDii'cfJSJ?. 

267. Lygddiuai circinatum Swartz, 

268. scandens Swartz. 

269. variura Link. 

270. polymdrphum Kunth, 

271. palmatum. 

272. microph^'llum Link. 

273. mexicanum Presl, 

274. jap6nicun] Swartz, 

275. Anemia PhyUitidis Swartz, 

276. densa Link. 

211. mandioc^na Raddi. 

278. collina Raddi. 

279. repens Raddi. 

280. Kaddiana Link. 

281. /raxinifolia. 

282. Osm{inda regalis Linn. 

283. ^cilis Link, 

284. mterrupta Michaux 

285. Claytoniaiia Lion. 



229. 
230. 
231. 
232. 
23.3. 
234. 
235. 
236. 
237. 
238. 
239. 
240. 
241. 
242. 
243. 
244. 
245. 
246. 
247. 
248. 
249. 
250. 
251. 
252. 
253. 
254. 
255. 
256. 
257. 
258. 
359. 
260. 
261. 
262. 
263. 
264. 
265. 
266. 



of the Botamc Garden at Berlin. 



S07 



S86. Osmunda cinnamomea Lmn» 

287. Tddea africana WUld. 

Order IV. Majlattia^ceje, 

288. yLarittia cicvLtSd(6\m Kaulf. 

289. lae'vis lladdi. 

Order V. Ophioglo^sskje.^ 

290. Botrychium Lunaria Swartz, 

291. virgfnicum Suntrtz, 

292. dissectum Mnhlenb, 

293. OphiogMssum yulglitum Z^mir. 

294. lusitanicum lann. 

295. pedunculosum Detvaux, 

Order VI. Salvini^VjB^. 

296. Pilularia globulifera Lirni. 

297. Marsliea quadrifolia Linn, 



298. Salviniii nutans Hoffman. 

Order VII. Lycopodia^cks. 

299. Lycopodiuin clavfUuna Unn, 

300. complanatum Zrmii, 

301. pumuuin Scklechtendahh 

302. annotinum Unn, 

303. inimd^tum Zrtnn. 

304. dendrofdeom. 

305. felaginoides Lam^ 

306. ^elago Ltrm. 

307. cuspidatum Zrtn^. 

308. stolonlferum Sufortst, 

309. brasili^nse RaddL 

310. belveticum Xrinn. 

311. denticulatuon Zrtitfi. 

312. Bemhkrdia dichdtoma WUld. 



§ iv. Noteg on the Treei in the BerUn Botanic Garden in 1835. Extracted 
from the Return Paper filled up under the direction of M. Otto, the 
Director. 

[The Berlin Botanic Garden being unquestionably the richest in species on 
the Continent, we consider it will be of general interest to collectors of trees 
and shrubs, to be made acquainted with the species which stand in the open 
air there; with a view not merely to the increase of our knowledge generally 
as to botanic gardens and climates relatively to vegetation, but to facilitate 
exchanges of plants and seeds. Planters of trees in the coldest situations in 
Britain may safely calculate on the species which stand the open air in the 
Berlin Botanic Garden being quite hardy.] 

Magnolifl acuminata, twenty-five years old, is 30 ft. high ; the diameter of 
the stem 10 in., with a loose and spreading head. M. trip^tala,. about twelve 
years planted, is 15 ft. high ; the diameter of the stem 5 in., with a loose and 
spreading head. M. glauca is a fine tree, but does not flower here. M. ma« 
crophylla, 10 ft. high, is well grown, and has stood the open air for about five 
years. 

Liriodendron Tulipifera, from fifteen to eighteen years planted, is from 30 ft, 
to 40 ft. high : in general, it stands the winter, but is sometimes killed down to 
the ground, by the frost. 

TUia alba and T. glabra, thirty years planted, are fi*om 20 ft. to 25 ft. high ; 
the diameter of their trunks 1 ft. 3 in., and of the heads 18 ft. T, americana, 
eighteen years planted, is from 18 ft. to 20 ft. high, with a trunk 1 ft. in 
diameter. T. laxifldra, eighteen years old, is 12 ft. high, and the diameter of 
the trunk 5 in. ; but it is not particularly well grown. 

j^cer dasycarpon, twenty-five years planted, is 3 ft. high, with a trunk l|ft. 
in diameter ; the hesui loose. A. monspessulanum, eighteen years planted, is from 
12 ft. to 14ft. high. ^. obtusifolium, about the same. A. pennsylv&nicum 
grows rapidly in height. A, jolatanoides, thirty years planted, is from 20 ft. to 
30 ft. high. A. rubrum has a slight stem, but is tolerably high. A, saccharinum, 
forty years planted, is 30 ft. high, with a trunk 9 in. in diameter. A, neapo^* 
tanum, six years planted, is 15 ft. high : it is a beautiful tree, which, howerer, 
is tender when youug. A, Neghidoy twentjr years planted, is from 18 /t* to 
20 ft. high ; and the diameter of the trunk 9 in., with a very loose head, 

ui^sculus Hippocastanum is quite hardy, u^. rubiciinda grows rapidly : 
being grafted on M. Hippocastanum, it produces a beautiful heai'* and its 
flowers are a great ornament to the garden. 

Pavia flava, rubra, and pallida, firom fifteen to twenty years planted, are about 
15 ft. high. 

Kohreut^TW paniculate, at 16° or 20® of Reaumur [from 2% to 13° below zero. 



SOS Historical and Descriptive Account 

Fahr.]) is sometimes killed by the firost, and requires protection from the north 
and east winds. 

i^elea trifoliata grows from 15 f^. to 80 f^. high. 

AUdntui elandulosa is generally killed by the frost when young ; yet one has 
been sparea, which, in ei^teen years, has attained the height of from 20 h, to 
30 ft., with a head 18 ft. m diameter. 

£u6nymus europae^us, quite hardy. 

Ilex !!lquif5lium, although it grows wild in a forest about twenty miles from 
Berlin, yet, in the Berlin Botanic Garden, must be grown in loam, and in a 
sheltered situation. 

Sophora jap6ntca, thirty years planted, is 25 ft. high, with a trunk 9 in. in di- 
ameter. It nas suffered from the frost, and has not yet flowered. 

Vir^ilia li^tea, six years planted, is 12ft. high : it suffers from the frost. 

Cytisus alpinus, fifteen years planted, is 18 ft. high ; it stands every degree 
of cold. C. Zraburnum, ten years planted, is 16ft. high : diameter of the stem 
8 in. : it is very frequently killed by the frost at 16° of Reaumur [4® below 
zero, Fahr.l. 

Robinia [P.'il.] viscosa attains a considerable height in a short time, as do 
the other varieties. The seeds of these varieties, when sown, come up of the 
species R, Pseud-ilckcia. 

Caragdna arb6rescens is, here, aconsiderable shrub, which grows well in any 
soil. 

Gledltschta ferox, twenty years planted, is from 25 ft. to 30 ft. high ; the di- 
ameter of the stem 9 in.; and the circumference of the head considerable. G. 
h6rrida grows as fast, but was later planted; and the stem, consequently, is not 
so high. G. monosp^rma, the same. G. triac&nthos and macracantba are con- 
siderable trees. G. inermis grows as fast as G. h6rrida. 

Gymn6cladus canadensis is fh>m 15 ft. to 20 ft. high, with stems from Sin. 
to 4 in. in diameter. 

Cercis iSiliquastnim is tender, and sufibrs from the cold, unless protected. 
C. canadensis has a head 20 ft. in circumference, and flowers beautifully every 
year : it often suffers from cold. 

Amfgdalus orientaUs, and also a great many more spedes of this genus, 
stand the open air. A. P^rsica, and two varieties of communis (amara and 
fr&gilis), require a sheltered situation. 

CVatae^gus. Various species attain a considerable height and breadth. C coe- 
cfnea, cordata, fiyrifolia, glandulo^a, flava, grandiflora, punctata, nigra, mo- 
n6g}'na, and many others, are quite hardy, and very ornamental. 

jlfespilus and Pyrus, the same. 

iSdrbus (P^rus) amertckna, twelve years planted, is 9 ft. high. 

5<5rbus ( Py rus) domestica has acquired a con&ide.tible height. 

Cydonia sinensis and japdnica grow well in sheltered situations, and become 
considerable-sized shrubs. 

Halesia dfptera, tetraptera, and parvifldra, in dgfateen years, attain the 
height of from ]2ft» to 15 ft. : they are hardy, flower fredy, and are very or- 
namental in clumps. 

JDiosp^ros does not stand the cold well. 

^rixinus. Many species, in thirty years, hare become considerable trees ; as 
F. epf ptera, exp&nsa, acuminata, yuglandifblia, &lba, &c Only a few spedes, 
as /^. ellfptica, Kichirdt, conspicua, lucida, and one or two others, are tender. 

(yrnus grows here as a shrub, and somewhat tender. 

QOdlpa dies of cold at 20** or 25"" of Keaumur [from 13° to 25*" bekiwzero, 
Fahr.] ; yet one in a sheltered situation, in thirty years, has attained the heigfat 
of 25 ft. 

Xattnis ndbihs does not stand the open air. L. Bensuim and Sd^Mmfrm 
grow here at shrubs. 

N^ssa stands the ur in a shdtered place ; but is a weak plant. 
/Tippophae stands the open air. 

flaeagnos sanguines, lattffolia, aig^tea, aogiistif^ia, and orientaUs^ are toler- 
ably hardy, and attain a considerable height. 



ijfthe Botanic Garden at Berlin. 309 

.' MRddrattandstlie open air. 

BroussondtMT usually dies from severe cold, yet sometimes stands out, and 
flowers well. Shrubby. 

Mdinin tatdrica, Mor^ttt, multica^lis, macrophf Ua, ri^bra, and nigra, stand 
our climate, and sufier little from frost; most of them being considerable trees. 

i^cus requires protection. 

Planera aqu&tica (Gmelint) 18 ft. high, grows rapidly for a few years. P. 
Bichardi is tender. 

Crimus. A mat many species and Tarieties, under an infinite number of 
names, attain the height ot trees in a few years. U, camp^tris, suberosa, 
and effiksa, in ten years, have attained the height of 25 ft. ; and U. 6etuldldes, 
gigantea, pyramidalis, dlba, americkna, fulva, and p^ndula, grow, under any 
circumstances, to beautiful trees. U, prunifolia is killed by the fh>st, at 8° or 
10** of Reaumur [fh)m 9^ to 14° Fahr.]. 

C61tis austr^lis, occidentalis, Toumef6rtf>, and sinensis, are 25 ft. high, 
after having been fifteen years planted; but they suffer firom the cold and 
moisture. 

t/uglans nigra and cinerea grow rapidly. In forty years, their stems mea- 
sure 2 ft. in diameter ; and trees twenty-five years old are, sometimes, even 
as large. iA/raxinif6Iia and pterodirpa are more tender, and of less rapid 
growth. 

Carya olivasf6rmis, amara, and falcata, are now becoming very fine trees; but 
are tender when young. 

S'alix. Many of the species, firom cultivation, are of a height and size resembling 
trees, attaining, in twentv years, the height of 50 ft. or 60 ft. 5.41ba, triandra, 
Russelltana, and Meyeriana, are from 2 ft. to 3 ft. in diameter. 

P6pulus can^scens, 41ba, tremula, nigra, and monilifera, in ten years, acquire 
the hdght of forest trees ; and, in twenty years, are 70 ft. high, with trunks 
3 ft in diameter. P, grandidentata, trifida, c^ndicans, heteroph^Ua, and angu- 
lata, (the two last when young,) grew rapidly, but are not so strong as those 
before mentioned. 

AlnvLS incana is a beautiful tree, which, in ten or fifteen years, attains the 
height and breadth of a forest tree. A. cord^ta suffers in severe winters, but 
is seldom kDled. A. undulata and serrul^ta are shrubs. 

^etula nigra, populifdlia, papyrlfera, lenta, carpinifolia, and exc^lsa, twenty 
^ears planted, are rrom 30 ft. to 40 ft. high : the stems of some are 1 ft. 4 in. 
m diameter. The small shrubs are from 6 ft. to 8 ft. high. B, dahurica, p6n- 
tica, and excelsa, are moderately sized trees. 

d&rpinus orientalis and americana are about 25 ft high. 

(Xstrya virglnica, the same. 

C6rylus Columa, a considerable tree ; twelve years planted, with a trunk 
4ln. in diameter. 

Qu^rcus. The American oaks have been planted here since 1804, and they 
tlnive on a bad soil. Q. cocclnea, palustris, rubra palustris, tinctoria, and 
discolor, are from 25 ft. to 30 ft. high. The strongest of them measure I ft., 
and often more, across one of the branches. Many of the species have been 
retarded in their growth by the frost. Q. tlicifdlia is a shrub : the southern 
and evergreen oaks do not stand in the open air; the attempt having often 
been made unsuccessfully. 

■ i^kgus, twenty years planted, is from 15 ft. to 18 ft. high. F. sylvatica pur- 
pikrea, thirty years planted, is 25 ft. high. F, sylvatica aspleuifolia, ^uercifolia, 
amd crlspa, are onl^ small trees. 

Cast^nea v^sca, m the neighbourhood of Berlin, is sixty vears old, and 30 ft. 
high, with a trunk 2 ft. in diameter. C. pumila and americana are shrubs. 

/'Utanus. The species of i^&tanus, especially the P, acerif61ia and occi- 
dentals, grow to strong and beautiful trees, from 60 ft. to 70 ft. in height. P. 
orientalis and cune&ta are tender, and are killed by the frost. 

Liquid&mbar, only one specimen, 20 ft. high, which died from cold in 1803. 
Vol. XII. — No. 76. a a 



S 1 Notices of Gardens^ remarkable Trees, Sfc, 

7%xus is hardy, and grows to a considerable size. 

Schubertia [Taxodium] grows to a good-sized tree: those twenty-eight 
years old are from 25 ft. to 30 ft. high, with trunks about 9 in. in diameter. 

Jiinfperus virgioiana is very strong and high. J. iSabina and nana are 
hardy ; but J. Ox^cedrus is killed by the frost. 

T^huja is hardy, and of compact growth. 

Cunningh&inta stands out uqder covering, but requires much protection. 

Cupressus ^hyoides, ten years old, is 15 ft. high, in good soil. 

Pinus. The American species of Pinus stand our cUpnate, and thrive well ; 
but we have not so much room as these trees require. P. 4iba aod JStrobiu, 
twenty-eight vears planted, are from 25 ft. to 30 ft, high : the diameter of thdr 
trunks is J^ft. The new species, as P. Lambertyana, exc^sa, and ponderosa, 
^^bies Douglas; and spectdbilis, grow wdl ; but we bare oolyoiu^ specimen of 
each. The southern species, as P. Picea, canariepsis, Pinlister, and na)ep6n^, 
do not stand the open air. 

Lknx europ«'a, e. sibirica, p^4j[ula, tmi mlefoc4rpa, partieul^rly the last 
three, are but yery poor specimens. They thrive well in our soil, whea they 
have once taken root. The first mention^ has attaiaed a pretty good height 
in twenty years. 

Cedrus does not stand out well, apd requires protection. We have only 
one small specimen. 



Art. III. Notices q/Garfiens^ remarkable Trees^ Sfc,^ in the Ewoirons 
of Lichfield t Staffordshire. By Mr. J. Grigor, Lichfield. 

From the slight survey I have bad of some gardens and pleasure-grounds, I 
am inclined to think that arboriculture and floriculture are not advancing so 
rapidly in this quarter as might be expected. A knowledge of these arts 
being now every where disseminated, I should not only expect to see tree? and 
flowers already in cultivation under superior management, but the introduction, 
at least, of those finer species of trees, such as belong to the genera Oatae^gus, 
<S6rbus, Pavia, ^'sculus, ^^cer, &c. I have, as yet^ seen no arboretums here ; 
and, in order to create a taste for them, I have taken a piece of ground close 
to this city, where I intend to plant one of each of the species of my favourite 
trees. All the sorts of the genus Cratae^gus are most exceedingly beautiful, 
both when they flower, and when they bear their fruit ; and, as I consider 
them to have been hitherto neglected, I have resolved to advance them in my 
little collection. I would earnestly recommend the gentlemen of this place, 
when in London, to visit the Horticultural Society's garden at Chiswick, and 
the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges at Hackney, and to note the many new 
varieties of trees with which they might adorn their pleasure-grounds. 

There do not seem to be many trees remarkable for their size in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of Lichfield \ but, as 1 am not yet altogether acquainted 
with the localities of the place, perhaps I may have overlooked sopne. '* John- 
son's Willow," as it was called, famous on account of its being planted by Pr. 
Samuel Johnson, attained a great size ; but it was blown down in 18^9. It 
Ktood by the side of the road leading from the city (o Stowe, in a damp fa- 
vourable situation. An offset of the old tree was planted on the same site, 
which is now above 20 ft. high, in a most vigorous state of growth. The ad- 
mirers of Johnson had the trunk of his willow converted into pieces of house- 
hold furniture, and snuff-boxes ; and the youqg shoots were planted throughout 
the surrounding country. This tree, which was sp much esteemed, appears 
to have been the 5alix alba. 

Among the places I have visited are the following : — 

Oidershaw, the Residence of the Rev, Burns Flower. — This ier apparently one 
of the most ancient seats in this par^ of the country ; and it has all that dignity 



in the Environs of Lichfield. S 1 1 

about it which old and lofty trees usually confer. The proprietor has, of late, 
modenused and improved the pleasure^rounds, carefully preserving all the 
finer specimens, and tastefully blending with them those of more recent intro- 
dnction. There is a handsome cedar of Lebanon here, which, though not remark- 
able for its size, is the most vigorous I ever saw ; and a common beech, said 
to be the largest in this part of the country, about 60 ft. high ; diameter of the 
trunk, at 1 ft. from the ground, 7 ft. 2 in. ; and that of the space covered by the 
branches 110 ft. The soil, which is of rich sand, on sandstone, seems to be 
particularly favourable to the fir and pine tribes ; for, in a grove of the PInus 
sylvestris, I observed some trees almost as magnificent as they are to be seen 
on the mountains of Strathspey, their native abodes. I am convinced that 
magnolias, and other trees of America, would thrive well here. The few fine 
exotic shrubs which have been lately planted are in a most healthy state, iiho- 
dodendron ponticum grows to a great height at this place. The spirited pro- 
prietor, I am told, has expended some thousands of pounds, lately, in improving 
his pleasure-grounds and garden : they are still capable of being beautified; and 
it is to be hoped that the good work will be completed. 

ArmUage Park, Leister, Esq. — A splendid residence, with very varied 

and extensive pleasure-grounds. The family have been long from home, and 
there is an air of desolation stealing over the place, that I uiought not alto- 
gether disagreeable. There is only one individual employed here, and his 
operations are principally confined within the walls of the kitchen-garden. In 
the park, there is a common hawthorn, 30 ft, high ; diamet^ of the trunk, at 
1 ft. fi'om the ground, 4 ft. 2 in. ; and the diameter of the space covered by the 
branches 4>5 ft. It is a handsome tree, and, when in flower, must form a very 
lovely object. In the shrubbery there is a cherry, 48 ft. high; diameter of the 
trunk, 2 ft. 10 in. 

JSeaudesert, the Seat of the Marquess of Anglesey, — The kitchen-garden is 
under the management of Mr. Hodson, who has been here for many years. I 
was sorry to think that this enthusiast in his profession should toil so ardently 
on a spot that produces such meagre crops. A great part of the garden lies 
much too high ; and the crops planted in it are every year destroyed by the 
winds and frosts of spring. The wall trees, even now (May 1.), are thickly co- 
vered with laurel branches, to preserve the bloom ; and, as Mr. Hodson observed, 
his neighbours in less elevated spots, though close to him, have fruits and 
vegetables some weeks earlier than he can possibly raise them. After having 
seen his plots of vegetables, I examined his pine-pits. The plants seem to be 
exceedingly healthy; but, as is generally the case, a portion of them is in- 
fested by that insect called the scale, which had been conveyed to him, he said, 
on some young plants he had got from His Lordship*s gardener in Ireland. Mr. 
Hodson, I understand, is famed in this quarter for growing pines ; and, fiom 
the appearance of his pits, it would seem that he is really eminent in this de- 
partment of his profession. 

On the way ftom the kitchen-garden to the mansion, there is a very large oak, 
the trunk of which is entirely scooped out by decay. There is a door, as it 
were, at one side; and the shell is sufiiciently roomy to contain eight people 
standing within it. The late Lady Uxbridge often sat within this tree, and 
loved to hear 

" The spirit of the winds 
Growling among its boughs.*' 

There is a circular hole m the bark, or shell, of this tree, through which she 
used to place a telescope, in order to amuse herself by looking at objects in 
the surrounding country. Though an extraordinary tree, it is by no means to 
be ranked among the largest in the estate. Being adjacent to the house, it is 
pointed out to strangers on account of its grotesque appearance, and its being, 
at one time, the favourite resort of this lady. 

The flower-garden is in front of the mansion, and under the care of Mr. 
Birch. There is much of the magnificence of nature here. Art, too, hath 

A A 2 



3 1 2 Notice of a Range of Green-houses 

done her part. The lawn b kept exceedingly smooth, and already a()pear8 
green and velvety. There are some curious old trees scattered over it (no 
one knows how old), peculiarly cared for by their noble owner. The flowers 
had not blossomed ; but birds of foreign climes, in gaudy colours, sat here and 
there upon the grass, basking themselves in the sunshine. When I considered 
this place, I thought the general curse that was pronounced against the soil 
had fallen lightly here, it was all so beautiful. Everything, in short, in this 
noble demesne bespeaks a refined taste, and almost unbounded wealth. Because 
the proprietor loves his trees, he will not have them cut down ; no matt^ how 
great a price they might be worth : as they sprang of the earth, so they are 
allowed to return thither. 

In front of the flower-garden there is a sweet chestnut, 65 ft. high ; diame- 
ter of the trunk, at I ft. fix>m the ground, 6 J ft. The laigest trees on the estate 
are oaks : they stand in an open thinly planted spot, iSx>ut .a mile from the 
mansion. Near Newee Oate tnere is one of them, called the Roan Oak, of very 
singular appearance. The branches are almost all decayed, and the efforts of 
remaining vegetation have wrought all manner of fantastic shapes and figures 
at the top of the stem : among these, there is a figure of a twisted serpent, 
and a tolerable representation of a lion cowering. The trunk of this tree is 
8 ft. 9 in. in diameter. The MagH Oak, which is connected, I believe, with 
some tale of enchantment, is in a like state of decay : the trunk, which mea- 
sures 29^ ft. in circumference, is hollow and open. An old woman at an 
adjoining alehouse told me that the owls and all the spirits of the wilderness 
gather into this tree in particular, and hold conference in the darkness of the 
night. The other tree, which stands in a ravine called the Gutter, is the 
largest I ever saw, and, perhaps, the largest in England. The trunk, at 1 ft. 
from the ground, is 13 ft. 2 in. in diameter. Like the others, it is decayed and 
hollow, so that a person can walk into it ; and it is so roomy within, that the 
man who accompanied me observed, that, with a little^^^ing vp, it might be 
made to contain nis wife and family comfortably I 

Elford Parky the Seat of Colonel Howard, — This estate forms a portion of 
one of the richest plains in Staffordshire. The mansion and pleasure-grounds 
are beautifully situated on the banks of the Tame, and bear a striking resem- 
blance to some of the pleasant residences on the river side at Richmond. The 
kitchen-garden is extensive and well kept, and particularly distinguished for 
its earliness. The flower-garden is laid out after the manner of ancient times, 
and exhibits a specimen of what is known amongst gardeners as the geome- 
trical style. The scientific gardener here has become well known in this part 
of the country as a successful competitor at prize flower shows. His col- 
lections of auriculas, anemones, and polyanthuses, which are now in flower, 
are really splendid ; and, had I seen them sooner, I should have certainly qua^ 
lified my previous opinion regarding the culture of flowers in this quarter. In 
this, as in all the other places, however, the introduction of ornamental trees 
and shrubs is almost neglected : it wouJd appear that a taste for such a thing 
has yet to be created. I trust that my endeavour to form an arboretum at 
Lichfield will be aided by all gardeners and lovers of trees, and that it will 
stimulate others in this quarter to similar undertakings. 

In my next communication I shall enter more into the details of this place, 
and enumerate the remarkable trees which it contains, 

Lichfield, May 1. 1836, 



Art. IV. Notice of a Range of Green-houses recently erected in 
Barratfs Subscription Botanic Garden at St. John% Wakefield. 
Drawn up from a Communication by Mr. Barratt. 

Mr. Barratt's Botanic Garden consists of about three acres in the 
suburbs of the town of Wakefield. Three sides of the garden are bounded 



in Barratt's Bcdanic Garden, Wakefield. 31 S 

by three streets ; and on the remaining side is the large cemetery of St. John's 
Church, which is planted with trees, and has an excellent eflfect from the 
walks in the garden. The terms of subscription are exceedingly moderate: — 
" For a jamuy (including visiters who live more than four milea from the 
town), lOi. 6^. per annum ; single subscriber. It. Each of the above to be 
entitled to plants of half the amount of subscription. A subscriber of one 
guinea is allowed the whole in plants." 

Fig. 48. is a perspective view of the range of green-houses, counting-house, 
and seed-shop, wbich Mr. BarrHtt has erected; and, in laying it b<^ore our 




readers we cannot help expressing our adnwation at thegeneral improvement 
of the taste of commercial gard^ers in every part of the country. Thiitv 
years ago, the commonest shed-looking structures viere thought good enough 
for any nurseryman or florist; but now we find them, as in the case of Mr. 
Barratt before u^ vying with the architectural plant structures of the gardens 
of our first nobihty and gentry. The improvement which is taking place in 
every kind of building throughout the country is Indeed aatoniBhing. lliere 
is not a shop front, a public-house, a brewery, or a manufactory, pulled down, 
that is not rebuilt in a superior style ; and, besides the effect of all this in con- 
tributing to the ^neral ornament of the country, there can be no doubt that 
the individuals incurring the expense find their interest promoted by it. No 
improvement, indeed, can be considered as solid, where this is not the case. 

We should like to see new nurseries and botanic gardens rising up all over 
the country like that of Mr. Barratt ; and we hope, also, at no distant period, 
to see bills passed by the legislature, authorising the establishment of public 
gardens and public institutions in every part of the country, at the expense of 
all, and for Uie benefit of alL 

In the riew before us, a represents the entrance from St. John Street; b, 
a seed-shop, with warehouse under a, b, and c ; e, green-house for ericas and 
select green^iouse plants, in flower, for sale ; d, counting-house, with three 
windows commanding nearly the whole garden; e, centre dome, which is to 
be made larger than the two end ones, for a camellia and orange house for 
large specimens ; f, green-house for camellias (nursing house), geraniums, 
fucnsias, cactuses, &c.i g, entrance &om Margaret Street under the dome, 
filled with large plants ; h, a reading-room for all the periodicals In gardening, &c. 

The roofs oi the green-house and domes are formed of iron rafters with 
wooden BBsh-ban ; on these sash-bars the glass is laid, and the joints covered 
with lead \sp ; so that the roof appears, at a distance, as one sheet of glesi. 



314 Floriadtural and Botanical Notices^ 

The shape of the g;reen-hoiise roof is cumUnear, and pointed at top, totme- 
thing like a Gothic arch : tlie whole length of the range of houses is neariy 
300 ft. 

St. JaMt, Wakefield, May 2. 1836. 



Art. V. Floricuhural and Botanical Notices on Kinds of Plants 
newly introduced into our Gardens, and that have originated in them,